Export of Application Information in IPFIX
draft-claise-export-application-info-in-ipfix-06

The information below is for an old version of the document
Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual in ops area)
Last updated 2012-05-03
Stream IETF
Intended RFC status Informational
Formats pdf htmlized bibtex
Reviews
Stream WG state (None)
Document shepherd None
IESG IESG state Waiting for Writeup
Consensus Boilerplate Unknown
Telechat date
Responsible AD Ron Bonica
IESG note Individual Submission, AD-sponsored, Nevil Brownlee is the document shepherd,
Send notices to bclaise@cisco.com, paitken@cisco.com, nirbd@cisco.com, n.brownlee@auckland.ac.nz, draft-claise-export-application-info-in-ipfix@tools.ietf.org
IPFIX Working Group                                    B. Claise 
     Internet-Draft                                         P. Aitken 
     Intended Status: Informational                      N. Ben-Dvora 
     Expires: August 20, 2012                     Cisco Systems, Inc. 
                                                          May 5, 2012 
                                                                      
      
                  Export of Application Information in IPFIX 
               draft-claise-export-application-info-in-ipfix-06 

     Status of this Memo 

        This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance 
        with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.  
         
        Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet 
        Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working 
        groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute working 
        documents as Internet-Drafts.  
         
        Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of 
        six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by 
        other documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to use 
        Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other 
        than as "work in progress."  
         
        The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at 
        http://www.ietf.org/ietf/1id-abstracts.txt  
         
        The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed 
        at http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html  
         
        This Internet-Draft will expire on August 20, 2012. 
         

         
         
                                                                      


     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>   Expires Nov 5 2012          [Page 1] 

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

         
     Copyright Notice 
         
        Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as 
        the document authors.  All rights reserved. 
         
        This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal 
        Provisions Relating to IETF Documents 
        (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date 
        of publication of this document.  Please review these 
        documents carefully, as they describe your rights and 
        restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components 
        extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD 
        License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal 
        Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in 
        the Simplified BSD License. 
                            
      

     Abstract 

        This document specifies an extension to the IPFIX information 
        model specified in [RFC5102] to export application 
        information. 
         
         
     Conventions used in this document 

        The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL 
        NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and 
        "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as 
        described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. 
      

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012        [Page 2] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

     Table of Contents 

         
        1. Overview................................................... 4 
           1.1. IPFIX Documents Overview.............................. 4 
        2. Introduction............................................... 5 
        2.1. Application Information Use Cases........................ 7 
        3. Terminology................................................ 8 
           3.1. New Terminology....................................... 8 
        4. applicationId Information Element Specification............ 8 
           4.1. Existing Classification Engine IDs.................... 9 
           4.2. Selector ID Length per Classification IDs............ 12 
           4.3. Application Name Options Template Record............. 13 
           4.4. Resolving IANA L4 port collisions.................... 14 
        5. Grouping the Applications with the Attributes............. 19 
           5.1. Options Template Record for the Attribute Values..... 20 
        6. Application Id Examples................................... 21 
           6.1. Example 1: Layer 2 Protocol.......................... 21 
           6.2. Example 2: Standardized IANA Layer 3 Protocol........ 22 
           6.3. Example 3: Proprietary Layer 3 Protocol.............. 23 
           6.4. Example 4: Standardized IANA Layer 4 Port............ 24 
           6.5. Example 4: Layer 7 Application....................... 25 
           6.6. Example: port Obfuscation............................ 27 
           6.7. Example: Application Mapping Options Template........ 28 
           6.8. Example: Attributes Values Options Template Record... 29 
        7. IANA Considerations....................................... 30 
           7.1. New Information Elements............................. 30 
           7.1.1. applicationDescription............................. 30 
           7.1.2. applicationId...................................... 30 
           7.1.3. applicationName.................................... 31 
           7.1.4. classificationEngineId............................. 31 
           7.1.5. applicationCategoryName............................ 33 
           7.1.6. applicationSubCategoryName......................... 34 
           7.1.7. applicationGroupName............................... 34 
           7.1.8. p2pTechnology...................................... 34 
           7.1.9. tunnelTechnology................................... 34 
           7.1.10. encryptedTechnology............................... 35 
           7.2. Classification Engine Ids Registry................... 35 
        8. Security Considerations................................... 35 
        9. References................................................ 36 
           9.1. Normative References................................. 36 
           9.2. Informative References............................... 36 
        10. Acknowledgement.......................................... 38 
        11. Authors' Addresses....................................... 39 
        Appendix A.  Additions to XML Specification of IPFIX 
        Information Elements......................................... 39 
         
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012        [Page 3] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

         

     List of Figures and Tables 

         
        Figure 1: applicationId Information Element ................ 8 
        Table 1: Existing Classification Engine IDs ............... 11 
        Table 2: Selector ID default length per Classification Engine 
           ID ..................................................... 12 
        Table 3: IANA layer 4 port collisions between UDP and TCP . 15 
        Table 4: IANA layer 4 port collisions between SCTP and TCP 18 
        Table 5: Existing Application Id Static Attributes ........ 20 
         

     1. Overview 

     1.1. IPFIX Documents Overview 

      The IPFIX Protocol [RFC5101] provides network administrators 
      with access to IP Flow information. 
       
