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draft-bichot-msync-16

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Sophie Bale , Remy Brebion , Guillaume Bichot
Last updated 2024-06-11
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draft-bichot-msync-16
Internet-Draft                                                   S. Bale
Intended Status: Informational                                R. Brebion
Expires: December 13, 2024                                     G. Bichot
                                                               Broadpeak
                                                           June 11, 2024

                                 MSYNC 
                         draft-bichot-msync-16

Abstract

   This document specifies the Multicast Synchronization (MSYNC)
   Protocol. MSYNC is intended to transfer video media objects over IP
   multicast. Although generic, MSYNC has been primarily designed for
   transporting HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) objects including
   manifests/playlists and media segments (e.g., CMAF) according to a
   HAS protocol such as Apple HLS or MPEG DASH between a multicast
   sender and a multicast receiver.          

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as
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Copyright and License Notice

   Copyright (c) 2024 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
 

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   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2  Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.1. A typical MSYNC deployment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     2.2. Unicast Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     2.3. Multicast Network and congestion avoidance  . . . . . . . .  8
     2.4. Handling third party content  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   3. MSYNC Protocol  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.1. MSYNC Packet Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.2. Object Info Packet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     3.3. Object Data Packet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     3.4. Object HTTP Header Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     3.5. Object Data-part Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     3.6. Maximum Size of an MSYNC Packet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     3.7. Sending and Receiving MSYNC Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       3.7.1. Mapping over Transport Multicast Sessions . . . . . . . 20
       3.7.2. Detecting the End of an Object Reception  . . . . . . . 22
       3.7.3. Congestion Control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     3.8. HAS Protocol Dependency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
       3.8.1. Object Info Packet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
         3.8.1.1. Media Sequence  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
         3.8.1.2. Object URI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     3.9. RTP Multicast Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       3.9.1. RTP as the MSYNC packet container format  . . . . . . . 27
       3.9.2. RTP packet retransmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     3.10. Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
       3.10.1 MSYNC Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
     3.11. MSYNC workflow example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   4.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   5.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
   6.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     6.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     6.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
   7. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
 

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   8. Change Log  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

 

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1  Introduction

   Transporting media content over multicast is known to be very
   effective for saving network resources (bandwidth). Multicast is used
   by Internet service providers for providing IPTV services. IPTV
   technology relies essentially on MPEG Transport Stream (MPEG TS)
   format, UDP transport, and IP multicast, whereas the HTTP adaptive
   bit-rate streaming (HAS), a unicast "Over The Top" technology relies
   on HTTP /TCP, new container formats such as MP4/CMAF, and signaling
   protocols such as Apple HLS and MPEG DASH. With the generalization of
   HAS streaming there is a need to operate an IPTV service in
   association with HAS streaming technology for unifying the two
   ecosystems. MSYNC allows transporting HTTP based ABR flows over
   multicast relying on IP/UDP and optionally RTP that makes it suited
   for transitioning IPTV legacy (MPEG2 TS) to the HAS ecosystem.
   Various IPTV infrastructures (xDSL, cable, fiber) and broadcast
   networks have experimented with, and deployed this protocol.

   MSYNC is deployable within a controlled environment wherein multicast
   distribution relies on a pre-arranged capacity planning.

1.1  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

1.2  Definitions

   ABR: Adaptive Bit Rate streaming is a method that consist of changing
        the media encoding bit-rate function of the network condition.

   HTTP/1.1 CTE: Chunked Transfer Encoding. A method for object delivery
        over HTTP1.1 of unknown size. See Section 7.1 of [RFC9112] 

   HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) protocol: an ABR method based on HTTP
        and signaling procedures described in [MPEGDASH] and in
        [RFC8216].

   HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) session: Transport one or more media
        streams (e.g., one video, two audios, One subtitle) according to
        HTTP. A HAS session is triggered by a player initially 
        downloading a manifest file, then an init segment and/or media
        segments belonging to possibly different sub-streams according
        to the selected representation and possibly more manifest files
        according to the HAS protocol.

 

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   init segment: A part of a media sub-stream used to initialize the
        decoder as specified in [MPEGCMAF].

   manifest: A file containing the configuration for conducting a
        streaming session; corresponds to a play list as defined by HLS
        [RFC8216]. During a HAS streaming session, a manifest or
        playlist can be modified. 

   media: A digitalized piece of video, audio, subtitle, image, etc.

   media stream: The aggregate of one or more media sub-streams. This
        should not be confused with the RTP media stream.

   media sub-stream:  A version of a media encoded in a particular bit-
        rate, format and resolution; also called representation or
        variant stream. A media sub-stream corresponds to the RTP media
        stream.

   media segment: A part of a media sub-stream of a fixed duration
        (e.g., 2s) as specified in [MPEGCMAF].

   media chunk: A part of a media segment of a fixed duration as
        specified in [MPEGCMAF].

   MSYNC object: An MSYSNC object can be an addressable HAS entity like
        an initialization segment, a media segment or chunk, a manifest
        or playlist. An MSYNC object can also be a non-addressable
        transport entity as an HTTP2 frame or an HTTP/1.1 CTE block.

   MSYNC super object. An object composed of parts delivered on the fly
        when the size of this object to be transmitted is unknown in
        advance. A super object may correspond to a stream or a media
        segment not yet completely generated/received and the size of
        which is therefore unknown.

   MSYNC packet: The transport unit of MSYNC. Several MSYNC packets MAY
        be used to transport an MSYNC object.

   MSYNC receiver. The MSYNC end point that receives MSYNC objects over
        multicast.

   MSYNC sender. The MSYNC end point that sends MSYNC objects over
        multicast according to MSYNC.

   representation: A media sub-stream as defined by [MPEGDASH];
        corresponds to a variant stream as defined by HLS [RFC8216].

   variant stream:  A media sub-stream as defined by HLS [RFC8216];
 

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        corresponds to a representation as defined by [MPEGDASH].

   IP multicast session: A session consisting of transport multicast
        sessions having the same source IP address and destination
        multicast IP address.

   transport multicast session: Operating a transport protocol that is
        based on UDP over IP multicast. A transport multicast session is
        identified by the destination transport (UDP) port number, the
        source IP address and the IP multicast address.

   RTP multicast session: A transport multicast session based on RTP as
        defined in [RFC3550].

2.  Overview

2.1. A typical MSYNC deployment

   MSYNC is a protocol typically used between a multicast server that
   hosts the MSYNC sender and a multicast gateway that hosts the MSYNC
   receiver. This is depicted in Figure 1. Arrows represent the HAS
   session elements directional flows. The multicast server acquires HAS
   session elements in unicast conforming to a HAS protocol as e.g.,
   MPEG DASH [MPEGDASH] or HLS [RFC8216] and sends those HAS session
   elements over a multicast network, supporting possibly RTP and UDP/IP
   multicast, to the multicast gateways. A multicast gateway listens the
   corresponding multicast flows and serves the HAS player(s) in unicast
   conforming to the same HAS protocol. MSYNC permits a sender to serve
   simultaneously multiple receivers conforming to one or several HAS
   protocols and formats (e.g., assuming one shared multicast network,
   one sender could serve some receivers with MPEG DASH compliant
   content and other receivers with HLS compliant content). 

   The multicast server is configured (by e.g., the ISP operating the
   multicast network) in order to acquire HAS content from a Content
   Distribution Network (CDN) via a unicast protocol, typically over the
   Internet. Considering one among several possible content ingest
   methods (e.g., HTTP GET), for each HAS session, the multicast server
   behaves as a HAS player, reading the manifest, discovering the
   available representations and downloading concurrently media segments
   of all (or a subset) of the available representations. The multicast
   server is configured for sending all those HAS session elements over
   possibly RTP and UDP/IP multicast according to a certain UDP/IP flow
   arrangement. For example, the objects related to each video
   representation are sent over a separate transport multicast session
   (multicast IP address + port number) whereas all audio
   representations are sent over the same transport multicast session. 
 

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   The Multicast gateway is configured by the same ISP having configured
   the multicast server for being aware of the same UDP/IP flow
   arrangement. Depending on this arrangement and on the HAS player
   request, the MSYNC receiver joins the multicast IP group associated
   with the HAS representation requested by the HS player. Note that the
   multicast gateway might not be capable of receiving all the
   concurrent transport multicast sessions at the same time due to
   bandwidth limitations (e.g., ADSL).   

   At any time, the multicast gateway can detect corrupted and/or lost
   packets and attempt to repair using a repair protocol. This is
   possible with the HAS server interacting with the HAS content
   delivery network (CDN) or thanks to RTP when used as the transport
   layer over UDP (See Section 3.9).

   The multicast gateway receives the MSYNC objects and is ready to
   serve them (e.g., acts as a local cache). Whenever a HAS request is
   sent by a media player and received by the multicast gateway, the
   latter reads first its local cache. In case of hit, it returns the
   object. In case of miss, the multicast gateway can retrieve the
   requested object from the associated CDN (or a dedicated server) over
   a unicast interface through operating HTTP conventionally and
   forwards back to the HAS player the object once retrieved. If no
   unicast interface exists, the multicast gateway can wait some time
   for the local cache to be updated with the element requested by the
   media player and/or returns an error.

