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Network Policy and Services: A Report of a Workshop on Middleware

The information below is for an old version of the document that is already published as an RFC.
Document Type
This is an older version of an Internet-Draft that was ultimately published as RFC 2768.
Authors Ian Foster , Dr. Reagan W. Moore , Benjamin R. Teitelbaum , Dr. Clifford A. Lynch , Brian E. Carpenter , Joe Mambretti , Robert J. Aiken
Last updated 2013-03-02 (Latest revision 1999-11-17)
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GENERAL: Middleware            Bob Aiken, John Strassner, Cisco Systems
INTERNET DRAFT                                     Brian Carpenter, IBM 
28 May 1999                   Ian Foster, Argonne National Laboratory
                    Clifford Lynch, Coalition for Networked Information
                                                   Joe Mambretti, ICAIR
                                                     Reagan Moore, UCSD
                Benjamin Teitelbaum, Advanced Networks & Services, Inc.

Terminology for network policy and services: a report of a workshop on  middleware.

Status of Memo

This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with all
provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026. Internet-Drafts are working
documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and
its working groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute working
documents as Internet-Drafts.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material
or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at

An ad hoc middleware workshop was held at the International Center for 
Advanced Internet Research in December 1998.  The Workshop was 
organized and sponsored by Cisco, Northwestern University's 
International Center for Advanced Internet Research (iCAIR), IBM, and 
the National Science Foundation (NSF). The goal of the workshop was to 
identify existing middleware services that could be leveraged for new 
capabilities as well as identifying additional middleware services 
requiring research and development.  The workshop participants 
discussed the definition of middleware in general, examined the 
applications perspective, detailed underlying network transport 
capabilities relevant to middleware services, and then covered various 
specific examples of middleware components. These included APIs, 
authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) issues, policy 
framework, directories, resource management, networked information 
discovery and retrieval services, quality of service, security, and 
operational tools.  The need for a more organized framework for 
middleware R&D was recognized, and a list of specific topics needing 
further work was identified.

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Table of Contents


1.0  Contextual Framework                                    
2.0  What is Middleware?
3.0  Application Perspective
4.0  Exemplary Components
5.0  Application Programming Interfaces and Signaling
7.0  Policy
8.0  Directories
9.0  Resource Management
10.0  Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval Services
11.0  Network QOS 
12.0  Authentication, authorization, and access management.
13.0  Network Management, Performance, and Operations
14.0  Middleware to support multicast applications
15.0 Java and Jini TM
16.0 Security Considerations
17.0  Summary
18.0  Participants 
19.0  URLs
20.0  Authors


This document describes the term "middleware" as well as its 
requirements and scope. Its purpose is to facilitate communication 
between developers of both collaboration based and high-performance 
distributed computing applications and developers of the network 
infrastructure. Generally, in advanced networks, middleware consists of 
services and other resources located between both the applications and 
the underlying packet forwarding and routing infrastructure, although 
no consensus currently exists on the precise lines of demarcation that 
would define those domains. This document is being developed within the 
context of existing standards efforts. Consequently, this document 
defines middleware core components within the framework of the current 
status of middleware-related standards activities, especially within 
the IETF and the Desktop Management Task Force (DMTF). The envisioned 
role of the IETF is to lead the work in defining the underlying 
protocols that could be used to support a middleware infrastructure. In 
this context, we will leverage the information modeling work, as well 
as the advanced XML and CIM/DEN-LDAP mapping work, being done in the 
DMTF. (The recently constituted Grid Forum is also pursuing relevant 

This document also addresses the impact of middleware on Internet 
protocol development. As part of its approach to describing middleware, 
this document has initially focused on the intersections among 
middleware components and application areas that already have well 
defined activities underway.
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This document is a product of an ad hoc Middleware Workshop held on 
December 4-5 1998. The Workshop was organized and sponsored by Cisco, 
Northwestern University's International Center for Advanced Internet 
Research (iCAIR), IBM, and the National Science Foundation (NSF).  The 
goal of the workshop was to define the term middleware and its 
requirements on advanced network infrastructures as well as on 
distributed applications. These definitions will enable a set of core 
middleware components to subsequently be specified, both for supporting 
advanced application environments as well as for providing a basis for 
other middleware services.

Although this document is focused on a greater set of issues than just 
Internet protocols, the concepts and issues put forth here are 
extremely relevant to the way networks and protocols need to evolve as 
we move into the implementation stage of "the network is the computer".  
Therefore, this document is offered to the IETF, DMTF, Internet2, Next 
Generation Internet (NGI), NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computational 
Infrastructure (PACI), the interagency Information Technology for the 
21st Century (IT2) program, the Grid Forum, the Worldwide Web 
Consortium, and other communities for their consideration.

This document is organized as follows: Section 1 provides a contextual 
framework. Section 2 defines middleware. Section 3 discusses 
application requirements. Subsequent sections discuss requirements and 
capabilities for middleware as defined by applications and middleware 
practitioners. These sections will also discuss the required underlying 
transport infrastructure, administrative policy and  management, 
exemplary core middleware components, provisioning issues, network 
environment and implementation issues, and research areas.

1.0 Contextual Framework

Middleware can be defined to encompass a large set of services. For 
example, we chose to focus initially on the services needed to support 
a common set of applications based on a distributed network 
environment.  A consensus of the Workshop was that there was really no 
core set of middleware services in the sense that all applications 
required them.  This consensus does not diminish the importance of 
application domain-specific middleware, or the flexibility needed in 
determining customized approaches. Many communities  (e.g., Internet2,  
NGI, and other advanced Internet constituencies) may decide on their 
own set of common middleware services and tools; however, they should 
strive for interoperability whenever possible. The topics in this 
workshop were chosen to encourage discussion about the nature and scope 
of middleware per se as distinct from specific types of applications; 
therefore, many relevant middleware topics were not discussed. 

Another consensus of the Workshop that helped provide focus was that, 
although middleware could be conceptualized as hierarchical, or 
layered, such an approach was not helpful, and indeed had been 
problematic and unproductive in earlier efforts.

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The better approach would be to consider middleware as an unstructured, 
often orthogonal, collection of components (such as resources and 
services) that could be utilized either individually or in various 
subsets.  This working assumption avoided extensive theological 
modeling discussions, and enables work to proceed on various middleware 
issues independently.

An important goal of the Workshop was to identify any middleware or 
network-related research or development that would be required to 
advance the state of the art to support advanced application 
environments, such as those being developed and pursued by NGI and 
Internet2.  Consequently, discussion focused on those areas that had 
the maximum opportunity for such advances.