      The architecture for the export of measured IP Flow information 
      out of an IPFIX Exporting Process to a Collecting Process is 
      defined in the IPFIX Architecture [RFC5470], per the 
      requirements defined in RFC 3917 [RFC3917]. 
       
      The IPFIX Architecture [RFC5470] specifies how IPFIX Data 
      Records and Templates are carried via a congestion-aware 
      transport protocol from IPFIX Exporting Processes to IPFIX 
      Collecting Processes. 
       
      IPFIX has a formal description of IPFIX Information Elements, 
      their name, type and additional semantic information, as 
      specified in the IPFIX information model [RFC5102]. 
       
      In order to gain a level of confidence in the IPFIX 
      implementation, probe the conformity and robustness, and allow 
      interoperability, the Guidelines for IPFIX Testing [RFC5471] 
      presents a list of tests for implementers of compliant 
      Exporting Processes and Collecting Processes. 
      
      The Bidirectional Flow Export [RFC5103] specifies a method for 
      exporting bidirectional flow (biflow) information using the IP 
      Flow Information Export (IPFIX) protocol, representing each 
      Biflow using a single Flow Record. 

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012        [Page 4] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

       
      The "Reducing Redundancy in IP Flow Information Export 
      (IPFIX) and Packet Sampling (PSAMP) Reports" [RFC5473] 
      specifies a bandwidth saving method for exporting Flow or 
      packet information, by separating information common to 
      several Flow Records from information specific to an 
      individual Flow Record: common Flow information is exported 
      only once. 
      
      
     2. Introduction 

      Today service providers and network administrators are 
      looking for visibility into the packet content rather than 
      just the packet header.  Some network devices Metering 
      Processes inspect the packet content and identify the 
      applications that are utilizing the network traffic.  
      Applications in this context are defined as networking 
      protocols used by networking processes that exchange packets 
      between them (such as web applications, peer to peer 
      applications, file transfer, e-mail applications, etc.).  
      Applications can be further characterized by other 
      information elements, some of which are application specific. 
      Examples include: web application to a specific domain, per 
      user specific traffic, a video application with a specific 
      codec, etc... 
       
      The application identification is based on several different 
      methods or even a combination of methods:  
      1. L2 (Layer 2) protocols (such as ARP (Address Resolution 
        Protocol), PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol), LLDP (Link Layer 
        Discovery Protocol)) 
      2. IP protocols (such as ICMP (Internet Control Message 
        Protocol), IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol), GRE 
        (Generic Routing Encapsulation) 
      3. TCP or UDP ports (such as HTTP, Telnet, FTP) 
      4. Application layer header (of the application to be 
        identified) 
      5. Packet data content  
      6. Packets and traffic behavior 
       
      The exact application identification methods are part of the 
      Metering Process internals that aim to provide an accurate 
      identification with a minimum false identification.  This 
      task requires a sophisticated Metering Process since the 
      protocols do not behave in a standard manner. 
       
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012        [Page 5] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

      1. Applications use port obfuscation where the 
        application runs on different port than the IANA 
        assigned one.  For example an HTTP server might run 
        a TCP port 23 (assigned to telnet in [IANA-PORTS]) 
         
      2. IANA port registries do not accurately reflect how 
        certain ports are "commonly" used today.  Some ports 
        are reserved, but the application either never 
        became prevalent or is not in use today. 
           
      3. The application behavior and identification logic 
        become more and more complex 
      
     For that reason, such Metering Processes usually detect 
     applications based on multiple mechanisms in parallel.  
     Detection based only on port matching might wrongly identify 
     the application.  Note that this example stresses the need for 
     the engine strength.  If the Metering Process is capable of 
     detecting applications more accurately, it is considered to be 
     stronger and more accurate. 
       