    Unicast server                   Multicast server        
    +-------- +                  + -------------------- +  
    |   HAS   | ---- unicast --> |   HAS      |  MSYNC  |  
    |   CDN   |      Internet    |  Ingest    |  Sender | 
    + ------- +                  + ---------------------+
         |                                          |
         |                                          |
          -----------unicast ----------         multicast
                      Internet         |            |
                                       |            |
                                       v            V
    +-------- +                  + -------------------- +
    |   HAS   | <--- unicast --- |   HAS      |  MSYNC  |
    | Player  |      Local       |  Server    |Receiver |
    + ------- +                  + ---------------------+
     End-user                        Multicast gateway
     terminal

                Figure 1: example of MSYNC deployment 

 

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   With MSYNC deployed over a multicast network, the HAS player receives
   HAS content in full transparency (i.e. the player is absolutely
   unaware of getting the content through MSYNC or not).

   Note that nothing precludes the MSYNC receiver or even the multicast
   gateway from be co-located with the media player and therefore
   embedded in the end-user terminal as shown in Figure 2.

                                    Multicast server        
    +-------- +                  + -------------------- +  
    |   HAS   | <--- unicast --> |   HAS      |  MSYNC  |  
    |   CDN   |      Internet    |  Ingest    |  Sender | 
    + ------- +                  + ---------------------+
         |                                         |
         |                                         |
      unicast                                  multicast
      Internet                                     |
         |---------                                |
         |         |                               |
         v         v                               |
    + --------------------------- +                |
    |   HAS   |  HAS    |  MSYNC  |<---------------
    | Player  | Server  |Receiver |
    + ----------------------------+
           End-user terminal

         Figure 2: MSYNC receiver in the terminal

2.2. Unicast Networks

   Figure 1 shows a typical MSYNC deployment where a HAS player
   interacts with a HAS server in an unicast way over e.g., Internet and
   interacts with a multicast gateway over e.g., a local network 
   according to the same HAS protocol. Note that the multicast gateway
   may reside in the local area network (LAN) or upstream, in the ISP's
   network premises. 

   In theory, all interfaces labeled "unicast" in Figure 1 could be
   deployed over an Internet network, although practically, the
   interface between the end-user terminal and the multicast gateway
   corresponds to a broadband access network or a Local area network
   (LAN) controlled by the ISP.

2.3. Multicast Network and congestion avoidance

   In this document "multicast network" means a network supporting IP
   multicast in addition to supporting IP unicast.
 

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   A multicast network is typically provided and controlled by a
   broadband Internet service Provider following the design principles
   depicted in [BFTR145] and [BFTR178]. A multicast network is composed
   with one or several multicast sub-networks interconnected with
   multicast routers and/or layer 2 bridge/switches performing IGMP
   snooping (Multicast Listener Discovery in IPv6) as discussed in
   [RFC4541] allowing to duplicate/forward multicast IP packets based on
   IGMP messaging. In a broadband multicast infrastructure the multicast
   network interconnects a service end-point (e.g., an IPTV service)
   with a broadband gateway located in the end-user premises. The last
   multicast sub-network is typically a point-to point circuit/line 
   between the end-user broadband gateway and the first access network
   infrastructure aggregation point (e.g., a DSL access module or
   DSLAM). It has a rather limited [bandwidth] capacity comparing with
   the other multicast sub-networks being part of the ISP's access,
   aggregation and core networks.

   The MSYNC sender is connected to the first multicast sub-network
   whereas the MSYNC receiver is connected to the last multicast sub-
   network. A multicast network provides a certain capacity (i.e.,
   bandwidth) attached to the first sub-network (connected to the MSYNC
   sender) that may be different from the capacity attached to the last
   sub-network connected to the MSYNC receiver. The data transported
   (i.e., HAS session elements) by MSYNC is not assumed elastic, i.e.,
   it SHOULD be ingested at a fixed rate, sharing the concerns expressed
   in [RFC3550], Section 10. 

   The multicast network must support pre-provisioning bandwidth
   resources. This assumption permits to have the MSYNC sender able to
   transmit one HAS session or concurrently several HAS sessions
   operating one or more transport multicast session up to a certain
   maximum bandwidth, said MAX_BW_SEND. MAX_BW_SEND corresponds to the
   maximum guaranteed bandwidth dedicated to MSYNC allowing to transport
   the provisioned HAS session(s) across all multicast sub-networks up
   to the last multicast sub-network ingress point (e.g., the last
   router or bridge) before reaching the MSYNC receiver.

   The MSYNC sender MUST control the sending rate of each HAS media sub-
   stream (and generally speaking of all MSYNC object to be transmitted)
   in such a way the maximum bandwidth MAX_BW_SEND corresponds to the
   following:

      1. the sum of all individual media sub-stream bit-rate composing
      the set of provisioned HAS session(s) and

      2. an additional bandwidth reserve for supporting control
      (initialization segments, manifest file, configuration
      information) transmission. 
 

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   In addition, the MSYNC sender MUST be configured in such way that the
   minimum bandwidth consumed by a HAS session as advertised by a
   manifest (the least bandwidth consuming combination of media sub-
   streams as e.g., video, audio, subtitling) remains within the
   smallest provisioned bandwidth dedicated to MSYNC over the last
   multicast sub-network (connected to the N MSYNC receivers), said min
   (MAX_BW_RECEIVE_1, MAX_BW_RECEIVE_2, MAX_BW_RECEIVE_3,...,
   MAX_BW_RECEIVE_N). There is one MAX_BW_RECEIVE restriction per MSYNC
   receiver as there might be up to one different multicast sub-network
   connected to each MSYNC receiver. With this approach, any MSYNC
   receiver (whatever the last multicast sub-network capacity) fed by
   the MSYNC sender is ensured to receive at least one HAS sub-streams
   combination for each HAS session. The MSYNC sender MAY send a
   manifest and related media sub-streams whose combination could result
   in a throughput higher than the MAX_BW_RECEIVE of some MSYNC
   receivers.  

   The MSYNC receiver is instructed to join one or more IP multicast
   sessions up to its maximum bandwidth constraint (MAX_BW_RECEIVE) that
   represents the provisioned capacity dedicated to MSYNC over the last
   multicast sub-network it is connected to.  As an example, the
   capacity of the last multicast sub-network can be limited to a few
   Mbps with ADSL and up to several hundred of Mbps with fiber to the
   home (FTTH).  In the case of a broadcast network (e.g., satellite)
   the capacity exposed to the MSYNC sender may be equivalent to the
   capacity exposed to the MSYNC receiver if the broadcast network is
   composed with only one sub-network.

   The MSYNC receiver MUST support IGMP version 2 [RFC2236] or above
   versions in order to  "join" and "leave" an IP multicast session,
   When source filtering ( Source-Specific Multicast or SSM) is required
   the MSYNC receiver MUST support IGMP version 3 [RFC3376].

   Sending and receiving MSYNC packets over a transport multicast
   session is detailed in 3.7.  

2.4. Handling third party content

   As introduced above, MSYNC is an enabler for allowing HAS content to
   be distributed over a controlled multicast network. Ideally any
   content provider or content delivery network provider on the Internet
   should be able to benefit from MSYNC. Content Distribution Network
   Interconnection (CDNi) is a framework [RFC7336] for a content
   provider or an upstream CDN provider to delegate streaming to a
   downstream CDN. Regarding HAS streaming, CDNi is used to improve the
   user experience, allowing the third party content provider to operate
   a downstream CDN owned, shared and exposed by an ISP through the Open
   caching interfaces specified by the CDNi framework. The delegation is
 

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   basically done through request routing where an upstream request
   router on the  Internet redirects a request to a cache server located
   in the ISP network. Advantages and benefits are disclosed in
   [RFC6770] and in particular in Section 2.3 that discusses the mutual
   benefits for the ISP and the content/CDN provider in the context of
   video streaming.

   Let's now assume that the ISP desires to share and open its multicast
   delivery service and infrastructure powered by MSYNC in a similar
   way. This may be completely transparent for the content provider.
   According to the CDNi framework, HAS session request can be delegated
   to (i.e., routed) down to the ISP's HAS server hosted by the
   multicast gateway in figure 1. 

   In summary with the CDNi framework and MSYNC combined together, HAS
   streaming over Internet can leverage the ISP's multicast network
   delivery (powered by MSYNC) in an open/standard way.

3. MSYNC Protocol

   The MSYNC protocol allows an MSYNC sender to transmit MSYNC objects
   (e.g. a media segment or a manifest) to an MSYNC receiver. An MSYNC
   object is composed with several elements (Info, HTTP header, data)
   where each element is composed with one or multiple MSYNC packets.
   For instance, sending a media segment object requires the sender to
   send: one object info element (The object info element always fits to
   only one MSYNC info packet), one object HTTP header (optional) that
   is composed with one or more object HTTP header packets and finally
   the object data element that is composed with one or more object data
   packets. When the object to be sent is known to be part of a bigger
   super object of unknown size then the sender uses the data-part
   element instead of the data element. An object data-part element is
   composed with one or more object data-part packets.

   All MSYNC packets carrying elements or parts of elements associated
   with the same MSYNC object carries the same MSYNC object identifier.

   The MSYNC sender sends an object over one transport multicast session
   (possibly a RTP multicast session). All objects belonging to the same
   media sub-stream are typically sent over the same multicast transport
   session although it is not mandatory. The MSYNC sender is instructed
   to send media sub-streams over one or more multicast transport
   sessions according to a mapping configuration file that is shared at
   the application level (i.e., between the Multicast server and the
   Multicast gateway in Figure 1). The minimum set of required
   configuration parameters related to MSYNC is summarized in Section
   3.10. The format of this MSYNC configuration document as well as
   parameters that are not directly linked to MSYNC are not specified.
 