2.0  What is Middleware?
The Workshop participants agreed on the existence of middleware, but 
quickly made it clear that the definition of middleware was dependent 
on the subjective perspective of those trying to define it. Perhaps it 
was even dependent on when the question was asked, since the middleware 
of yesterday (e.g., Domain Name Servive, Public Key Infrastructure, and 
Event Services) may become the fundamental network infrastructure of 
tomorrow.  Application environment users and programmers see everything 
below the API as middleware. Networking gurus see anything above IP as 
middleware. Those working on applications, tools, and mechanisms 
between these two extremes see it as somewhere between TCP and the API, 
with some even further classifying middleware into application-specific 
upper middleware, generic middle middleware, and resource-specific 
lower middleware. The point was made repeatedly that middleware often 
extends beyond the "network" into the compute, storage, and other 
resources that the network connects.  For example, a video serving 
application will want to access resource discovery and allocation 
services not just for networks but also for the archives and computers 
required to serve and process the video stream.  Through the 
application of general set theory and rough consensus, we roughly 
characterize middleware as those services found above the transport 
(i.e., over TCP/IP) layer set of services but below the application 
environment (i.e., below application-level APIs).

Some of the earliest conceptualizations of middleware originated with 
the distributed operating research of the late 1970s and early 1980s, 
and was further advanced by the I-WAY project at SC'95.  The I-WAY 
linked high performance computers nation-wide over high performance 
networks such that the resulting environment functioned as a single 
high performance environment. As a consequence of that experiment, the 
researchers involved re-emphasized the fact that effective high 
performance distributed computing required distributed common computing 
and networking resources, including libraries and utilities for 
resource discovery, scheduling and monitoring, process creation, 
communication and data transport.

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Subsequent research and development through the Globus project of such 
middleware resources demonstrated that their capabilities for 
optimizing advanced application performance in distributed domains.

In May 1997, a Next Generation Internet (NGI) workshop on NGI research 
areas resulted in a publication, "Research Challenges for the Next 
Generation Internet", which yields the following description of 
middleware. "Middleware can be viewed as a reusable, expandable set of 
services and functions that are commonly needed by many applications to 
function well in a networked environment". This definition could 
further be refined to include persistent services, such as those found 
within an operating system, distributed operating environments (e.g., 
JAVA/JINI), the network infrastructure (e.g., DNS), and transient 
capabilities (e.g., run time support and libraries) required to support 
client software on systems and hosts.

In summary, there are many views of what is middleware. The consensus 
of many at the workshop was that given the dynamic morphing nature of 
middleware, it was more important to identify some core middleware 
services and start working on them than it was to come to a consensus 
on a dictionary-like definition of the term. 

Systems involving strong middlware components to support networked 
information discovery have also been active research areas since at 
least the late 1980s. For example, consider Archie or the Harvest 
project, to cite two examples. One could easily argue that the site 
logs used by Archie or the broker system and harvest agents were an 
important middleware tool, and additional work in this area is urgently 
needed in order to improve the efficiency and scope of web-based 
indexing services.

"As long ago" as 1994, the Internet Architecture Board held a workshop 
on "Information Infrastructure for the Internet" reported in RFC 1862, 
which in many ways covered similar issues. Although its recommendations 
were summarized as follows:

   -  increased focus on a general caching and replication architecture
   -  a rapid deployment of name resolution services, and
   -  the articulation of a common security architecture for
      information applications."

it is clear that this work is far from done.

Finally, this workshop noted that there is a close linkage between 
middleware as a set of standards and protocols and the infrastructure 
needed to make the middleware meaningful. For example, the DNS protocol 
would be of limited signifigance without the system of DNS servers, and 
indeed the administrative infrastructure of name registry; NTP, in 
order to be useful, requires the existance of time servers; newer 
middleware services such as naming, public key registries and 
certificate authorities, will require even more extensive server and 
administrative infrastructure in order to become both useful and 
useable services.

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3.0 Application Perspective

>From an applications perspective, the network is just another type of 
resource that it needs to use and manage.  The set of middleware 
services and requirements necessary to support advanced applications 
are defined by a vision that includes and combines applications in 
areas such as: distributed computing, distributed data bases, advanced 
video services, teleimmersion (i.e., a capability for providing a 
compelling real-life experience in a virtual environment based for 
example on CAVE technologies), extensions with haptics, electronic 
commerce, distance education, interactive collaborative research, high-
rate instrumentation (60 MByte/s and above sustained), including use of 
online scientific facilities (e.g. microscopes, telescopes, etc.), 
effectively managing large amounts of data, computation and information 
Grids, adaptable and morphing network infrastructure, proxies and 
agents, and electronic persistent presence (EPP). Many of these 
applications are "bleeding edge" with respect to currently deployed 
applications on the commodity Internet and hence have unique 
requirements. Just as the Web was an advanced application in the early 
1990s, many of the application areas defined above will not become 
commonplace in the immediate future.  However, they all possess the 
capability to change the way the network is used as well as our 
definition of infrastructure, much as the Web and Mosaic changed it in 
the early 90s. A notable recent trend in networks is the increasing 
amount of HTTP, voice, and video traffic, and it was noted that voice 
and video particularly need some form of QoS and associated middleware 
to manage it.

A quick review of the requirements for teleimmersion highlight the 
requirement for multiple concurrent logical network channels, each with 
its own latency, jitter, burst, and bandwidth QoS; yet all being 
coordinated through a single middleware interface to the application. 
For security and efficiency those using online instruments require the 
ability to steer the devices and change parameters as a direct result 
of real-time analysis performed on the data as it is received from the 
instruments. Therefore, network requirements encompass high bandwidth, 
low latency, and security, which must all be coordinated through 
middleware.  Large databases, archives, and digital libraries are 
becoming a mainstay for researchers and industry. The requirements they 
will place on the network and on middleware will be extensive, 
including support of authentication, authorization, access management, 
quality of service, networked information discovery and retrieval 
tools, naming and service location, to name only a few.  They also 
require middleware to support collection building and self-describing 
data.  Distributed computing environments (e.g., Globus, Condor, 
Legion, etc.) are quickly evolving into the computing and information 
Grids of the future. These Grids not only require adaptive and 
manageable network services but also require a sophisticated set of 
secure middleware capabilities to provide easy-to-use APIs to the 

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Many application practitioners were adamant that they also required the 
capability for "pass through" services.  This refers to the ability to 
bypass the middleware and directly access the underlying infrastructure 
such as the operating system or network), even though they were eager 
to make use of middleware services and see more of it developed to 
support their own applications.  In addition, authentication and access 
control, as well as security, are required for all of the applications 
mentioned above, albeit at different levels.