      Similarly, a reporting mechanism that uses L4 port based 
      applications only, such as L4:<known port>, would have 
      similar issues.  The reporting system should be capable of 
      reporting the applications classified using all types of 
      mechanisms.  In particular applications that do not have any 
      IANA port definition.  While a mechanism to export 
      application information should be defined, the L4 port being 
      in use must be exported using the destination port 
      (destinationTransportPort at [IANA-IPFIX]) in the 
      corresponding IPFIX record. 
       
      This document specifies the Application Id (as described in 
      section 4. ) to export the application information with the 
      IPFIX protocol [RFC5101].  
       
      Applications could be defined at different OSI layers, from 
      layer 2 to layer 7. For example: Link Layer Distribution 
      Protocol (LLDP) [LLDP] is layer 2 application, ICMP is layer 
      3 application [IANA-PROTO], HTTP is layer 4 application 
      [IANA-PORTS], and skype is layer 7. 
       
      While an ideal solution would be an IANA registry for 
      applications above (or inside the payload of) the well known 
      ports [IANA-PORTS], this solution is not always possible. 
      Indeed, the specifications for some applications embedded in 

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012        [Page 6] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

      the payload, for example Skype, are not available. Some 
      reverse engineering as well as a ubiquitous language for 
      application identification, would be two required conditions 
      to be able to manage an IANA registry for these types of 
      applications.  Clearly, these are blocking factors.  
      As this specification focuses on the application information 
      encoding, this document doesn't contain an application 
      registry for non IANA applications.  However, a reference to 
      the Cisco Systems assigned numbers for the Application Id and 
      the different attribute assignments can be found at [CISCO].   
      
      
     2.1. Application Information Use Cases 

      There are several use cases for application information: 
       
      1. Application Visibility 
         
        This is one of the main cases for using the application 
        information.  Network administrators are using application 
        visibility to understand the main network consumers, 
        network trends and user behavior. 
         
         
      2. Congestion Control 
         
        While traffic demand is increasing (mainly due to the high 
        usage of peer to peer applications, video applications and 
        web download applications), the providers revenue doesn't 
        grow.  Providers are looking at a more efficient way to 
        control and prioritize the network utilization.  An 
        application aware bandwidth control system is used to 
        prioritize the traffic based on the applications, giving 
        the critical applications priority over the non-critical 
        applications. 
         
      3. Security Functions 
         
        Application knowledge is sometimes used in security 
        functions in order to provide comprehensive functions such 
        as Application based firewall, URL filtering, parental 
        control, intrusion detection, etc. 
         
      All of the above use cases require exporting application 
      information to provide the network function itself or to log 
      the network function operation. 
      
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012        [Page 7] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

      
     3. Terminology 

      IPFIX-specific terminology used in this document is defined 
      in Section 2 of the IPFIX protocol specification [RFC5101].  
      As in [RFC5101], these IPFIX-specific terms have the first 
      letter of a word capitalized when used in this document. 
       
       
     3.1. New Terminology 

      Application Id 
       
          A unique identifier for an application.   
         
      When an application is detected, the most granular application 
      is encoded in the Application Id. 
      
      
     4. applicationId Information Element Specification 

        This document specifies the applicationId Information 
        Element, which is composed of two parts: 
         
            1. 8 bits of Classification Engine ID. The 
               Classification Engine can be considered as a 
               specific registry for application assignments. 
            2. m bits of Selector ID. The Selector ID length varies 
               depending on the Classification Engine ID. 
                
         
      0                   1                   2                   3 
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
     | Class. Eng. ID|         Selector ID  ...                      | 
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
     |                             ...                               | 
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 

                Figure 1: applicationId Information Element 
         
         
        Classification Engine ID 
         
          A unique identifier for the engine which determined the 
          Selector ID.  Thus the Classification Engine ID defines 
          the context for the Selector ID. 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012        [Page 8] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

         
        Selector ID 
           
         A unique identifier of the application for a specific 
         Classification Engine ID.  Note that the Selector ID 
         length varies depending on the Classification Engine ID. 
      
        The Selector ID term is similar to the selectorId 
        Information Element, specified in the PSAMP Protocol 
        [RFC5476].  
         