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   This is the subject of standard specification such as [DVB-MABR].

   The MSYNC receiver behavior is driven by the application as envisaged
   in Section 2.1 for example. The end user application (e.g. a HAS
   player) may request a media object (e.g., a manifest or a segment)
   that makes the MSYNC receiver be instructed by the HAS Server to
   listen the corresponding multicast transport sessions (joining the
   corresponding IP multicast session if not already done); the mapping
   information (request URL to multicast transport session) is the
   responsibility of the Application. The MSYNC receiver delivers to the
   application (e.g., the HAS Server in Figure 1) any received object
   from any listening multicast transport session along with the useful
   metadata such as the object URI, an information of the object info
   element (see Section 3.2) that may be used as a cache key as
   envisaged in Section 2.1.

   The details of the MSYNC protocol are disclosed in the following sub-
   sections.

3.1. MSYNC Packet Format

   The MSYNC packet has the following format. All bytes are sent
   according to the conventional network order: big-endian.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   version     |  packet type  |        object identifier      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           sub-header                          |
   |                              ....                             |
   +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
   |                             data                              |
   |                             ....                              |

                     Figure 3: MSYNC Packet 

   version: 8 bits
      Version of the MSYNC protocol = 0x03 

   packet type: 8 bits
      Defines the MSYNC packet type. The sub-header and the associated
      data (if any) are dependent on the packet type. The following
      types are defined.
        0x01: Object info
        0x02: Object info redundancy packet
        0x03: Object data
 

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        0x04: Reserved
        0x05: Object http header
        0x06: Object data-part as a piece of an object data for
        transporting e.g., an MPEG CMAF chunk, an HTTP/1.1 chunk or yet
        an HTTP/2 frame. 

   object identifier: 16 bits
      This field identifies the object being transferred in a multicast
      transport session. Considering one transport multicast session,
      all MSYNC packets associated with the same object carry the same
      object identifier in their MSYNC packet header. Whenever this
      object ID change that means the sending of the previous object is
      finished but not necessarily the reception (packets might have
      been possibly reordered). Depending on the deployment, un-ordered
      packet reception is either not possible or acceptable within a
      certain time limit. When transmitting a new object, the MSYNC
      sender MUST NOT reuse an object ID that corresponds to an ongoing
      MSYNC object transmission. The way to deal with packet reordering
      is discussed in Section 3.7. 

   sub-header: series of N x 32 bits
      The packet sub-header is linked to the packet type. The details of
      each packet type are specified in the next sections. 

   data: series of D x 8 bits
      The presence and contents of field is optional and is present
      depends on the packet type. D is bounded by the maximum size of a
      transport multicast session protocol packet size and the MTU
      (Maximum Transfer Unit) otherwise as explained in Section 3.6.

3.2. Object Info Packet

   The Object info packet is used to transport meta-data associated with
   an object. It is used to describe the object. Object information is
   carried over one object info packet only. The object info packet is
   typically sent along with the object data it describes. 

   The object identifier corresponds to the object identifier of the
   object data packets or the object data-part packets that the object
   info packet relates to.

 

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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   version     |  packet type  |        object identifier      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           object size                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     number of MSYNC packets                   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                          object CRC                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | object type   |   Reserved    | mtype |    object URI size    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        media sequence                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                         object URI                            |
   :                                                               :
   :                                                               :  
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 4: Object Info packet 

   packet type: 0x01 or 0x02
      Redundant object INFO packets (packet type 02) MAY be sent in
      addition to the "main" object info packet according to Section
      3.7.
   object size: 32 bits
      The number of bytes that compose the object data payload
      transported with one or more MSYNC object data packets (Section
      3.3) or MSYNC object data-part packets (Section 3.5).   

      The size may be 0 indicating that there is no corresponding
      object's data payload transmission foreseen (i.e., no expected
      MSYNC data packet or MSYNC data-part packet). In case of a super
      object transmission (Section 3.5), if the object URI of an object
      info with an object size set to 0 matches the super object URI
      then it MUST be interpreted as the end of the super object
      transmission (Section 3.8.1.2).

      Note that 32 bits is sufficient when transporting HAS elements.The
      maximum size of an object (4.4 GBytes) authorizes the transfer of
      a video segment of several tens of seconds, 4K encoded. 

   number of MSYNC packets: 32 bits
      Number of MSYNC packets that compose the transported object. If
      the object size is null (set to 0) then the number of MSYNC
 

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      packets MUST be null (set to 0).

   object CRC: 32 bits
      A Cyclic Redundancy Check applied to the object data payload or
      the object data-part payload for corruption detection according to
      the CRC-32 algorithm defined in the ISO/IEC 3309:1999
      specification revised by the ISO/IEC 13239:2002 specification. The
      object data payload is composed with the "data" field of all data
      packets associated with the object (see section 3.3). The object
      data-part payload is composed with the "data" field of all data-
      part packets associated with the object (see Section 3.5).

   object type: 8 bits
      Defines the type of object, i.e., the content type transported
      with Object data (or data-part) packets, associated with this
      MSYNC Object info packet.
        0x00: Unknown. 
        0x01: Media manifest (playlist).
        0x02: Reserved.
        0x03: Media content. Data plane elements formatted according to
        e.g. MPEG-TS [MPEG2TS], MP4 or yet fragmented MP4 [MPEGCMAF].
        0x04: Reserved.
        0x05: control: control plane information (e.g., MSYNC
        configuration elements as discussed in Section 3.10).
        0x06-0xFF: Reserved.

   mtype: 4 bits
      Characterizes the media manifest. This field MUST only be used in
      association with the object type 0x01 (media manifest). It MUST be
      set to 0x0 (not applicable) otherwise. The field can take the
      following values.
        0x0: Not Applicable
        0x1: MPEG Dash as specified in [MPEGDASH].
        0x2: Master HLS playlist as specified in [RFC8216].
        0x3: Media HLS playlist as specified in [RFC8216].
        0x4-0xF: Reserved

   object URI size: 12 bits
      The size in bytes (as an unsigned integer) of the object URI
      field. The object URI maximum size depends on the network MTU as
      discussed in Section 3.7.

   media sequence: 32 bits
      A sequence number (as an unsigned integer) associated with the
      MSYNC objects data and data-part (for transporting a segment or a
      manifest) that depends on the mtype value. It is used by the
      application operating MSYNC (e.g. the multicast gateway) to
      facilitate/accelerate the synchronization between unicast and
 

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      MSYNC reception. The multicast gateway may operate jointly
      MSYNC/multicast and conventional HTTP/unicast for retrieving HAS
      elements as indicated in Section 2 and illustrated in Figure 1.
      The values and rules are detailed in the Section 3.8 dedicated to
      the HAS protocol dependencies. If this field is unused, it MUST be
      set to 0x00, and MSYNC receivers MUST ignore it. 

   object URI: Quotient ((object URI size * 8)/32) bits + 32 bits if
      remainder ((object URI size * 8)/32) >0 
      This is the path name associated with the object as the URI
      reference to be resolved according to [RFC3986]. It MAY
      corresponds to a storage/Cache path.  There SHOULD be a direct
      relationship between this URI and the URL associated with the
      addressable object (e.g., HAS segment or CMAF chunk and/or a
      manifest). The rules for HAS delivery are detailed in Section 3.8
      dedicated to the HAS protocol dependencies. 

      The object URI is coded as a series of string characters
      conforming to UTF-8 [STD63]. Remaining unused bytes of the last 32
      bits field MUST be filled with the 0x00 value. 

3.3. Object Data Packet

   The Object Data Packet carries part or all of the object's data
   payload. The type of data and the way to process the object's data
   packets are determined by the associated object info packet.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   version     | packet type   |        object identifier      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         object offset                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              data                             |
   :                                                               :
   :                                                               :

                    Figure 5: Object Data packet 

   packet type: 0x03

   object offset: 32 bits
      The index from which the MSYNC object data packet payload (data
      field) is to be written in order to compose the object data
      payload at the receiver side (i.e., the multicast gateway). The
      first data packet of an object has an offset equal to 0. The MSYNC
      sender MUST NOT send a data packet that exhibit an object offset
 

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      that makes the data range overlapping with a previously
      transmitted data packet belonging to the same object. Likewise,the
      MSYNC receiver MUST ignore a data packet that exhibit an object
      offset that makes the data range overlapping with a previously
      received data packet belonging to the same object.  

   data: N x 8 bits
      The data payload (or part of data payload) related to the carried
      object ( e.g., part or all of a HAS segment or a manifest). The
      maximum size of the object data packet depends on the network MTU
      as discussed in Section 3.7. This data payload represents all or
      part of the object data payload. The total size (number of bytes)
      of the object data payload is indicated in the associated object
      info packet (field object size). The object CRC in the associated
      object info packet applies to the object data payload (i.e.
      composed with one or more data payloads).

3.4. Object HTTP Header Packet

   Using the object HTTP header is optional (see 3.7).  The MSYNC sender
   and the MSYNC receiver do not exploit directly the HTTP header. HTTP
   header fields can be used by the application operating MSYNC. For
   example, considering the Figure 1, the HAS Ingest component in the
   Multicast server may ingest some HTTP headers useful for the HAS
   server in the Multicast gateway and/or the end user application. As
   an example a security mechanism based on HTTP may exploit this
   possibility (see Section 5).