4.0 Exemplary Components

In an attempt to describe middleware and discuss pertinent issues 
relating to its development and deployment, an exemplary set of 
services were selected for discussion. These services were chosen to 
stimulate discussion and not as an attempt to define an exclusive set 
of middleware services. Also, it is the intent of this effort not to 
duplicate existing IETF efforts or those of other standards bodies 
(e.g., the DMTF), but rather to leverage those efforts, and indeed to 
highlight areas where work was already advanced to a stage that might 
be approaching deployment.

5.0  Application Programming Interfaces and Signaling
Applications require the ability to explicitly request resources based 
on their immediate usage needs. These requests have associated network 
management controls and network resource implications; however, 
fulfillment of these requests may require multiple intermediate steps. 
Given the preliminary state of middleware definition, there currently 
is no common framework, much less a method, for an application to 
signal its need for a set of desired network services, including 
quality and priority of service as well as attendant resource 
requirements. However, given the utility of middleware, especially with 
regard to optimization for advanced applications, preliminary models 
for both quality and priority of service and resource management exist 
and continue to evolve. however, without an agreed-to framework for 
standards in this area, there is the risk of multiple competing 
standards that may further delay the deployment of a middleware-rich 
infrastructure. This framework should probably include signaling 
methods, access/admission controls, and a series of defined services 
and resources. In addition, it should include service levels, priority 
considerations, scheduling, a Service-Level-Agreement (SLA) function, 
and a feedback mechanism for notifying applications or systems when 
performance is below the SLA specification or when an application 
violates the SLA. Any such mechanism implies capabilities for: 1) an 
interaction with some type of policy implementation and enforcement, 2) 
dynamic assessment of available network resources, 3) policy 
monitoring, 4) service guarantees, 5) conflict resolution ,and 6) 
restitution for lack of performance.

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Application programmers are concerned with minimizing the interfaces 
that they must learn to access middleware services.  Thus the 
unification of common services behind a single API is of great interest 
to middleware users.  Examples of common APIs that may be achievable 

* Environmental discovery interface, whether for discovering hardware 
resources, network status and capabilities, data sets, applications, 
remote services, or user information.
* Remote execution interface, whether for distributed metacomputing 
applications, or for access to a digital library presentation service, 
or a Java analysis service.
* Data management interface, whether for manipulating data within 
distributed caches, or replication of data between file systems, or 
archival storage of data.
* Process management interface, whether for composing data movement 
with remote execution, or for linking together multiple processing 


The IETF AAA (authentication, authorization, and accounting) effort is 
but one of many IETF security initiatives. It depends heavily on a 
Public key infrastructure, which is intended to provide a framework 
which will support a range of trust/hierarchy environments and a range 
of usage environments (RFC1422 is an example of one such model). 

The IETF AAA working group has recently been formed. IETF AAA working 
group efforts are focused on many issues pertaining to middleware, 
including defining processes for access/admission control and 
identification (process for determining a unique entity), 
authentication (process for validating that identity), authorization 
(process for determining an eligibility for resource 
requests/utilization) and accounting (at least to the degree that 
resource utilization is recorded). To some degree, AAA provides for 
addressing certain levels of security, but only at a preliminary level. 
Currently, AAA protocols exist, although not as an integrated model or 
standard. One consideration for AAA is to provide for various levels of 
granularity. Even if we don't yet have an integrated model, it is 
currently possible to provide for basic AAA mechanisms that can be used 
as a basis to support SLAs.  Any type of AAA implementation requires a 
policy management framework, to which it must be linked. Currently, a 
well-formulated linking mechanism has not been defined.

Middleware AAA requirements are also driven by the distributed 
interoperation that can occur between middleware services.  The 
distribution of application support across multiple autonomous systems 
will require self-consistent third-party mechanisms for authentication 
as well as data movement.  Conceptually, an application may need access 
to data that is under control of a remote collection, to support the 
execution of a procedure at a third site.

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The data flow needs to be directly from the collection to the execution 
platform for efficiency.  At the same time, the procedure will need 
access permission to the data set while it is acting on behalf of the 
requestor.  How the authentication is done between the remote procedure 
and the remote data collection entities raises significant issues 
related to transitivity of trust, and will require establishment of a 
trust policy for third-party mechanisms. This is exacerbated when a 
collection of entities, such as is required for visualization 
applications, is involved.

7.0 Policy

The IETF Policy Framework working group is addressing a policy 
framework definition language, a policy architecture model, policy 
terminology and, specifically, a policy model that can be used for 
signaled as well as provisioned QoS. The policy meta-model links high-
level business requirements, such as those that can be specified in an 
SLA, to low-level device implementation mechanisms, ranging from 
specific access control and management of services, objects and other 
resources to configuration of mechanisms necessary to provide a given 

Polices are an integral component of all middleware services, and will 
be found within most middleware services in one form or another.  
Policies are often represented as an "if condition then action" tuple. 
Policies can be both complex and numerous; therefore, policy management 
services must be able to identify and resolve policy conflicts.  They 
also need to support both static (i.e. loaded at boot time via a 
configuration file) and dynamic (i.e. the configuration of a policy 
enforcing device may change based on an event) modes.

A generalized policy management architecture (as suggested by the IETF 
policy architecture draft) includes a policy management service, a 
dedicated policy repository, at least one policy decision point (PDP), 
and at least one policy enforcement point (PEP). The policy management 
service supports the specification, editing, and administration of 
policy, through a graphical user interface as well as programmatically. 
The policy repository provides storage and retrieval of policies as 
well as policy components. These policy components contain definitional 
information, and may be used to build more complex policies, or may be 
used as part of the policy decision and/or enforcement process. The PDP 
(e.g. resource manager, such as a bandwidth broker or an intra-domain 
policy server) is responsible for handling events and making decisions 
based on those events (e.g., at time x do y) and updating the PEP 
configuration appropriately. In addition, it may be responsible for 
providing the initial configuration of the PEP. The PEP (e.g., router, 
firewall or host) enforces policy based on the "if condition then 
action" rule sets it has received from the PDP. 

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Policy information may be communicated from the PDP to the PEP through 
a variety of protocols, such as COPS or DIAMETER. A proxy may be used 
to translate information contained in these protocols to forms that 
devices can consume (e.g., command line interface commands or SNMP 
sets). Additional information, contained in Policy Information Bases 
(PIBs), may also be used to translate from an intermediate 
specification to specific functions and capabilities of a device. For 
example, a policy may specify "if source IP address is, 
then remark traffic with a DSCP of 5". The PIB would be used to 
translate the device-specific meaning of the conditioning specified by 
the DiffServ code point of 5 (e.g., a specific set of queue and 
threshold settings).

Policy requires AAA functions, not only for access control, but also to 
establish the trust relationships that will enable distributed policy 
interactions.  PDPs may require the requesting end systems and 
applications to be authenticated before the PDP will honor any 
requests. The PDP and PEP must be authenticated to each other to reduce 
the probability of spoofing. This will be true whichever protocol is 
utilized for supporting communications between these entities. Audit 
trails are essential for all of these transactions. In addition, trust 
management policies will need to be developed as well as the supporting 
middleware mechanisms to enable inter-domain policy negotiation.