         
     4.1. Existing Classification Engine IDs 

         
        The following Classification Engine IDs have been 
        allocated: 
         
           Name            Value  Description 
                                            
                           0      Invalid. 
                                     
           IANA-L3         1      The IANA protocol (layer 3 (L3)) 
                                    number is exported in the 
                                    Selector ID. 
                                    See [IANA-PROTO]. 
                                     
           PANA-L3         2      Proprietary layer 3 definition. A 
                                    company can export its own layer 
                                    3 protocol numbers, while waiting 
                                    for IANA to assign it. The 
                                    Selector ID has a global 
                                    significance for all devices from 
                                    the same company. Hopefully the 
                                    same Selector IDs will be 
                                    maintained after the IANA 
                                    standardization.  
                                     
           IANA-L4         3      The IANA layer 4 (L4) well-known 
                                    port number is exported in the 
                                    Selector ID. See [IANA-PORTS]. 
                                    Note: as an IPFIX flow is 
                                    unidirectional, it contains the 
                                    destination port in a flow from 
                                    the client to the server.  
                                     
           PANA-L4         4      Proprietary layer 4 definition. A 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012        [Page 9] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

                                    company can export its own layer 
                                    4 port numbers, while waiting for 
                                    IANA to assign it. The Selector 
                                    ID has global significance for 
                                    devices from the same company. 
                                    Hopefully the same Selector IDs 
                                    will be maintained after the IANA 
                                    standardization. Example: IPFIX 
                                    had the port 4739 pre-assigned in 
                                    the IETF draft for years. While 
                                    waiting for the RFC and its 
                                    associated IANA registration, the 
                                    Selector ID 4739 was used with 
                                    this PANA-L4. 
                                     
                           5      Reserved. 
                                     
           USER-           6      The Selector ID represents 
           Defined                 applications defined by the user 
                                    (using CLI or GUI) based on the 
                                    methods described in section 2.  
                                    The Selector ID has a local 
                                    significance per device. 
                                     
                           7      Reserved. 
                                     
                           8      Reserved. 
                                     
                           9      Reserved. 
                                     
                           10     Reserved. 
                                     
                           11     Reserved. 
                                     
           PANA-L2         12     Proprietary layer 2 (L2) 
                                    definition.  A company can export 
                                    its own layer 2 identifiers.  The 
                                    Selector ID represents the 
                                    company unique global layer 2 
                                    applications. The Selector ID has 
                                    a global significance for all 
                                    devices from the same company. 
                                    Examples include Cisco Subnetwork 
                                    Access Protocol (SNAP). 
                                     
           PANA-L7         13     Proprietary layer 7 definition. 
                                    The Selector ID represents the 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 10] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

                                    company unique global ID for the 
                                    layer 7 applications. The 
                                    Selector ID has a global 
                                    significance for all devices from 
                                    the same company. A reference to 
                                    the Cisco Systems assigned 
                                    numbers for the layer 7 
                                    Application Id assignments can be 
                                    found at [CISCO]. 
                                     
                           14     Reserved. 
                                     
                           15     Reserved. 
                                     
                           16     Reserved. 
                                     
                           17     Reserved. 
                                     
           ETHERTYPE       18     The Selector ID represents the 
                                    well-known Ethertype. See 
                                    [ETHERTYPE]. Note that the 
                                    Ethertype is usually expressed in 
                                    hexadecimal. However, the 
                                    corresponding decimal value is 
                                    used in this Selector ID. 
                                     
           LLC             19     The Selector ID represents the               
                                    well-known IEEE 802.2 Link Layer 
                                    Control (LLC) Destination Service 
                                    Access Point (DSAP). See [LLC]. 
                                    Note that LLC DSAP is usually 
                                    expressed in hexadecimal. 
                                    However, the corresponding 
                                    decimal value is used in this 
                                    Selector ID. 
                                     
                           20 to          
                            254    Available. 
                                     
           MAX             255    255 is the maximum Engine ID. 
                                 
                Table 1: Existing Classification Engine IDs 
         
        Note 1: "PANA = Proprietary Assigned Number Authority".  In 
        other words, a company specific version of IANA for 
        internal IDs. 
         
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 11] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        The list in table 1 is maintained by IANA thanks to the 
        registry within the classificationEngineId Information 
        Element. See the "IANA Considerations" section.  The 
        Classification Engine Id is part of the Application Id 
        encoding, so the classificationEngineId Information Element 
        is currently not required by these specifications.  
        However, this Information Element was created for 
        completeness. 
          
         
     4.2. Selector ID Length per Classification IDs 

        As the Selector Id part of the Application Id is variable 
        based on the Classification Engine ID value, the 
        applicationId SHOULD be encoded in a variable-length 
        Information Element [RFC5101] for the IPFIX export. 
         
        The following table displays the Selector ID default length 
        for the different Classification Engine ID. 
         