   The HTTP header packet carries part or all of HTTP header fields
   related to the object to be sent. There is at most one object HTTP
   header per object data (or per object data-part) that means the MSYNC
   sender MUST NOT send more than one object HTTP header element with a
   different content (i.e. different set of HTTP header fields)
   associated with the same object identifier. The exact same object
   HTTP header element can be repeated (sent several times) according to
   the sending rules detailed in Section 3.7.

   The transport of the HTTP header fields MUST be conformed to HTTP/1.1
   Section 5 of [RFC9112]. Carrying  HTTP header fields of a version of
   HTTP greater than HTTP/1.1, the MSYNC sender MUST convert the format
   according to HTTP/1.1 Section 5 of [RFC9112].  

   The object HTTP header MAY also be used in association with Object
   Data-part. The fields (name/value pairs) MUST be transported
   according to HTTP/1.1 Section 5 of [RFC9112].

   The object identifier is the same than the one present in the object
   data packets or object data-part packets it relates to.
 

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    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   version     |  packet type  |        object identifier      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      header size              |        header offset          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              data                             |
   :                                                               :
   :                                                               :

                   Figure 6: Object HTTP Header packet 

   packet type: 0x05

   header size: 16 bits
      An object HTTP header can be transported over one or several
      under-laying transport packets. This field indicates the total
      size of the HTTP header in bytes and it is indicated in each the
      HTTP header's packet.

   header offset: 16 bits
      The index from which this HTTP header MSYNC packet payload data is
      to be written in order to complement the HTTP header at the
      receiver side (i.e the multicast gateway). The first packet of the
      HTTP header has an offset equal to 0. 

   data: N x 8 bits
      The payload data related to the HTTP header. The maximum size of
      the Object HTTP header packet depends on the network MTU as
      discussed in Section 3.7.

3.5. Object Data-part Packet

   This MSYNC packet carries part or all of the media data-part object
   payload. The type of data and the way to process the object's data-
   part packets are determined by the associated object info packet.
   Object data-part payload is transported through a series of object
   data-part packets. The data-part is used when the object corresponds
   to a "part" (a block) of a super object for which the size is unknown
   (a super object may correspond to a stream or a media segment not yet
   complete and for which the size is therefore unknown).

   All data-part packets belonging to the same data part object have the
   same object identifier that is the same one present in the object
   info packet and HTTP header (if any) packets the data-part object
   relates to. 

 

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   All data-part objects composing a super object have a different
   object identifier. The object info packet (object URI) links a data-
   part object with a super object as explained in Section 3.8.1.2.

   The end of super-object transmission is signaled with an object info
   packet having both the object size and the number of MSYNC packets
   set to 0 and having the object URI matching the object URI of the
   already received parts according to Section 3.8.1.2. 

   Detecting missing data-part packets of a data-part object is based on
   detecting the end of an object transmission as depicted in Section
   3.7.2 possibly assisted with the CRC. The receiver detects missing
   packets through the Object Info packet that indicate the number of
   MSYNC packets composing the object. The receiver detects corrupted
   packets through processing the CRC. Regarding the super object
   transmission, the MSYNC receiver does not know how many data-part
   objects composes a super object but knows when the super object
   transmission ends and knows the super object offset as well as the
   object URI of each of the already received data-part objects (object
   info contains the object size set to zero and the object URI
   referencing the last block +1) that permits the MSYNC receiver to
   avoid missing data-part objects belonging to the same super object.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   version     |  packet type  |        object identifier      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         object offset                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      super object offset                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                              data                             |
   :                                                               :
   :                                                               :

                   Figure 7: Object Data-part packet 

   packet type: 0x06

   object offset: 32 bits
      The index from which the data-part packet payload (data field) is
      to be written in order to compose the object data-part at the
      receiver side (i.e., the multicast gateway). The first packet of
      the data-part has an offset equal to 0. The MSYNC sender MUST NOT
      send a data-part packet that exhibit an object offset that makes
      the data range overlapping with a previously transmitted data-part
      packet belonging to the same object. Likewise,the MSYNC receiver
 

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      MUST ignore a data-part packet that exhibit an object offset that
      makes the data range overlapping with a previously received data-
      part packet belonging to the same object.  

   super object offset: 32 bits
      The index from which the object part-data packet payload is to be
      written in order to compose the super object data at the receiver
      side (i.e., the multicast gateway). The first data-part object
      composing a super object has the super object offset equal to 0.
      The super object offset is the same for all object data-part
      packets composing the same object data-part. The MSYNC sender MUST
      NOT send a data packet that exhibit a super object offset that
      makes the data range overlapping with a previously transmitted
      data-part object belonging to the same super object. Likewise,the
      MSYNC receiver MUST ignore a data-part packet that exhibit a super
      object offset that makes the data range overlapping with a
      previously received data-part object belonging to the same super
      object. All data-part objects belonging to the same super object
      share the same object URI prefix (see Section 3.2)
   data: N x 8 bits
      The data payload related to the carried object ( e.g., part or all
      of a HAS segment or a manifest). The maximum size of the object
      data-part packet depends on the network MTU as discussed in
      Section 3.7. The total size (number of bytes) of the object data-
      part payload is indicated in the associated object info packet
      (field object size). The object CRC in the associated object info
      packet applies to the object data-part payload (i.e. composed with
      one or more "data" payloads).

3.6. Maximum Size of an MSYNC Packet

   An MSYNC packet MUST fit within the underlying protocol packet. As
   detailed in Section 3, an MSYNC packet is composed with a header part
   and a data part for which the size is limited by the transport
   multicast protocol. With RTP and/or UDP (which authorize up to 65535
   bytes), the maximum size is linked to the path MTU (Maximum Transfer
   Unit) as the largest transfer unit supported between the source (the
   multicast sender) and the destination (the multicast receiver)
   without fragmentation. The mean to compute the MTU is out of scope of
   this document. 

3.7. Sending and Receiving MSYNC Objects

   The following considerations are linked to the MSYNC configuration
   (3.10).

3.7.1. Mapping over Transport Multicast Sessions  

 

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   The mapping of MSYNC objects onto transport and IP multicast sessions
   is not constrained by the MSYNC protocol but by the multicast network
   capacity (i.e., the bandwidth) provisioned for MSYNC as indicated in
   Section 2.3.  For example, with ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber
   Line), the capacity dedicated to multicast is limited which may drive
   to an IP multicast flow arrangement where one IP multicast session
   carries the elements related to only one video sub-stream and another
   one that carries the elements related to all audio sub-streams (each
   of the audio sub-stream being associated with a different transport
   multicast session). In that case, the MSYNC receiver must join at
   most three IP multicast sessions (one for the video representation
   packets, another one for the audio representations packets and the
   last one for the control information). 

   Another arrangement could dedicate one IP multicast session per HAS
   stream gathering all media sub-streams (one transport multicast
   session per sub-stream).   

   Considering a satellite network, as all transport multicast sessions
   are carried simultaneously, all IP multicast flow arrangements may
   make sense. The MSYNC receiver may be configured to join all IP
   multicast sessions in advance (see Section 3.10).

   In general, the MSYNC receiver is instructed to join the IP multicast
   session associated with the media sub-stream(s) the application (the
   HAS server in figure 1) wants to listen/receive that is itself linked
   with the incoming requests from the end user media player. 

   A transport multicast session is identified with the triplet: source
   IP address (MSYNC supports Source Specific Multicast), destination
   multicast IP address and destination transport port number. It is
   RECOMMENDED to carry media sub-streams and the control information
   (Section 3.2) in separate transport multicast sessions; it allows the
   deployment of different error correction (see Section 3.9) or content
   protection procedure (e.g., one ISP may decide to encrypt the
   transport multicast session dedicated to the transmission of control
   information).

   The following arrangement is typical in ADSL:   

      - One IP multicast session per media (audio or video or subtitle)
      sub-stream (representation); each transport multicast session
      having a different destination multicast IP address.

      - One transport multicast session for the the control information.

   It is perfectly possible to send the MSYNC packets attached to
   different objects in one transport multicast session only (and
 

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   therefore one IP multicast session) as long as the following
   statement is respected.  

   For each MSYNC object (see object type in 3.2) to be sent over a
   transport multicast session, the MSYNC sender MUST send the following
   MSYNC packets in the specified order: 

      - One object info packet

      - Zero or more object info redundant packets

      - Zero or one object HTTP header, the object HTTP header being
      compose with one or more packets (sent in a sequential order), 

      - Zero, one or more redundant object HTTP header elements (all
      identical to the previously sent object HTTP header if any), each
      repeated object HTTP header being composed with one or more
      packets (sent in a sequential order),

      - Zero, one or more object data packets (or object data-part
      packets) in a sequential order.

   The MSYNC receiver MUST continuously control that it does respect its
   MAX_BW_RECEIVE constraint (see Section 2.3) and therefore the MSYNC
   receiver MUST NOT attempt to join a new IP multicast group if that
   condition cannot be respected. 

   When the MSYNC object is of size null (used to signal the end of the
   transmission of a super object) then only one object info packet is
   sent (see Section 3.2).

3.7.2. Detecting the End of an Object Reception 

   Detecting the end of an MSYNC object (or super object)  transmission
   is done thanks to the Object Info (see 3.2) information. However,
   packet loss is possible and MSYNC packets related to an MSYNC object
   may be received out of order. Packet re-ordering may be acceptable or
   not depending on the deployment scenario (it is generally bounded by
   the potential latency introduced by un-ordered MSYNC packets
   reception). As a consequence, the detection of the end of the MSYNC
   object reception MUST NOT be based solely on the detection of the end
   of the object transmission.