Ultimately, many policy processes link entities to resources, 
And therefore require interactions with entity identification 
mechanisms, resource identification mechanisms, and allocation 
mechanisms. The distributed computing community has already started 
efforts developing policy definition languages and systems.  Globus 
uses its Resource Services Language (RSL) to define the resources and 
policies associated with them. Condor uses a matchmaking bidding 
technique to match those providing and those acquiring services. 
Similarly, the IETF has several policy definition languages in varying 
stages of development, including RPSL, RPCL, SPSL, PFDL, PAX, and 
Keynote. Ultimately, these efforts should be merged into a single 
specification (or at least a smaller group of specifications) to enable 
distributed computing applications to be able to effectively 
communicate and utilize network resources and services.

Directories play a crucial role in policy systems. Directories are 
ideally suited for storing and retrieving policy information, due to 
their exceptionally high read rates, ability to intelligently replicate 
all or part of their information, per-attribute access control, and use 
of containment.  To this end, the IETF Policy Framework working group 
(in conjunction with the DMTF) is developing a core information model 
and LDAP schema that can be used to represent policy information that 
applications can use. This core model is used to provide common 
representation and structure of policy information. Applications can 
then subclass all or part of the classes in this core schema to meet 
their own specific needs, while retaining the ability to communicate 
and interoperate with each other.

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8.0 Directories

Directories are critical resource components that provide support to 
many other elements in the middleware environment, especially policy.  
As network-based environment evolves, it will no longer be viable to 
encode policy information directly into each individual application. 
The prevailing model in use today is for each application to store its 
view of a device's data (e.g., configuration) in its own private data 
store.These data include relevant information concerning network 
resources and services as well as clients wanting to use those 
resources (e.g., people, processes, and applications). The same 
resource (or aspects of that resource, such as its physical vs. logical 
characteristics) may be represented in several data stores. Even if the 
device is modeled the same way in each data store, each application 
only has access to its own data. This leads to duplication of data and 
data synchronization problems.

The promise of technologies like CIM and DEN is to enable each 
application to store data describing the resources that they manage in 
a single directory using a common format and access protocol. This 
results in the data describing the resource being represented only 
once. Defining a logically centralized common repository, where 
resources and services are represented in a common way, enables 
applications of different types to utilize and share information about 
resources and services that they use. 

Not only does this solve the data duplication and synchronization 
problems, it also provides inherent extensibility in describing the 
characteristics of an object - a single entity can be represented by 
multiple directory objects, each representing a different aspect of the 
entity. Different applications can be responsible for managing the 
different objects that together make up a higher-level object, even if 
the applications themselves can not communicate with each other. This 
enables these applications to effectively share and reuse data.
This provides significant benefits for users and applications. In the 
short term, users and applications will benefit from having all of the 
data in one place. In the long term, users and applications will be 
able to take advantage of data managed by other applications.

Directories are key to supporting advanced network-based application 
environments. Directory purists say that the directory is not 
middleware; rather, it is a dumb storage device that is made into an 
intelligent repository by encapsulating it within middleware. Although 
a directory associates attributes with objects, what makes it different 
from a database are four key things:

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  - directory objects are essentially independent of each other,
    whereas database objects are related to each other (sometimes in
    very complex ways)
  - directories organize their information using the notion of
    containment, which is not naturally implemented in databases
  - directory objects can have specific access controls assigned to 
    an object and even attributes of an object
  - directories, unlike databases, are optimized to perform a high
    number of reads vs. writes.

Directories use a common core schema, supporting a common set of 
syntaxes and matching rules, that defines the characteristics of their 
data. This enables a common access protocol to be used to store and 
retrieve data.

Containment can be used for many purposes, including associating roles 
with objects. This is critical in order to support a real world 
environment, where people and elements may assume different roles based 
on time or other context.Containment may also be used to provide 
different naming scopes for a given set of data.

Directories use attribute inheritance - subclasses inherit the 
attributes of their superclasses. This enables one to define 
generalized access control at a container (e.g., a group) and then 
refine the access control on an individual basis for objects that are 
inside that container (e.g., different objects have different access 

Currently, directories are used mostly to represent people, servers, 
printers, and other similar objects. CIM, DEN, and other similar 
efforts have encouraged directories to be used to contain common 
objects in a managed environment. For networked applications, this 
enables clients of the network (e.g., users and applications) to be 
bound to services available in the network in a transparent manner.  
The "Grid" community is making extensive use of directory services for 
this purpose, using them to maintain information about the structure 
and state of not only networks but also computers, storage systems, 
software, and people. The DMTF is using directories to contain CIM and 
DEN information, which enables a common information model to be applied 
to objects in a managed environment. The IETF is using directories for 
many different purposes, not the least of which is to contain common 
policy information for users and applications of an environment, as 
well as services and configuration information of network devices.

CIM and DEN are conceptual information models for describing the 
management of entities ranging from network elements to protocols to 
hosts and services. CIM and DEN are platform- and technology-
independent. DEN is an extension of CIM that, among other things, 
describes how to map CIM data into a form usable by LDAP.

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The CIM Specification describes the meta schema, information model, 
language, naming, and mapping techniques to other management models, 
such as SNMP MIBs and DMTF MIFs.  DEN provides a good start on a model 
that addresses the management of the network and its elements; DEN is 
an extension of CIM to include the management of networks as a whole 
and not just the individual elements. DEN addresses the requirements 
for abstracting a complex entity, such as a router, into multiple 
components that can be used to manage individual aspects of that 
complex entity. The DEN information model, like CIM, incorporates both 
static and dynamic information. DEN provides a mapping to directories 
for the storage and retrieval of data. DEN will also rely heavily on 
the use of AAA services in order to maintain the integrity of the 
directory and its policies as well as to manage the distribution of 
policies among the policy repositories, PDPs and PEPs.  Resource 
managers and applications will also rely heavily on directories for the 
storage of policy and security information necessary for the management 
and allocation of resources.

Since much of the information associated with a person, agent or 
element is stored in a directory, and access to that information will 
be controlled with appropriate security mechanisms, many voiced the 
need for a single user/process sign on.

Future advanced applications (e.g., NGI, Internet2, PACI, Grids) may 
require a variety of PDPs to manage a variety of resource types (i.e., 
QOS, security, etc.).  In this case, a general model would have to be 
developed that defines the protocols and mechanisms used by cooperating 
resource managers (i.e., PDPs) of different domains and different 
genres of resource (i.e., network, security, storage, proxy agents, 
online facility, etc.). For policies to be implemented in a coherent 
fashion, it is necessary to have a mechanism that discovers and tracks 
resources and utilization.