           Classification               Selector ID default 
           Engine ID Name               length (in bytes) 
                                          
           IANA-L3                      1 
                                          
           PANA-L3                      1 
                                          
           IANA-L4                      2 
                                          
           PANA-L4                      2 
                                          
           USER-Defined                 3 
                                          
           PANA-L2                      5 
                                          
           PANA-L7                      3 
                                          
           ETHERTYPE                    2 
                                          
           LLC                          1 
                                          
                                      
                     Table 2: Selector ID default length 
                        per Classification Engine ID 
         
        If a legacy protocol such as NetFlow version 9 [RFC3954] is 
        used, and this protocol doesn't support variable length 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 12] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        Information Elements, then either multiple Template Records 
        (one per applicationId length), or a single Template Record 
        corresponding to the maximum sized applicationId MUST be 
        used.   
         
        Application Ids MAY be encoded in a smaller number of bytes, 
        following the same rules as for the IPFIX Reduced Size 
        Encoding [RFC5101].   
         
        Application Ids MAY be encoded with a larger length.  
        For example, a normal IANA L3 protocol encoding would take 2 
        bytes since the Selector ID represents protocol field from 
        the IP header encoded in one byte.  However, an IANA L3 
        protocol encoding may be encoded with 3 bytes.  In such a 
        case, the Selector ID value MUST always be encoded in the 
        least significant bits as shown in Figure 2. 
         
         
       0                   1                   2                   3 
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
      |Class. Eng. ID |            zero-valued upper-bits ...         | 
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
      |                     ...  Selector ID                          | 
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
       
                       Figure 2: Selector ID encoding 
         
         
     4.3. Application Name Options Template Record 

        For Classification Engines which specify locally unique 
        Application Ids (which means unique per engine and per 
        router), an Options Template Record (see [RFC5101]) MUST be 
        used to export the correspondence between the Application 
        Id, the Application Name, and the Application Description.  
        For Classification Engines which specify globally unique 
        Application Ids, an Options Template Record MAY be used to 
        export the correspondence between the Application Id, the 
        Application Name and the Application Description, unless 
        the mapping is hardcoded in the Collector, or known out of 
        band (for example, by polling a MIB). 
         
        Enterprises may assign company-wide Application Id values 
        for the PANA-L7 Classification Engine.  In this case, a 
        possible optimization for the Collector is to keep the 
        mappings between the Application Ids and the Application 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 13] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        Names per enterprise, as opposed to per Exporter.  The 
        mechanism for the Collector to know about Exporter 
        enterprise IDs is out of scope of this document.  Possible 
        tracks are: SNMP polling, an Options Template export, 
        hardcoded value, etc. 
         
      
     4.4. Resolving IANA L4 port collisions 

        Even though the IANA L4 ports usually point to the same 
        protocols for both UDP, TCP or other transport types, there 
        are some exceptions.  The following table lists the 10 
        ports that have different protocols assigned for TCP and 
        UDP (at the time of writing this document): 
         
         
            exec            512/tcp    remote process execution; 
                                       authentication performed  
                                       using passwords and UNIX  
                                       login names 
             
            comsat/biff     512/udp    used by mail system to  
                                       notify users of new mail  
                                       received; currently 
                                       receives messages only 
            from  
                                       processes on the same  
                                       machine 
             
            login           513/tcp    remote login a la telnet;  
                                       automatic authentication  
                                       performed based on  
                                       priviledged port numbers 
                                       and distributed data 
            bases  
                                       which identify 
             
                                       "authentication domains" 
            who             513/udp    maintains data bases  
                                       showing who's logged in 
            to  
                                       machines on a local  
                                       net and the load average 
            of  
                                       the machine 
          
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 14] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

            shell           514/tcp    cmd 
                                       like exec, but automatic  
                                       authentication is 
            performed 
                                       as for login server 
             
            syslog          514/udp 
             
            oob-ws-https    664/tcp    DMTF out-of-band secure 
            web  
                                       services management  
                                       protocol 
                                       Jim Davis  
                                     
            <jim.davis&wbemsolutions.com> 
                                       June 2007 
             
            asf-secure-rmcp 664/udp    ASF Secure Remote  
                                       Management and Control  
                                       Protocol 
             
            rfile           750/tcp 
            kerberos-iv     750/udp    kerberos version iv 
             
            submit          773/tcp 
            notify          773/udp 
             
            rpasswd         774/tcp 
            acmaint_dbd     774/udp 
             
            entomb          775/tcp 
            acmaint_transd  775/udp 
             
            busboy          998/tcp 
            puparp          998/udp 
             
            garcon          999/tcp 
            applix          999/udp    Applix ac 
             
         
          Table 3: IANA layer 4 port collisions between UDP and TCP 
         
         
        The following table lists the 19 ports that have different 
        protocols assigned for TCP and SCTP (at the time of writing 
        this document): 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 15] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

         
         