   An MSYNC receiver implementation MAY rely on a timer associated with
   the maximum transmission time of a particular MSYNC object type in
   order to detect the end of the MSYNC object transmission. The MSYNC
   receiver MAY arm a timer when the reception starts (e.g., first
   received packet related to a new object) and MAY stop the timer
 

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   whenever the object is completely received.  When the timer reaches
   the time limit, the MSYNC receiver SHOULD consider the transmission
   of that object done while the object being partially received. 

   Note that the MSYNC sender MAY use the same maximum transmission time
   of a particular MSYNC object type for controlling the object
   identifier (re-)allocation (see Section 3.1).

   Assuming receiving unordered packets is not possible, an MSYNC
   implementation MAY rely on the detection of a new object transmission
   and decide that the previous object transmission (and reception) is
   done while the object being possibly partially received.

   After the transmission of an object is considered done, The MSYNC
   receiver MUST consider subsequent packets related to the same object
   identifier as being part of new object transmission only if the
   previously received object associated with the object identifier has
   been completely received or partially received but after a maximum
   transmission time. If this condition is not verified the MSYNC
   receiver MUST discard the packets.

   When a new object transmission is detected (an object data or data-
   part with a new object identifier) and there is no associated object
   info packet received within a certain time limit ( linked to the
   support of packet re-ordering) the object MUST be ignored and related
   packets MUST be discarded. 

   In the case of a partially received MSYNC object, this is up to the
   application (e.g., the HAS server in Figure 2) to react,  triggering,
   for instance, an object repair procedure.

   Note that packet repair and packet reordering can be performed at the
   underlying RTP, based on the RTP sequence number (see Section 3.9). 

3.7.3. Congestion Control

   MSYNC is applicable and deployable in a controlled environment
   according to Section 3.1.9 of [RFC8085]. MSYNC MUST be used in a
   single operator network that operates network capacity provisioning. 

   As indicated in Section 2.3, the MSYNC sender MUST control its
   sending rate according to a pre-provisioned capacity (i.e.,
   bandwidth) dedicated to MSYNC. The deployment SHOULD prevent any
   potential "leaks out into unprovisioned Internet paths" in
   conformance with Section 3.1.9 of [RFC8085]. This can be achieved
   through logical and physical traffic isolation and filtering as
   commonly implemented in broadband networks following the design
   principles depicted in [BFTR145] and [BFTR178]. This may also be
 

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   complemented with the support of a circuit breaker as disclosed in
   [RFC8084].

   The MSYNC receiver or more probably the application exploiting the
   MSYNC receiver (e.g. the multicast gateway in Figure 1) may detect
   and mitigate potential congestions according to the receiver-driven
   congestion control method as detailed in Section 4.1 of [RFC8085].
   When congestion occurs, the received objects are subject to a growing
   number of missing bytes and therefore a growing number of repair
   procedures (the MSYNC receiver repairs the packets possibly based on
   RTP - see 3.9). On congestion detection, the MSYNC receiver, under
   the control of the application SHOULD leave one or more IP multicast
   groups and may even terminate the multicast reception. Regarding HAS
   streaming, one mitigation action would be to switch to a less
   bandwidth consuming IP multicast session, forcing the end-user
   terminal/player somehow to request HAS sub-stream elements related to
   that less bandwidth consuming IP multicast session. 

3.8. HAS Protocol Dependency

   A certain number of MSYNC packet header fields have a dependency on
   the HAS protocol and therefore on the manifest type. Similarly the
   sending rules may also depend on the HAS protocol.

3.8.1. Object Info Packet

3.8.1.1. Media Sequence

   The media sequence (an object Info Packet header field presented in
   the Section 3.2) is used by the application operating MSYNC (e.g. the
   multicast gateway) to facilitate the synchronization of the MSYNC
   (i.e., multicast) reception with the unicast reception. The multicast
   gateway may operate jointly MSYNC/multicast and conventional
   HTTP/unicast for retrieving HAS elements as indicated in section 3.2.
   For example, considering a HAS session, the application (e.g. the
   multicast gateway) starts to fetch a manifest from unicast as the
   MSYNC receiver is not ready. When the MSYNC receiver becomes ready
   and is receiving segments related to the HAS session, the application
   must quickly determine the level of freshness of the last segment
   received via MSYNC, meaning whether this segment is more recent than
   the last one fetched from unicast. Without the media sequence
   information field present in the Object info packet, the multicast
   gateway would need to parse the manifest received from MSYNC that
   takes time and consumes CPU. Similarly, the application may also need
   to understand the level of freshness of a manifest file received via
   MSYNC versus the last one received over unicast. 

   If no unicast reception is used jointly with MSYNC in the multicast
 

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   gateway (e.g., like in one way delivery only), the default value of
   0x00 MAY be used.  

   If unicast reception is used jointly with MSYNC then the media
   sequence MUST be set depending on the object type and mtype values
   (Info Packet header fields presented in Section 3.2.) as listed
   below.

   HLS master playlist: 0x00

   HLS variant playlist; MUST contain the Media Sequence Number
   according to Section 3 of [RFC8216] of either the last segment
   transmitted (i.e. the last declared segment in the playlist) or the
   last segment under transmission, i.e. the last declared segment in
   the playlist plus one (+1) also called parent segment in the the case
   of partial segment(s) declared after the last declared segment in the
   playlist (see Section 3.2 of [ID-HTTPLIVESTREAM]).

   HLS segment: MUST contain the Media Sequence Number according to
   Section 3 of [RFC8216] corresponding to either the declared segment
   in the associated playlist or the last declared segment in the
   playlist plus one (+1) also called parent segment in the the case of
   partial segment(s) declared after the last declared segment in the
   playlist (see Section 3.2 of [ID-HTTPLIVESTREAM]).

   DASH manifest: MUST contain $time$/(integer division)@timescale or
   $Number$ corresponding to the last segment transmitted or under
   transmission (and possibly received partially) and declared in the
   manifest. see [MPEGDASH] for the definition of $time$, @timescale and
   $Number$.

   DASH segment: MUST contain the $time$/(integer division)@timescale or
   $Number$ value corresponding to the segment declared in the manifest.
   
3.8.1.2. Object URI

   In the context of HTTP adaptive streaming, the object URI is a URI
   reference.

   If the object is a HAS addressable entity (e.g., a segment or a CMAF
   chunk), the object URI MUST match (be a substring) with the URL
   announced in the corresponding manifest/playlist. 

   Examples:

        - The object URI: /tvChannel1/Q1/S_2 matches with the segment's
        URL that is computed from the associated manifest/playlist: 
        ".../tvChannel1/Q1/S_2.mp4"
 

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        - The object URI /tvChannel11/Q1/S_2_3 matches with the CMAF
        chunk URL that is computed from the associated
        manifest/playlist:  ".../tvChannel11/Q1/S_2_3.mp4". 

   If the object is a non-addressable HAS entity (e.g., a HTTP/1.1 CTE
   block), the object URI is composed with a sub-string (that MUST match
   with the URL announced in the corresponding manifest) and a suffix
   composed with the hash sign/character (#) and the block number). 

   Example:

        - The object URI of the 3rd HTTP/1.1 CTE block of the segment
        S_2: tvChannel11/Q1/S_2.mp4#2 matches with the segment's request
        URL that terminates with ".../tvChannel1/Q1/S_2.mp4"

   The block number of an object URI attached to a media data-part
   object MUST be incremented for each subsequent transmission. 

   When all the MSYNC data-part packets for all the media data-part
   objects (e.g., HTTP/1.1 CTE blocks) composing a super object (e.g., a
   media segment) have been sent, the MSYNC sender MUST signal the end
   of the MSYNC super object transmission through sending an MSYNC
   object info packet with the object size set to zero (0). In addition,
   the object URI MUST contain the URI reference of the next block
   (never transmitted). see Section 3.2.

   Example:

        - The object URI of the object info packet associated with the
        1st HTTP/1.1 CTE block of the segment S_2:
        tvChannel11/Q1/S_2.mp4#0

        - The object URI of the object info packet associated with the
        2nd HTTP/1.1 CTE block of the segment S_2:
        tvChannel11/Q1/S_2.mp4#1

        - The object URI of the object info packet associated with the
        3rd HTTP/1.1 CTE block of the segment S_2:
        tvChannel11/Q1/S_2.mp4#2

        - The object URI of the object info packet associated with the
        4st HTTP/1.1 CTE block of the segment S_2:
        tvChannel11/Q1/S_2.mp4#3

        - The object URI of the object info packet associated with the
        5st HTTP/1.1 CTE block (of size null) signaling the end of the
        super object (i.e., segment) transmission:
        tvChannel11/Q1/S_2.m4s#4
 

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3.9. RTP Multicast Session

   RTP [RFC3550] being popular in the IPTV ecosystem is a motivation to
   consider RTP as an MSYNC transport multicast session protocol. The
   RTP support would allow an MSYNC deployment to benefit from the RTP
   infrastructure already in place such as RTP based monitoring tools. 

3.9.1. RTP as the MSYNC packet container format

   With MSYNC, RTP is used as a container format wrapping MSYNC packets.
   As such, There is no need to use RTP for media multiplexing or
   source/receiver synchronization. The following lines list the
   restrictions in using RTP based on [RFC3550] and Section 2 of
   [RFC3551].