There is an architectural issue of central importance, which has most 
recently surfaced in the directory area. Many applications, and many 
middleware components, need what is essentially a highly scalable, 
distributed database service. In other words, people want to take the 
best of what directories and databases have to offer. This would result 
in a distributed, replicated database that can use containment to 
effectively organize and scope its information. It would be able to 
have exceptional read response time, and also offer transactional and 
relational integrity. It would support simple and complex queries. Such 
a service has never been defined as a middleware component; the 
complexities involved in specifying and implementing such a service are 
certainly formidable. However, in the absence of such a general 
service, many middleware components have attempted to use the closest 
service available, which is deployed - historically first using DNS, 
and more recently, directory services.

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It will be important to clarify the limitations of the appropriate use 
of directory services, and to consider whether a more general data 
storage and retrieval service may be required, or whether directory 
services can be seamlessly integrated (from the point-of-view of the 
applications using them) with other forms of storage and retrieval 
(such as relational databases) in order to provide an integrated 
directory service with these capabilities.

9.0 Resource Management

Policy implementation processes need to be linked to Resource Managers 
in a more sophisticated way than those that currently exist. Such 
processes must be dynamic, and able to reflect changes in their 
environment (e.g., adjust the quality of service provided to an 
application based on environmental changes, such as congestion or new 
users with higher priorities logging onto the system). We need to 
determine how different types of resource managers learn about one 
another and locate each other - as well as deal with associated cross-
domain security issues.  Another aspect of this problem is developing a 
resource definition language that can describe the individual elements 
of the resource being utilized, whether that is a network, processor, 
agent, memory or storage. This will require developing an appropriate 
metadata representation and underlying meta schema that can be applied 
to multiple resource types.

Some models of resource managers are currently being used to provide 
for the management of distributed computing and Grid environments 
(e.g., Condor, Globus, and Legion).  These resource managers provide 
languages, clients, and servers to support accessing various types of 
distributed computing resources (e.g. processors, memory, storage and 
network access).  There is a broad interest in the distributed and 
parallel computing communities in developing an automated access 
control architecture, using policies, to support the evolving IETF 
differentiated services architecture. However, this work has not yet 
been incorporated into any IETF working group charter. The term 
"bandwidth broker" has been used to refer to the agents that will 
implement this functionality through network resource management, 
policy control, and automated edge device configuration.  The IETF 
Policy Framework working group is currently working on a policy 
architecture framework, information model, and policy definition 
language that is targeted initially at policy management within a 
single domain. However, this work is fundamental in defining inter-
domain policy management issues, such as those that are required in 
implementing a network resource manager / bandwidth broker.  Many 
resource managers being deployed today rely on directory services for 
storing policy information as well as X.509 for certificate-based 
authentication and authorization to these resources. Middleware will be 
required to translate the needs of distributed and parallel computing 
applications within and across different policy domains. It is crucial 
that a standard means for representing and using resource management be 

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Advance reservation of resources, as well as dynamic requests for 
resources, is a crucial aspect of any resource management system. 
Advance reservations are more of a policy issue than a provisioning 
issue; however, the mechanisms for exchanging and propagating such 
requests between resource managers located within different 
administrative domains is a currently unsolved problem that needs to be 
addressed. In addition, it is important to address the issue of 
possible deadlock and/or the inefficient use of resources (i.e., the 
time period between a request, or set of requests, being initiated and 
honored and resources being allocated). There is also a need for 
rendezvous management in resource allocation services, where an 
application must gather resource reservations involving multiple sites 
and services.

A mesh of cooperating resource managers, which interact with each other 
using standards based protocols (e.g. COPS), could be the model for a 
resource management infrastructure. Each of these may manage different 
sets of resources. For example, one may be a bandwidth broker that only 
manages network bandwidth, while another may be a general-purpose 
resource manager that manages security, IP address allocation, storage, 
processors, agents, and other network resources. There are already 
plans for middleware resource managers that not only allocate the 
resources but also manage the composition of a group of services that 
may includesecurity services, billing services, shaping of multimedia 
composite images, etc.). Another form of resource manager may provide 
mapping between a set of related services (i.e., mapping an IP based 
RSVP request to an ATM SVC, as was demonstrated in a pilot project on 
the vBNS).  

Resource managers depend on the use of locator services to find other 
resource managers as well as to locate the AAA server(s) for the 
requestor and the associated directories containing applicable policy 
information. They may also need to query the network to determine if a 
policy request for bandwidth can be satisfied. It is essential that 
these (and other) different uses of resource management be integrated 
to provide an end-to-end service for applications and users alike.

10.0 Networked Information Discovery and Retrieval Services

There are a wide range of middleware services broadly related to the 
discovery and retrieval of networked information. Because such a broad 
range of applications (and not just high-performance, distributed, or 
parallel applications) requires these services, this area is under very 
active development and new reqirements are constantly emerging.

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Perhaps the most basic service in this area is persistent naming and 
location services (and infrastructure) that can resolve names to 
locations (i.e., URLs). The IETF has done considerable work in defining 
a syntax for Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs), which are intended to 
be persistent name spaces administered by a wide range of agencies. 
URIs are resolved to URLs using resolver services; there are a number 
of different proposals for such resolver services, and some 
implementations exist such as the CNRI Handler Service.  Many 
organizations are beginning to establish and manage URI namespaces, 
notably the publishing community with their Digital Object Identifier 
(DOI). however, there are many unresolved questions, such as how to 
most effectively deal with the situation where the resource named by a 
URI exists in multiple places on the network (e.g., find the "closest" 
mirror in terms of network connectivity and resource availability). 
There is a need for an extensive set of infrastructure around 
resolvers, including how resources are registered and identifiers are 
assigned, the ongoing management of data about the current location of 
resources that are identified by a specific URI, and the operation of 
sets of resolvers for various name spaces. Finally, given a URI, one 
needs to locate the resolver services that are connected with that 
namespace; the IETF has done initial work on resolution service 
location for URI namespaces. 

URIs are intended to be processed primarily by machines; they are not 
intended to necessarily be easy to remember, though they are intended 
to be robust under transcription (not sensitive to whitespace, for 
example). More recently, the IETF has begun work on defining 
requirements for human friendly identifier systems that might be used 
to register and resolve mnemonic names.