            #               3097/tcp    Reserved 
          
            itu-bicc-stc    3097/sctp   ITU-T Q.1902.1/Q.2150.3 
                                        Greg Sidebottom   
                                        <gregside&home.com> 
          
            #               5090/tcp    <not assigned> 
          
            car             5090/sctp   Candidate AR 
          
            #               5091/tcp    <not assigned> 
          
            cxtp            5091/sctp   Context Transfer 
         Protocol 
                                        RFC 4065 - July 2005 
             
            #               6704/tcp    Reserved 
          
            frc-hp          6704/sctp   ForCES HP (High 
         Priority)  
                                        channel [RFC5811] 
          
            #               6705/tcp    Reserved 
          
            frc-mp          6705/sctp   ForCES MP (Medium  
                                        Priority) channel  
                                        [RFC5811] 
          
            #               6706/tcp    Reserved 
          
            frc-lp          6706/sctp   ForCES LP (Low priority)  
                                        channel [RFC5811] 
             
            #               9082/tcp    <not assigned> 
          
            lcs-ap          9082/sctp   LCS Application Protocol 
                                        Kimmo Kymalainen   
                                        
         kimmo.kymalainen&etsi.org> 

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 16] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

                                        04 June 2010 
          
            #               9902/tcp    <not assigned> 
          
            enrp-sctp-tls   9902/sctp   enrp/tls server channel 
                                       [RFC5353] 
          
            #               11997/tcp   <not assigned> 
            #               11998/tcp   <not assigned> 
            #               11999/tcp   <not assigned> 
          
            wmereceiving    11997/sctp  WorldMailExpress 
            wmedistribution 11998/sctp  WorldMailExpress 
            wmereporting    11999/sctp  WorldMailExpress 
                                       Greg Foutz  
                                        <gregf&adminovation.com> 
                                        March 2006 
          
            #               25471/tcp   <not assigned> 
          
            rna             25471/sctp  RNSAP User Adaptation 
         for  
                                        Iurh 
                                        Dario S. Tonesi 
                                        <dario.tonesi&nsn.com>   
                                        07 February 2011 
          
            #               29118/tcp   Reserved 
          
            sgsap           29118/sctp  SGsAP in 3GPP 
          
            #               29168/tcp   Reserved 
          
            sbcap           29168/sctp  SBcAP in 3GPP 
          
            #               29169/tcp   <not assigned> 
          
            iuhsctpassoc    29169/sctp  HNBAP and RUA Common  
                                        Association 
                                        John Meredith  
                                        <John.Meredith&etsi.org>  
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 17] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

                                        08 September 2009  
          
            #               36412/tcp   <not assigned> 
          
            s1-control      36412/sctp  S1-Control Plane (3GPP) 
                                        KimmoKymalainen  
                                       
         <kimmo.kymalainen&etsi.org> 
                                        01 September 2009 
          
            #               36422/tcp   <not assigned> 
          
            x2-control      36422/sctp  X2-Control Plane (3GPP) 
                                        Kimmo Kymalainen  
                                       
         <kimmo.kymalainen&etsi.org> 
                                        01 September 2009 
          
            #               36443/tcp   <not assigned> 
          
            m2ap            36443/sctp  M2 Application Part 
                                        Dario S. Tonesi  
                                        <dario.tonesi&nsn.com>   
                                        07 February 2011 
          
            #               36444/tcp   <not assigned> 
          
            m3ap            36444/sctp  M3 Application Part 
                                        Dario S. Tonesi  
                                        <dario.tonesi&nsn.com>   
                                        07 February 2011 
          
         
         Table 4: IANA layer 4 port collisions between SCTP and TCP 
         
         
        Instead of imposing the transport protocol 
        (UDP/TCP/SCTP/etc.) in the scope of the "Application Name 
        Options Template Record" for all applications (on top of 
        having the transport protocol as key-field in the Flow Record 
        definition), the convention is that the L4 application is 
        always TCP related.  So, whenever the Collector has a 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 18] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        conflict in looking up IANA, it would choose the TCP choice.  
        As a result, the UDP L4 applications from Table 3 and the 
        SCTP L4 applications from Table 4 are assigned in the PANA_L7 
        Application Id range, i.e. under Classification Engine ID 13. 
       
        Currently, there are no discrepancies between the well known 
        ports for TCP and DCCP. 
         
         
     5. Grouping the Applications with the Attributes 

      Due to the high number of different Application Ids, 
      Application Ids MAY be categorized into groups.  This offers 
      the benefits of easier reporting and action, such as QoS 
      policies.  Indeed, most applications with the same 
      characteristics should be treated the same way; for example, 
      all video traffic.  
       