      - One RTP multicast session corresponds to one Transport multicast
      session as indicated in Section 1.2.- RTCP usage is not required
      if packet retransmission (see Section 3.9.2.) is not used. - There
      is no support, no need to announce/describe the RTP multicast
      session using SDP or any other equivalent announcement protocol.-
      MSYNC does not support RTP translators and mixers. Accordingly,
      the MSYNC sender (the RTP sender) MUST NOT list contributing
      source (CSRC) identifiers in the RTP header (see below).
   The RTP packet header used to wrap a MSYNC packet is represented in
   Figure 8.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |V=2|P|X|  CC   |M|     PT      |       sequence number         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                           timestamp                           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |           synchronization source (SSRC) identifier            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
                Figure 8: RTP Header for MSYNC 

   P: Padding.
      Not used. MUST be set to 0.
   X: Extension.
      Not used. MUST be set to 0.
   CC: CSRC Count..
      MSYNC does not support contributing sources. The RTP header
      contains 0 (zero) contributing source identifier (CSRC) fields.
      MUST be set to 0.
   M: Marker.
      Not used. MUST be set to 0.
   PT: Marker.
 

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      The RTP header payload type (PT) field SHOULD correspond to one of
      the dynamic value specified in [RFC3551]. Its value should be
      communicated to the MSYNC receiver as part of the MSYNC receiver
      configuration (Section 3.10). This payload type MUST be the same
      whatever the multicast transport session. 
   sequence number: see  [RFC3550].
   timestamp: 
      The RTP header timestamp field is computed as indicated in
      [RFC3550]; it corresponds to the instant the MSYNC sender starts
      the MSYNC packet transmission.
   SSRC: 
      Each RTP multicast session MUST operate a unique different SSRC
      number [RFC3550]. This allows packet retransmission (if used) on
      the RTP multicast session basis. 

3.9.2. RTP packet retransmission

   Packet retransmission (see Figure 9 below) MAY be used in association
   with the RTP multicast session for packet loss recovery. If this is
   the case then the RTP Repair client and RTP repair server MUST be
   compliant with [RFC4585], [RFC4588] and [RFC5506] according to the
   followings.

        - Reduced sized RTCP (Section 4 of [RFC5506]) MUST be used with
        sending feedback NACK messages operating the immediate Feedback
        mode  [RFC4585]. The RTP Repair client does not send Receiver
        Report (RR).  There is no regular RTCP transmission but only
        feedback messages when appropriate (RTP packet loss detected).

        - The RTP Repair client (coupled to the MSYNC receiver) submits
        transport layer feedback (FB) messages in NACK mode (Generic
        NACK) to the RTP Repair Server according to  [RFC4585] and
        [RFC5506]. The format of the feedback message is based on
        Section 6.1 and Section 6.2 of [RFC4585] with the following
        setting: padding bit cleared (0), payload type set to "RTPFB"
        (205), FMT set to "Generic NACK" (1). The SSRC of packet sender
        MUST be unique. It is attached to the MSYNC receiver. It MAY be
        based on the IPv4 or IPv6 address of the MSYNC receiver unicast
        interface. The SSRC of media source MUST correspond to the SSRC
        of the RTP multicast session to be repaired (see Section 3.9.1).
        The Feedback Control Information (FCI) format is detailed in
        Section 6.2.1 of [RFC4585].

        - The RTP Repair server receives, processes and responds to the
        feedback NACK messages (FB) according to [RFC4588]. It matches
        the SSRC media source present in the feedback (FB) message with
        the SSRC or the original RTP multicast session. The RTP Repair
        server MAY be located within the multicast server or it MAY be
 

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        hosted by any intermediate entity acting as a multicast RTP
        receiver (i.e., capable of receiving the multicast RTP packets
        gathering MSYNC packets). In any case, the RTP Repair server and
        the RTP Repair client MUST operate a unicast interface. The
        format of the retransmission packets is based on Section 4 of
        [RFC4588] with the following setting: when sending a
        retransmission packet (an RTP packet indeed), the RTP Repair
        Server MUST use the same payload type (PT) as the one used in
        the original RTP header transporting the MSYNC packets (see
        Section 3.9.1). The SSRC value MUST be identical to the SSRC of
        media source value, present in the corresponding feedback
        message.

        - The Session-multiplexing scheme [RFC5761] MUST be applied. The
        RTP retransmission (repair) stream MUST be sent over a unicast
        interface to the Repair client and therefore MUST NOT be part of
        the RTP multicast session used to transmit the original
        (multicast) RTP stream.

        - The RTP Repair client and the RTP repair server SHOULD use the
        same UDP port numbers arrangement in order to facilitate the
        firewall traversal. The source port number of a RTCP packet
        (feedback NACK message)  SHOULD correspond to the destination
        port number of the RTP retransmission packet.

                Multicast server        
              + ----------------- +  
              |   HAS   |  MSYNC  |
              |  Ingest |  Sender | 
              + ----------------- + 
                             |
                             |         + ------ +
                          multicast    | RTP    |
                             | ------->| Repair |
                             |         | Server |
                             |         + ------ +
                             V                ^
             + ------------------------- +    |
             |   HAS   |  MSYNC  | RTP   | <--- 
             |         |         |Repair | unicast
             |  Server |Receiver |Client |
             + ------------------------- +
                   Multicast gateway

             Figure 9: RTP repair 

   The Figure 10 represents a typical repair workflow. The interface
   between the MSYNC Receiver and the RTP Repair Client is
 

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   implementation dependent.

   Whenever the MSYNC receiver detects one or more packet losses
   attached to a RTP multicast session, it generates a Repair request
   (step 1 in Figure 10). One possible implementation of this interface
   consists into communicating the parameters SSRC (of the media source,
   i.e. the RTP multicast session), PID and BLP as defined in Section
   6.2.1 of  [RFC4585]. PID is the RTP sequence number of the first lost
   RTP packet of a potential series of lost RTP packets to be retrieved.
   BLP is a 16 bits field reporting loss of any of the 16 RTP packet
   following the first RTP packet represented by the PID parameter. Note
   that implementation dependent interface could allow a request with
   several PID/BLP parameters pairs as this is possible with [RFC4585].

   The RTP Repair Client submits a RTCP packet to the RTP Repair Server
   (step 2 of Figure 10) that contains the Feedback NACK message with
   the Feedback Control Information (FCI) gathering the PID and BLP
   parameters as specified in [RFC4585].

   The RTP Repair Server processes the request and retrieves in its
   cache the set of requested RTP packets and send them back to the RTP
   Repair Client conforming to [RFC4588] and the restrictions specified
   above (step 3 of Figure 10). The size of the RTP Repair server cache
   is application dependent. 

   Finally, the RTP Repair Client communicates the retransmitted packets
   to the MSYNC receiver.

   MSYNC                    RTP Repair                RTP Repair
   Receiver                   Client                    Server
      | Repair(SSRC, PID, BLP)  |                         |
      |------------------------>|                         | (1)
      |                         |   RTCP FB NACK          |
      |                         |------------------------>| (2)
      |                         |                         |
      |                         |  RTP Retrans. packets   | (3)
      |                         |<------------------------|
      |  RTP Retrans. Packets   |                         |
      |<------------------------|                         | (4)
      |                         |                         |

                  Figure 10: RTP Repair workflow

   Note that instead of relying on "RTP retransmission", the MSYNC
   receiver (i.e., the multicast gateway) could attempt to
   recover/repair damaged HAS elements (e.g., segments, manifest)
   through HTTP (aka "HTTP repair") and byte-range requests. However the
   latter method requires a CDN, relies on HTTP Byte-range request for
 

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   which the support is not harmonized and is less reactive than
   operating RTCP (UDP transactions over a dedicated path are typically
   much quicker than HTTP/TCP transactions over the unicast broadband
   data path).

3.10. Configuration

3.10.1 MSYNC Configuration

   This section lists the essential configuration parameters related to
   the MSYNC sender and the MSYNC receiver. The goal is neither to
   specify the parameters list attached to the whole application
   exploiting MSYNC such as the Multicast Server or the Multicast
   Gateway (see Figure 1) nor the format of such configuration list that
   are both the subject of external specifications as [DVB-MABR].

      Congestion avoidance: parameters for avoiding congestion as
      discussed in Section 2.3.

        - Maximum Sender bandwidth (MAX_BW_SEND): corresponds to the
        maximum guaranteed bandwidth dedicated to MSYNC allowing to
        transport the provisioned HAS session(s) across all multicast
        sub-networks up to the last multicast sub-network ingress point
        (e.g., the last router or bridge) before reaching the MSYNC
        receiver.

        - Maximum Receiver bandwidth (MAX_BW_RECEIVE): Represents the
        provisioned capacity dedicated to MSYNC over the last multicast
        sub-network the MSYNC receiver is connected to.

      RTP Encapsulation: This is optional but required for relying on
      RTP retransmission as discussed in Section 3.9.

        - RTP Repair Server: If RTP retransmission is available, IP
        address (or fully qualified domain name) and UDP port number of
        the RTP Repair Server.

        - RTP Payload type: One parameter that cannot be fixed whatever
        the deployment is the RTP Payload type. This parameter concerns
        the MSYNC Sender when operating RTP. 