Another set of issues revolves around various types of metadata - 
descriptive, ratings, provenance, rights mangement, and the like, that 
may be associated with objects on the network. The Resource Description 
Framework (RDF) from the Worldwide Web Consortium (W3C) provides a 
syntax for attaching such descriptions to network objects and for 
encoding  the descriptions; additional middleware work is needed to 
locate metadata associated with objects that may be stored in 
repositories, and to retrieve such  metadata. Validation of metadata is 
a key issue, and both IETF and W3C are working on XML canonicalization 
algorithms that can be used in conjunction with public key 
infrastructure to sign metadata assertions. However, such an approach 
implies a complex set of trust relationships and hierarchies that will 
need to be managed, and policies that will need to be specified for the 
use of these trust relationships in retrieval. 

There is specific work going on in defining various types of metadata 
for applications such as rights management; ultimately this will imply 
the development of middleware services. It will also impact the use of 
directory, database, and similar services in the storage, access, and 
retrieval of this information. Similarly, there will be a need for 
services to connect descriptive metadata and identifiers (URNs).

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(See also the NSF/ERCIM report on metadata research issues at

Finally, there is a need for a set of middleware services which build 
upon the research work already integrated into services such as Archie 
and Harvest. These services permit the efficient extraction of metadata 
about the contents of network information objects and services without 
necessarily retrieving and inspecting those services. This includes the 
ability to dispatch "indexing agents" or "knowbots" that can run at a 
site to compute such indexing, under appropriate security and 
authentication constraints.  In addition, a set of "push-based" broker 
services which aggregate, filter and collect metadata from multiple 
sites and provide them to interested applications are also required. 
Such services can provide a massive performance, quality, 
comprehensiveness and timeliness improvement for today's webcrawler-
based indexing services.

11.0  Network QoS 

As noted earlier, applications may need to explicitly request resources 
available in the network to meet their requirements for certain types 
of communication, or in order to provide service with an appropriate 
guarantee of one or metrics, such as bandwidth, jitter, latency, and 
loss. One type of request that has been the focus of much effort 
recently is for services beyond best effort, particularly with respect 
to services running over IP. This is particularly important for the 
advanced applications noted previously (e.g., visualization and 
teleimmersion) as well as the emerging importance of voice and video, 
especially voice and video operating with lower bandwidth or voice and 
video co-mingled with data. One perspective on this issue is to 
consider the effect of multiple drops in a single RTT, which is 
catastrophic for TCP applications but may be of no special significance 
for real-time traffic. 
Providing for improved services can be accomplished through a variety 
of quality of service (QoS) and class of service (CoS) mechanisms.  The 
first IETF model was the Integrated Services (IntServ) model, which 
used RSVP as the signaling mechanism. Since this model requires state 
in every router for every session and to manage the traffic flows, it 
is generally recognized to have scaling limits.  However, it is very 
appropriate for certain situations.

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Differentiated Services, or DiffServ, grew out of a reaction against 
the perceived scalability problems with the IETF IntServ model. 
DiffServ is an architecture for implementing scalable service 
differentiation in the Internet. Scalability is achieved by aggregating 
traffic through the use of IP-layer packet marking.  Packets are 
classified and marked to receive a particular per-hop forwarding 
behavior on nodes along their path.  Sophisticated classification, 
marking, policing, and shaping operations need only be implemented at 
network boundaries or hosts.  Network resources are allocated to 
traffic streams by service provisioning policies which govern how 
traffic is marked and conditioned upon entry to a differentiated 
services-capable network, and how that traffic is forwarded within that 
network. These simple PHBs are combined with a much larger number of 
policing policies enforced at the network edge to provide a broad and 
flexible range of services, without requiring state or complex 
forwarding decisions to be performed in the core and distribution 

Recently, the idea of "tunneling" RSVP over a DiffServ-capable network 
has generated significant interest. This attempts to combine the best 
features of both IntServ and DiffServ while mitigating the 
disadvantages of each. This in turn has led the IETF to study ways to 
ensure that Differv and Inteserv can not only coexist, but are also 

The practical realization of either or both architectures depends on 
many middleware components, some of which are described in this 
document. The workshop discussion mainly focused on DiffServ mechanisms 
and on what effect such mechanisms would have on middleware and its 
ability to monitor and manage the network infrastructure for the 
benefit of the applications. Both IntServ and DiffServ only fully make 
sense if linked to a policy mechanism. This mechanism must be able to 
make policy decisions, detect and resolve conflicts in policies, and 
enforce and monitor policies.

Workshop participants almost unanimously agreed that they also required 
a scalable inter-domain resource manager (e.g., a bandwidth broker). 
Currently, if an RSVP session is run, each router along a path becomes 
involved, with flow policing at each hop. Bandwidth Broker models 
include the bandwidth broker, a policy decision point (which makes 
admission control and policy decisions) and the policy enforcement 
points (i.e., edge routers) which provide for policing at the first hop 
and for remarking aggregate flows so that subsequent routers need only 
deal with the aggregate flows.

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IETF protocols that could be used to implement a Bandwidth Broker model 
(e.g., COPS, Diameter, and others) were also discussed.  The Diameter 
protocol is interesting in this context, because it provides set up 
mechanisms for basic network resource allocations and reallocations, as 
well as optional allocations.- All of these can be used for various 
types of bandwidth broker implementations, including those directed at 
QoS, using RSVP type information. Diameter currently does not provide 
path information, but instead relies on network pathway information 
established at ingress and egress nodes. However, the status of 
Diameter is still open in the IETF.

COPS was initially developed as a mechanism for establishing RSVP 
policy within a domain and remains intra-domain centric. It is a useful 
intra-domain mechanism for allocating bandwidth resources within a 
policy context. Work is now being conducted to use COPS for 
establishing policy associated with a DiffServ-capable network. COPS is 
designed to facilitate communication between the PDP and the PEP, 
carrying policy decisions and other information.

To implement any type of Bandwidth Broker model, it is necessary to 
establish a mechanism for policy exchanges.  The Internet2's Qbone 
working group is currently working to define a prototype inter-domain 
bandwidth broker signaling protocol. This work is being coordinated 
with IETF efforts.

Another mechanism is required for traffic shaping and SLA policing and 
enforcement.  One mechanism is fair queuing in its various forms, which 
has been described as TDM emulation without the time and space 
components. Techniques have been used for several years for fair 
queuing for low speed lines. For DS-3 with 40 byte packets and OC-3c 
speeds with 200-byte packets, weighted fair queuing uses a deficit 
round-robin algorithm that allows it to scale. It is capable of flow 
discrimination based on stochastically hashing the flows. An additional 
expansion of this technique is to preface this technique with class 
indicators. Currently, classification techniques are based on IP 
precedence. However, classification will soon be achieved in many 
routers using Diffserv code points (DSCPs) to specify the type of 
conditioning to be applied.  The complete requirements of policing for 
DiffServ implementations, e.g., via bandwidth brokers, have not yet 
been fully explored or defined.