      Attributes are statically assigned per Application Id and are 
      independent of the traffic. The attributes are listed below: 
           
             Name                   Description 
                                     
             Category               An attribute that provides a first 
                                    level categorization for each 
                                    Application Id. Examples include: 
                                    browsing, email, file-sharing, 
                                    gaming, instant messaging, voice-
                                    and-video, etc... 
                                    The category attribute is encoded by 
                                    the ApplicationCategoryName 
                                    Information Element. 
                                     
             Sub-Category           An attribute that provides a second 
                                    level categorization for each 
                                    Application Id. Examples include: 
                                    backup-systems, client-server, 
                                    database, routing-protocol, etc... 
                                    The sub-category attribute is 
                                    encoded by the 
                                    ApplicationSubCategoryName 
                                    Information Element. 
                                     
             Application-           An attribute that groups multiple 
             Group                  Application Ids that belong to the 
                                    same networking application. For 
                                    example, the ftp-group contain the 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 19] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

                                    ftp-data (port 20), ftp (port 20), 
                                    ni-ftp (port 47), sftp (port 115), 
                                    bftp (port 152), ftp-agent(port 
                                    574), ftps-data (port 989). The 
                                    application-group attribute is 
                                    encoded by the ApplicationGroupName 
                                    Information Element. 
                                     
             P2P-Technology         Specifies if the Application Id is 
                                    based on peer-to-peer technology. 
                                    The P2P-technology attribute is 
                                    encoded by the p2pTechnology 
                                    Information Element. 
                                     
             Tunnel-                Specifies if the Application Id is 
             Technology             used as a tunnel technology. The 
                                    tunnel-technology attribute is 
                                    encoded by the tunnelTechnology 
                                    Information Element. 
                                     
             Encrypted              Specifies if the Application Id is 
                                    an encrypted networking protocol. 
                                    The encrypted attribute is encoded 
                                    by the encryptedTechnology 
                                    Information Element. 
      
             Table 5: Existing Application Id Static Attributes 
           
         
        Every application is assigned to one ApplicationCategoryName, 
        one ApplicationSubCategoryName, one ApplicationGroupName, has 
        one p2pTechnology, one tunnelTechnology, and one 
        encryptedTechnology.   
         
        Maintaining the attribute values in IANA seems impossible to 
        realize.  Therefore the attribute values per application are 
        company specific.  For example, the Cisco Systems attribute 
        values for the different applications are available at 
        [CISCO]. 
      
         
     5.1. Options Template Record for the Attribute Values 

        An Options Template Record (see [RFC5101]) SHOULD be used to 
        export the correspondence between each Application Id and its 
        related Attribute values.  An alternative way for the 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 20] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        Collecting Process to learn the correspondence is to populate 
        these mappings out of band, for example, by loading a CSV 
        file containing the correspondence table. 
         
        The Attributes Option Template contains the ApplicationId as 
        a scope field, followed by the ApplicationCategoryName, the 
        ApplicationSubCategoryName, the ApplicationGroupName, the 
        p2pTechnology, the tunnelTechnology, and the 
        encryptedTechnology Information Elements. 
      
        A list of attributes may conveniently be exported using a 
        subTemplateList per [RFC6313]. 
         
        An example is given in section 6.8.  below. 
      
         
     6. Application Id Examples 

        The following examples are created solely for the purpose of 
        illustrating how the extensions proposed in this document are 
        encoded. 
      

     6.1. Example 1: Layer 2 Protocol 

        The list of Classification Engine IDs in Table 1 shows that 
        the layer 2 Classification Engine IDs are 12, 18, and 19. 
         
        From the Ethertype list, LLDP [LLDP] has the Selector ID 
        value 0x88CC, so 35020 in decimal: 
         
        NAME    Selector ID 
        LLDP    35020 
         
        So, in the case of LLDP, the Classification Engine ID is 18 
        while the Selector ID has the value 35020. 
          
        Therefore the Application Id is encoded as: 
         
            0                   1                   2 
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
           |       18      |             35020             | 
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
         

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 21] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        So the Application Id has the decimal value of 1214668.  The 
        format '18..35020' is used for simplicity in the examples 
        below. 
         
        The Exporting Process creates a Template Record with a few 
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application 
        Id. For example: 
         
        - applicationId (key field) 
        - octetTotalCount (non key field) 
         
        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above 
        Template Record may contain: 
         
            { applicationId='18..35020', 
              octetTotalCount=123456 } 
         
        The Collector has all the required information to determine 
        that the application is LLDP, because the Application Id uses 
        a global and well known registry, i.e. the Ethertype.  
        The Collector can determine which application is represented 
        by the Application Id by loading the registry out of band. 
      