3.11. MSYNC workflow example

   In this section we depict a sequence diagram that illustrate a full
   MSYNC sequence as part of a media streaming application that involve
   a Multicast server and a Multicast gateway (Figure 1). The workflow
   assumes a certain behavior attached to the HAS Ingest and HAS Server
 

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   application elements and an application programmable interface (API)
   exposed by the MSYNC sender and MSYNC receiver that are
   implementation dependent (and therefore not specified in this
   document) but assumed in this section for a better understanding of
   the interaction between the Application and the MSYNC protocol. 

   In the following Figure 10, the '*' character indicates a repetition
   of the transaction. The number in parenthesis refers to an
   explanation of the transaction given below the figure.

   HAS            MSYNC        MSYNC          HAS         Terminal
   Ingest         Sender       Receiver       Server      Player
      |             |             |             |             |
      |<--(1) (2)-->|             |<--(3)       |             |
      |<----(4)---->|             |             |             |
      |-----(5*)--->|             |<----(7)---->|             |
      |             |-----(6*)--->|             |             |
      |             |             |-----(8)---->|             |
      |             |             |<----(10)----|<----(9)-----|
      |             |             |----(11*)--->|-----(12)--->|
      |             |             |             |<---(13*)----|
      |             |             |             |----(14*)--->|
      |             |             |<----(16)----|<----(15)----|
      |             |             |----(17*)--->|-----(18)--->|
      |             |             |             |<---(19*)----|
      |             |             |             |----(20*)--->|
                  Figure 10: RTP Repair workflow

      (1): The Multicast Server is configured for delivering a new HAS
      live service over multicast that means configuring the HAS Ingest
      and the MSYNC sender. the HAS ingest gets configured to fetch all
      the elements announced in the manifest file associated with the
      new service. We assume a DASH [MPEGDASH] manifest file that
      describes a service with 2 adaptation sets (audio, video) and 2
      representations for each of those adaptation sets. The HAS Ingest
      is configured for delivering the new elements related to that live
      service. A transport multicast session arrangement (said HAS
      configuration) is provided targeting ADSL access, according to the
      following (the bandwidth and relative URL parameters are extracted
      from the manifest file).

        - Service Live1: manifest url:
        https://provider.cdn.com/live/channel2/dash/manifest.mpd.

        - Video1: transport multicast session = 232.0.0.1:17000;
        relative URL= "video1/$number$.mp4"; bandwidth="1000000".

        - Video2: transport multicast session = 232.0.0.2:17000;
 

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        relative URL= "video2/$number$.mp4"; bandwidth="2500000" 

        - Audio1: transport multicast session = 232.0.0.3:17000;
        relative URL= "audio1/$number$.mp4"; bandwidth="192000"   

        - Audio2: transport multicast session = 232.0.0.3:17001;
        relative URL= "audio2/$number$.mp4"; bandwidth="384000" 

      In addition , The HAS Ingest is configured to operate a dedicated
      Control channel according to the following.
        - Control: transport multicast session = 232.0.0.4:17002. Note
        that the Control session is used by the application to
        communicate to the HAS Server the transport multicast session
        arrangement.

      (2): The MSYNC Sender is configured with the following
      information. RTP encapsulation with RTP retransmission (see 3.10).
      The Maximum MSYNC Sender bandwidth is configured: MAX_BW_SEND =
      4500000 bps. 

      (3): The MSYNC Receivers are configured for supporting RTP
      reception as well as RTP retransmission conforming to Section
      3.10. The maximum  MSYNC receiver bandwidth is configured:
      MAX_BW_RECEIVE = 3500000 bps that is the same configuration for
      all MSYNC receivers assuming they are all connected to the same
      access network that guaranties this minimum available bandwidth. 

      (4): The HAS Ingest and the MSYNC Sender establish a connection
      wherein the MSYNC sender communicates its limitation (MAX_BW_SEND)
      and in return gets the new provisioned service "Live1" and the
      provisioned Control channel that is accepted.

      (5): The HAS Ingest sends continuously (carousel) the transport
      multicast session arrangement for all configured services (here
      only one service: Live1) to the MSYNC sender along with the
      transmission parameters (Control transport multicast session,
      object type = "Control", Object URI="HAS/config"). In parallel,
      the HAS Ingest fetches the representation elements concurrently
      and according to the manifest. Those elements and the manifest
      itself are sent to MSYNC sender with, for each, the indication of
      the channel (i.e. the transport multicast session) to be used for
      the transmission, the object type, the media sequence and the
      manifest type (only for the manifest) and the object URI. The
      objects are sent of the transport multicast session according to
      the following arrangement.

        - initialization segments: sent over the corresponding video
        transport multicast session and repeated after every segment.
 

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        Note that the HAS ingest could also decide to send the
        initialization segment over the Control multicast session or
        even decide not to rely on  MSYNC.but on the CDN (i.e. the HAS
        server, in the multicast gateway when the initialization segment
        is requested would fetch it from the unicast path). Object URI =
        "provider.cdn.com/live/channel2/dash/video[x]/init.mp4"

        - video segments: sent over the corresponding video transport
        multicast session.  Object URI =
        "provider.cdn.com/live/channel2/dash/video[x]/[segment name]"

        - audio segment: sent over the corresponding video transport
        multicast session. Object URI =
        "provider.cdn.com/live/channel2/dash/audio[x]/[segment name]"

        - manifest file: sent (duplicated) over each of the 2 video
        transport multicast sessions, after a video segment is sent.
        Note that the HAS ingest could also decide to send the manifest
        file over the Control multicast session. Object URI =
        "provider.cdn.com/live/channel2/dash/manifest.mpd"

      (6): The MSYNC sender transmits the objects on demand (from the
      HAS Ingest) and according to Section 3.8 in each of the indicated
      Transport multicast session. The MSYNC sender MUST continuously
      adapt the transmission rate to its maximum permitted MAX_BW_SEND.

      (7): The HAS Server and MSYNC Receiver establish a connection
      wherein the MSYNC receiver communicates its bandwidth restriction
      (MAX_BW_RECEIVE) and in return, the HAS server instructs the MSYNC
      Receiver to join the Control multicast session. 

      (8): The MSYNC Receiver joins the Control multicast session,
      receives the transport multicast session arrangement ("HAS/config"
      ) and communicates that HAS configuration file to the HAS Server. 

      (9): The player requests the manifest:
      https://provider.cdn.com/live/channel2/dash/manifest.mpd. In this
      example, the application indicates the original CDN FQDN (Full
      qualified domain name) in the URL per convention.

      (10): The HAS server matches the requested URL with the manifest
      URL attached to the configured service and, instructs the MSYNC
      receiver to join one of the representations combination (i.e. one
      of the video transport multicast session and the audio transport
      multicast session) by default. Note that the HAS server can decide
      to hold the player's request until the requested manifest is
      received through MSYNC or it can fetch the manifest from the CDN
      over the unicast path to accelerate the work flow.
 

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        - Video1: transport multicast session = 232.0.0.2:17000;
        relative URL= "video2/$number$.mp4"; bandwidth="2500000" 

        -  Audio1: transport multicast session = 232.0.0.3:17001;
        relative URL= "audio2/$number$.mp4"; bandwidth="384000" 

      (11) The MSYNC receiver joins the Video1 and Audio IP multicast
      groups, receives MSYNC packets and delivers the media
      manifests/segments to the HAS Server along with their Object
      URI.The HAS Server stores the element in its cache along with its
      cache key (built with the Object URI). 

      (12) The HAS Server detects the presence of the requested manifest
      in its cache and returns it to the Player. Note that the manifest
      object should be complete; potential transmission errors have been
      managed by the MSYNC receiver through RTP retransmission (Section
      3.9.2). Note that without RTP retransmission, the MSYNC receiver
      would have communicated the received object to the HAS server with
      possibly the list of missing byte ranges.

      (13) The Player parses the manifest and requests the segments from
      video1/Audio1 representations as well as the manifest (possibly
      updated).

      (14) The HAS Server either find the requested element in its cache
      or fetch it from the CDN and return them to the Player. Note that
      the element should be complete. Potential transmission errors
      would have been managed by the MSYNC receiver through RTP
      retransmission (Section 3.9.2). Note that without RTP
      retransmission, the MSYNC receiver would have communicated each
      received object to the HAS server with the list of any missing
      byte ranges.

      (15) The Player wishes to switch to an higher sub-stream
      representation and requests an element from the Video2
      representation.

      (16) The HAS Server gets a cache miss, detects that the MSYNC
      receiver is not tuned to the right channel. It instructs the MSYNC
      receiver to first leave Video1 and join Video2. The HAS server
      does that as it knows the bandwidth restriction announced by the
      MSYNC receiver. Note that the MSYNC receiver would have refused to
      Join Video2 while being still attached to Video1. Note also that
      the HAS server can decide to hold the player's request until the
      requested object is received through MSYNC or it can fetch the
      object from the CDN over the unicast path to accelerate the work
      flow.

 

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      (17) The MSYNC receiver leaves the current IP multicast group
      corresponding to Video1 and joins the IP multicast group
      corresponding to Video2, receives MSYNC packets and sends media
      manifests/segments to the HAS Server along with their Object URI.

      (18) The HAS Server receives the objects,  store them in its local
      cache and returns the requested element to the Player. Note again
      that the HAS server can decide to hold the player's request until
      the requested object is received through MSYNC or it can fetch the
      object from the CDN over the unicast path to accelerate the work
      flow.

      (19) The Player consequently requests the segments from
      video2/Audio2 representations as well as the manifest (possibly
      updated).