Network monitoring capabilities (i.e., querying the network for state 
information on a micro and macro level) that support middleware and 
application services were identified as a core requirement. In fact, a 
network instrumentation and measurement infrastructure, upon which a 
set of intelligent network management middleware services can be built, 
is absolutely critical.

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Current mechanisms (e.g. ICMP, SNMP) were not deemed robust enough for 
middleware and applications developers to determine the state of the 
network, or to verify that they were receiving the specific type of 
treatment they had requested.  This was judged especially true of a 
network providing QoS or CoS. Indeed, it is not at all clear that SNMP, 
for example, is even the right architectural model for middleware to 
use to enable applications to determine the state of the network. Other 
capabilities, such as OcxMon, RTFM, new MIBs, and active measurement 
techniques (e.g., IPPM one-way delay metrics) need to be made available 
to middleware services and applications.

The provisioning of differentiated services takes the Internet one step 
away from its "dumb" best effort status.  As the complexity of the 
network increases (e.g. VPNs, QoS, CoS, VoIP, etc.), more attention 
must be paid to providing the end-user/customer or network 
administrator with the tools they require to securely and dynamically 
manage an adaptable network infrastructure. Differentiated services 
means that theoretically some traffic gets better service than other 
traffic; subsequently, one can expect to pay for better service, which 
means that accounting and billing services will be one of the important 
middleware core components that others will rely upon. The model and 
protocols necessary to accomplish this are not developed yet.

12.0  Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting

The IETF's AAA working group is focusing on the requirements for 
supporting autghentication, authorization, accounting, and auditing of 
access to and services provided bynetwork resource managers (e.g., 
bandwidth brokers). These processes constitute an important security 
infrastructure that will be relied upon by middleware and applications. 
However, these components are only basic security components. A public 
key infrastructure (PKI) was identified as a crucial security service 
infrastructure component. For example, the PKI will be required to 
support the transitivity of authentication, authorization, and access 
control and, where appropriate, accounting and billing.  It was noted 
that, except for issues dealing with group security and possibly more 
efficient and simple management, there are no real technical challenges 
preventing the wide scale deployment of a PKI support structure at this 
time. Instead, the main obstacles to overcome are mostly political and 
economic in nature. However, additional middleware may be required to 
better facilitate a PKI. That being said, some people believe that we 
do have some large technical security challenges, revocation lists and 
security with respect to changing group memberships being two examples.

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Middleware and security support is also required for newer applications 
(e.g., proxy agents that would act on a process or application's behalf 
and gather the necessary certificates for access and using resources). 
A particularly difficult example is remote collaboration. Accessing a 
particular resource may require a user and/or application to gather 
certificates from more than one policy-controlling agent. It is also 
true that an entity may have various identities that are dependent on 
the task they are performing (usage or role based) or the context of 
the application.  In order for the PKI to become truly functional on a 
ubiquitous level, there needs to exist a set of independent signing 
authorities that can vouch for the top-level certificate authorities.

There are also higher-level middleware services which will build on 
public key infrastructure, notary services and provenance verification.  
As we move from a relatively dumb network (e.g. best effort IP) to an 
Internet with embedded intelligence (e.g., DiffServ, IntServ, bandwidth 
brokers, directory-enabled networks, etc.), the secure exchange of 
information will become even more important.  In addition, as we start 
to provide differentiated services, accounting and statistics gathering 
will become much more important. We also need to provide for the 
integrity and security of collecting, analyzing, and transporting 
network management and monitoring information.  And the issues of data 
privacy and integrity, along with addressing denial of service and non-
repudiation, cannot be ignored. 

13.0   Network Management, Performance, and Operations

Network management capabilities were identified as being paramount to 
the success of middleware deployment, and subsequently to the success 
of the application. Many of the issues addressed here are not part of 
standard NOC operations. In a more complex world of QoS, CoS, and micro 
prioritization, reactions to network failures must be handled 
differently than current procedures. Allocations are more dynamic, 
especially additions, deletions, and changes with additional sets of 
requirements, such as priorities and new types of inter-domain 
interactions. These will inevitably increase the complexity of network 

There are many microscopic and macroscopic network management projects 
focusing on making both active and passive network statistics and 
information available to end-users. Current visual debugging and 
analysis capabilities (e.g., those developed by NLANR/CAIDA) are 
crucial tools for network administrators and designers for 
understanding their networks. In addition, current network management 
techniques and mechanisms, which were designed for network designers 
and managers, need to be adapted to provide a dynamic and relevant set 
of information to the middleware or application service software. This 
will allow the programs to dynamically adapt to the changing state of 
the network infrastructure while ensuring the integrity and security of 
the network and other resources.

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Another aspect of network management that has not received the necessary attention, is the need for modeling and analysis tools for network and middleware designers. CIM and DEN show great promise in providing a 
common framework for modeling the management of network elements and 
services as well as users, applications, and other resources of the 
network. Undoubtedly, middleware designers will place new requirements 
on CIM and DEN that will cause these approaches to evolve.

14.0  Middleware to support multicast applications

IP multicast - that is, the routing and forwarding of mutlicast packets 
in an IP-based network, is in the view of the workshop part of the 
basic network infrastructure. The Internet Group Multicast Protocol, 
which manages the joining and leaving of multicast groups, could also 
be considered a basic network service. However, there is a tremendous 
need for middleware services to make multicast useable for various 
applications, much like TCP played a key role in making IP applications 
useable. Specifically, one might reasonably want middleware services to 
provide authenticated control of multicast services. Examples of these 
services include the creation and joining of multicast groups, 
multicast address management, multicast channel directories (there has 
already been considerable work in this area), various forms of reliable 
multicast services (this has been an IRTF research area), and to secure 
multicast groups through various cryptographic strategies. In addition, 
because of the large impact that multicast can have on a network, 
multicast management middleware services, particularly in conjunction 
with QoS, will be needed, as will services to link together 
multicasting within various networks that do not directly interchange 
multicast routing information. It should be noted, however, that 
several security issues with multicast, especially groups with dynamic 
membership policies, still need to be resolved.

15.0 Java and Jini

Java was chosen as an example of a heterogeneous runtime support system 
for the sake of discussion as to whether it could be qualified as a 
development language particularly suitable for the development of 
middleware. The consensus was that the Java language and compilers are 
important in the current distributed model of the Internet and for the 
support of middleware (i.e., middleware written using Java).  Also, a 
virtual Java machine located on a system can be considered middleware 
as much as any operating system or network operating systems would be 
considered middleware. Jini middleware technology not only defines a 
set of protocols for discovery, join, and lookup, but also a leasing 
and transaction mechanism to provide resilience in a dynamic networked 
environment.  Java and Jini will be dependent on a functioning PKI, 
especially for signed applets. That being said, there are security 
concerns with both Java and Jini that need to be addressed, such as 
allowing the downloading of applets and servlets.

