Resolver side mitigations

Document Type Expired Internet-Draft (individual)
Author George Barwood 
Last updated 2008-10-26
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This Internet-Draft is no longer active. A copy of the expired Internet-Draft can be found at


Describes mitigations against spoofing attacks on DNS, including: (1) Repeating the query, including techniques for handling non-deterministic responses. (2) Prepending a random nonce to the question where a referral is probable. (3) Estimating the entropy available, taking into account (a) Observed packets with incorrect IDs. (b) The content of the cache.


George Barwood (

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