      (20) The HAS Server either find the requested element in its cache
      or fetch it from the CDN and return them to the Player.

 

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4.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

5.  Security Considerations

   MSYNC is exposed to the risks linked to the underlying transport
   protocols: UDP and RTP. An attacker can spoof the source and
   destination addresses, modify any MSYNC headers and, because MSYNC
   applies to IP multicast, the MSYNC sender has no control about the
   MSYNC receivers which may represent a non-authorized party.   

   The multicast communication between the MSYNC sender and the MSYNC
   receiver SHOULD be protected against confidentiality leaks, message
   tampering and replay attacks. The MSYNC protocol does not specify any
   security mechanism . MSYNC relies on possibly content protection
   (Digital Right Management) and on the underlying transport layer and
   security extensions for providing message integrity, authentication
   and encryption. Secure RTP (SRTP) [RFC3711] and IPsec applied to
   multicast [RFC5374] are potential candidates for providing such
   extensions.

   As MSYNC supports transporting HTTP headers, it MAY also supports
   HTTP based mechanisms for integrity protection and authentication as
   specified by [RFC9530] and [RFC9421] respectively and profiled for
   multicast by [DVB-MABR]. Based on asymmetric cryptography, the
   authentication method specifies a digital signature [RFC9421]
   protecting a content digest [RFC9530] and a certain number of HTTP
   headers complemented with derived components such as the MSYNC Object
   URI. The signature itself is computed with a well
   identified/permitted algorithm and a private key attached to a X.509
   certificate [RFC5280] . A dedicated HTTP header transports the
   algorithm identifier and the public key identifier that corresponds
   to the subject key identifier of the same X.509 certificate
   [RFC5280]. The content digest [RFC9530] is transported as a dedicated
   HTTP header field and is applied to the payload data of an MSYNC
   object transported with MSYNC Object data packets or MSYNC Object
   data-part packets. .

6.  References

6.1.  Normative References

   [ID-HTTPLIVESTREAM] R Pantos, IETF Internet draft: "HTTP Live
              Streaming 2nd Edition", draft-pantos-hls-rfc8216bis-14, 10
              November 2023 

 

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   [MPEGCMAF] "Information technology - Multimedia application format
              (MPEG-A) - Part 19: Common media application format (CMAF)
              for segmented media", ISO/IEC 23000-19

   [MPEGDASH] "Information technology - Dynamic adaptive streaming over
              HTTP (DASH) - Part1: Media presentation description and
              segment formats", ISO/IEC23009-1 

   [RFC2119] S. Bradner, "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels",  RFC 2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2236] W. Fenner, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 2",
              RFC 2236, November 1997, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc2236>

   [RFC3550] H. Schulzrinne, S. Casner, R. Frederick, V. Jacobson, "RTP:
              A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", RFC
              3550, July 2003, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc3550>.

   [RFC3376] B. Cain, S. Deering, I. Kouvelas, B. Fenner, A.
              Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version
              3", RFC 3376, October 2002, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc3376>

   [RFC3986] T. Berners-Lee, R. Fielding, L. Masinter, "Uniform Resource
              Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 3986, January 2005,
              https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3986.html

   [RFC5506] I. Johansson, M. Westerlund. "Support for Reduced-Size
              Real-Time Transport Control Protocol(RTCP): Opportunities
              and Consequences", RFC 5506, April 2009, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc5506>.

   [RFC5761] Perkins, C. and M. Westerlund, "Multiplexing RTP Data and
              Control Packets on a Single Port", RFC 5761, April 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5761>.

   [RFC8216] R. Pantos, Ed., W. May, "HTTP Live Streaming", RFC 8216,
              August 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8216>

   [RFC9112] R. T. Fielding, M. Nottingham, J. Reschke, " HTTP/1.1", RFC
              9112, June 2022, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc9112>.

   [STD63] Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646",
              STD 63, RFC 3629, November 2003.
 

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6.2.  Informative References

   [BFTR145] "TR-145 Multi-service Broadband Network Functional Modules
              and Architecture, Issue: 1, Iddue date: November 2012",
              Technical report, Broadband Forum.

   [BFTR178] "TR-178 Multi-service Broadband Network Architecture and
              Nodal Requirements, Issue: 2, Issue Date: September 2017",
              Technical report, Broadband Forum.

   [MPEG2TS] "ISO/IEC 13818-1 Generic coding of moving pictures and
              associated audio information: MPEG2 Systems"

   [RFC3551] Schulzrinne, H. and S. Casner, "RTP Profile for Audio and
              Video Conferences with Minimal Control", RFC 3551, July
              2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3551>.

   [RFC3711] M. Baugher, D. McGrew, M. Naslund, E. Carrara, K. Norrman.
              "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC
              3711, March 2004, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc3711>.

   [RFC4541] M. Christensen, K. Kimball, F. Solensky, "Considerations
              for Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) and
              Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) Snooping Switches", RFC
              4585, July 2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4541>

   [RFC4585] J. Ott, S. Wenger, N. Sato, C.   Burmeister, J. Rey.
              "Extended RTP Profile for Real-time Transport Control
              Protocol(RTCP)-Based Feedback (RTP/AVPF)", RFC 4585, July
              2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4585>.

   [RFC4588] Rey, J., Leon, D., Miyazaki, A., Varsa, V., and R.
              Hakenberg, "RTP Retransmission Payload Format", RFC 4588,
              July 2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4588>.  

   [RFC5280] : D. Cooper, S. Santesson, S. Farrel, S. Boeyen, R.
              Housley, W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", IETF RFC 5280, May 2008, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/rfc/rfc5280.html>

   [RFC5374] B. Weis, G. Gross, D. Ignjatic. "Multicast Extensions to
              the Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol", RFC
              5374, November 2008, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc5374>.

 

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   [RFC6770] G. Bertrand, E. Stephan, T. Burbridge, P. Eardley, K. Ma,
              G. Watson, "Use Cases for Content Delivery Network
              Interconnection", RFC 6770, November 2012

   [RFC7336] L. Peterson, B. Davie, R. van Brandenburg, "Framework for
              Content Distribution Network Interconnection (CDNI)", RFC
              7336, August 2014 

   [RFC8084]  G. Fairhurst, "Network Transport Circuit Breakers", RFC
              8084, March 2017 

   [RFC8085] L. Eggert, G. Fairhurst, G. Shepherd, "UDP Usage
              Guidelines", RFC 8085, March 2017

   [RFC9530] R. Polli, L. Pardue, "Digest Fields", RFC 9530, February
              2024

   [RFC9421] A. Backman J. Richer, M. Sporny, "HTTP Message Signatures",
              RFC 9421, February 2024

   [DVB-MABR] "Adaptive media streaming over IP multicast", DVB BlueBook
              A176r4, July 2023

7. Acknowledgments

      The authors will be ever grateful to their late colleague Arnaud
      Leclerc who has been the initiator of that work. 

      The authors would like to thank the following people for their
      feedback: Yann Barateau (Eutelsat).

8. Change Log

      - 16: "Digest Fields" and "HTTP Messages signatures" Internet
      drafts became  RFC 9530 and RFC 9421 respectively. Authors address
      updated.

      - 15: Section 3.9 detailed including a figure about the RTP repair
      workflow. Two new sections dedicated to MSYNC configuration (3.10)
      and a complete MSYNC transport session workflow (3.11). Various
      editorial updates including some more details in the Security
      section .

      - 14: A set of editorial changes after a review from Markus .

      - 13: A minor edit in Section 3.7.3.

      - 12: An extensive review of grammatical and orthographical bugs.
 

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      Adding clarification regarding congestion control.

      - 11: Another round of grammatical/orthographical errors
      correction. Clarified the Figures 1 and 2 regarding the
      directional media flows, adding a statement in the introduction
      about multicast and capacity planning

      - 10: Introduced sub-sections in Section 2 allowing to describe
      the multicast network assumptions and in particular related to
      congestion avoidance (pre-provisioning the bandwidth resources) .
      Similarly introduced new sub-sections in Section 3.7 for
      describing congestion control. Performed several minor editorial
      corrections. Corrected the new mtype value associated with the
      media HS playlist.  

      - 09: New set of editorial/clarification changes. Added a new
      mtype value (Section 3.2) for differentiating master and media HLS
      playlist backward compatible.

      - 08: Another round of editorial changes

      - 07: Lots of editorial changes

      - 06: Example in Section 3.8.1.2. update the example for using the
      "#" character as the bloc number prefix instead of the "_"
      character.

      - 05: Updated Section 3.9 adding reference (RFC4588) and details
      for RTP retransmission. Updated/normalized references in Section
      5.1 and Section 5.2.

      - 04: Added detection of super object transmission (Section 3.2
      and Section 3.8.1.2); several adjustments regarding RFC style;
      Section numbering correction.(Sections 3.9 and 3.10 are now
      Sections 3.8 and 3.9 respectively). 

Authors' Addresses

      Sophie Bale
      Broadpeak
      3771 Bd des Allies,
      35510 Cesson-Sevigne
      France

      Email: sophie.bale@broadpeak.tv

      Remy Brebion
      Broadpeak
 

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      3771 Bd des Allies,
      35510 Cesson-Sevigne
      France

      Email: remy.brebion@broadpeak.tv

      Guillaume Bichot (Editor)
      Broadpeak
      3771 Bd des Allies,
      35510 Cesson-Sevigne
      France

      Email: guillaume.bichot@broadpeak.tv

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