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16.0  Security Considerations

This document is a report of a workshop in which security was a common 
theme, as can be seen by the references to security through out the 
document; but the workshop did not reach any specific recommendations 
for new security-related terminology.

17.0 Summary

Middleware may have components and services that only exist in the 
persistent infrastructure, but it will also have components that enable 
and support end-to-end (i.e. application to application or host to 
host) interaction across multiple autonomous administrative domains. A 
set of core persistent middleware services is required to support the 
development of a richer set of middleware services which can be 
aggregated or upon which applications will be based (e.g., an onion or 
layered model). This set of core middleware services will help 
applications leverage the services and capabilities of the underlying 
network infrastructure, along with enabling applications to adjust in 
changes to the network. The particular set of such services utilized by 
an application or process will be a function of the requirements of the 
application field or affinity group (e.g., network management or high 
energy physics applications) wishing to utilize the network or 
distributed data/computation infrastructure. This document discusses 
some of the basic and core middleware services, which include, but are 
not limited to: directories, name/address resolution services, security 
services (i.e., authentication, authorization, accounting, and access 
control), network management, network monitoring, time servers, and 
accounting.  Network level capabilities, such as multicast and 
DiffServ, are not classified as middleware; rather, they are enabling 
infrastructure services upon which middleware will be built or which 
middleware may use and manage.  A second level of important middleware 
services, which builds upon these core set of services, may include 
accounting/billing, resource managers, single sign-on services, 
globally unique names, metadata servers, and locators. 

A recognized goal is to provide a set of middleware services that 
enable access to and management of the underlying network 
infrastructure and support applications wishing to make use of that 
network-based infrastructure. It appears necessary to agree to a 
framework of services for the support, provisioning and operations, and 
management of the network. Today, we have piecemeal activities already 
being pursued in various standards organizations. These include efforts 
in the IETF and DMTF (e.g., AAA, Policy Framework, DiffServ, DEN, CIM, 
etc.), as well as in the advanced application environments (e.g., Grid 
Forum, the PACIs, NGI, Internet2, etc.). Both of these efforts require 
the integration and management of many infrastructure components, not 
just networks; however, we have no overall framework that pulls all of 
these together, or a mechanism to coordinate all of these activities.

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We are just embarking on the development of a rich plan of middleware 
services. Consequently, we have a lot of work yet to be done. For 
instance, as we move into an electronic persistent presence (EPP) 
environment where multiple instances of an identity or person (or even 
their proxy agents) are supported, we will require enhanced locator and 
brokering services. The directory (e.g., DNS or X.500) and locator 
services of today may not be appropriate for this task.

One goal of the workshop was to identify research and development areas 
in middleware that federal agencies and industry may choose to support. 
The workshop highlighted a few areas that may benefit from additional 
R&D support.  These areas include, but are not limited to: 

-  inter-domain resource management architecture and protocols (e.g.,
   inter-domain bandwidth brokers)
-  resource languages that describe and enable the management of a wide
   variety of resources (e.g., networks, data bases, storage, online
   facilities, etc.
-  avoiding deadlock and ensuring efficiency with resource managers
-  network management tools and APIs that provide macroscopic and
   microscopic real-time infrastructure  
-  information to middleware services and applications (not just MIBs 
   and SNMP access)
-  domain and inter-domain accounting and billing
-  monitoring and verification services of contracted infrastructure 
-  enhanced locators that can locate resources and resource managers 
-  cross administrative policy negotiation and authentication
-  middleware bypass (i.e. access to raw system or network resources
-  metadata (i.e., data that is used to describe data found in
   directories or exchanged between services such as resource managers,
   PDPs, PEPs, directories, accounting and billing services, etc.)  
-  middleware support for mobile or nomadic use
-  support for availability of resources (i.e. replication and load 

This workshop was just one small step in identifying relevant 
middleware topics, technologies and players.  Even though this workshop 
did not arrive at a consensual definition of middleware, it did 
identify the need for additional work. Specifically, further work is 
needed to identify and qualify middleware services for specific 
affinity groups (e.g. Internet2, Education, the PACIs, Grids, etc.) as 
well as to define a macroscopic framework that incorporates the 
middleware work of the IETF, DMTF and other relevant organizations such 
as the Grid Forum.


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18.0  Participants

Deb Agarwal <>,Bob Aiken <>,Guy 
Almes <>,Chase Bailey <>,Fred Baker 
<>,Pete Beckman <>,Javad Boroumand 
<>,Scott Bradner <>,George Brett 
<>,Rich Carlson <>,
Brian Carpenter <>,Charlie Catlett 
<>,Bill Cheng <>,Kim Claffy 
<>,Bill Decker,Christine Falsetti 
<>,Ian Foster <>,Andrew 
Grimshaw <>,Ed Grossman 
<>,Ted Hanss <>,Ron Hutchins 
<>, Larry Jackson <>, Bill 
Johnston <>, Juerg von Kaenel <>,Miron 
Livny <>,Cliff Lynch <>,Joel Mambretti 
<>,Reagan Moore <>, Klara Nahstedt 
<>,Mike Nelson <>, Bill Nitzberg 
<>, Hilarie Orman <>, John Schnizlein 
<>, Rick Stevens <>,John Strassner 
<>, Ben Teitelbaum <>,George Vanecek 
<>,Ken klingenstein <Ken.Klingenstein@Colorado.EDU>, 
Arvind Krishna <>,Dilip Kandlur <

19.0   URLs/references

Please see  for copies of the 
slides presented at the workshop as well as a list of related URLs on 
applications, middleware and network services.

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20.0 Authors' Address  
Editor: Bob Aiken

 Bob Aiken   
 Cisco Systems, Inc.
 6519 Debold Rd.
 Sabillasville, Md.  21780 USA
 1 301 271 2919

 John Strassner
 Cisco Systems, Inc.
 170 West Tasman Drive
 San Jose, CA  95134

 Brian E. Carpenter
 IBM United Kingdom Laboratories
 MP 185, Hursley Park
 Winchester, Hampshire SO21 2JN, UK

 Ian Foster 
Argonne National Laboratory
The University of Chicago
Argonne, IL 60439  USA
1 630 252 4619

Clifford Lynch
Coalition for Networked Information
21 Dupont Circle
Washington, DC  20036
1 202 296 5098

Joe Mambretti
International Center for Advanced Internet Research   
1890 Maple, Suite 150
Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60201 
1 847 467 3911

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Reagan Moore
University of California, San Diego
9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92093-0505   USA

Benjamin Teitelbaum
Advanced Networks & Services, Inc.

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13. Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (1999).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph 
   are included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
   developing Internet standards in which case the procedures for
   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an

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