     6.2. Example 2: Standardized IANA Layer 3 Protocol 

        From the list of Classification Engine IDs in Table 1, the 
        IANA layer 3 Classification Engine ID is 1.  
        From the list of IANA layer 3 protocols (see [IANA-PROTO]), 
        ICMP has the value 1: 
                                       
        Decimal    Keyword    Protocol                    Reference 
        1          ICMP       Internet Control Message    [RFC792] 
         
        So in the case of the standardized IANA layer 3 protocol 
        ICMP, the Classification Engine ID is 1, and the Selector ID 
        has the value of 1.  
         
        Therefore the Application Id is encoded as: 
         
            0                   1            
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
           |       1       |       1       | 
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
         

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 22] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        So the Application Id has the value of 257.  The format 
        '1..1'  is used for simplicity in the examples below. 
         
        The Exporting Process creates a Template Record with a few 
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application 
        Id. For example: 
         
        - sourceIPv4Address (key field) 
        - destinationIPv4Address (key field) 
        - ipDiffServCodePoint (key field) 
        - applicationId (key field) 
        - octetTotalCount (non key field) 
         
        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above 
        Template Record may contain: 
         
            { sourceIPv4Address=192.0.2.1,  
              destinationIPv4Address=192.0.2.2, 
              ipDiffServCodePoint=0,  
              applicationId='1..1', 
              octetTotalCount=123456 } 
         
        The Collector has all the required information to determine 
        that the application is ICMP, because the Application Id uses 
        a global and well know registry, ie the IANA L3 protocol 
        number.  
         
         
     6.3. Example 3: Proprietary Layer 3 Protocol 

        Assume that a company has specified a new layer 3 protocol 
        called "foo".  
         
        From the list of Classification Engine IDs in Table 1, the 
        proprietary layer 3 Classification Engine ID is 2. 
         
        A global registry within the company specifies that the "foo" 
        protocol has the value 90: 
         
        Protocol    Protocol Id 
        foo         90 
         
        So, in the case of the layer 3 protocol foo, specified by 
        this company, the Classification Engine ID is 2, and the 
        Selector ID has the value of 90. 
         
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 23] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        Therefore the Application Id is encoded as: 
         
            0                   1            
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
           |       2       |       90      | 
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
         
        So the Application Id has the value of 602.  The format 
        '2..90' is used for simplicity in the examples below.  
         
        The Exporting Process creates a Template Record with a few 
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application 
        Id. For example: 
         
        - sourceIPv4Address (key field) 
        - destinationIPv4Address (key field) 
        - ipDiffServCodePoint (key field) 
        - applicationId (key field) 
        - octetTotalCount (non key field) 
         
        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above 
        Template Record may contain: 
         
            { sourceIPv4Address=192.0.2.1,  
              destinationIPv4Address=192.0.2.2, 
              ipDiffServCodePoint=0,  
              applicationId='2..90', 
              octetTotalCount=123456 } 
         
        Along with this Flow Record, a new Options Template Record 
        would be exported, as shown in Section 6.7.  
         
                                       
     6.4. Example 4: Standardized IANA Layer 4 Port 

        From the list of Classification Engine IDs in Table 1, the 
        IANA layer 4 Classification Engine ID is 3. 
         
        From the list of IANA layer 4 ports (see [IANA-PORTS]), SNMP 
        has the value 161: 
         
        Keyword    Decimal    Description 
        snmp       161/tcp    SNMP 
        snmp       161/udp    SNMP 
         

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 24] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        So in the case of the standardized IANA layer 4 SNMP port, 
        the Classification Engine ID is 3, and the Selector ID has 
        the value of 161. 
         
        Therefore the Application Id is encoded as: 
         
            0                   1            
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
           |       3       |              161              | 
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
         
        So the Application Id has the value of 196769.  The format 
        '2..90' is used for simplicity in the examples below.  
         
        The Exporting Process creates a Template Record with a few 
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application 
        Id. For example: 
         
        - sourceIPv4Address (key field) 
        - destinationIPv4Address (key field) 
        - protocol (key field) 
        - ipDiffServCodePoint (key field) 
        - applicationId (key field) 
        - octetTotalCount (non key field) 
         
        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above 
        Template Record may contain: 
         
            { sourceIPv4Address=192.0.2.1,  
              destinationIPv4Address=192.0.2.2, 
              protocol=17, ipDiffServCodePoint=0, 
              applicationId='3..161',  
              octetTotalCount=123456 } 
      
        The Collector has all the required information to determine 
        that the application is SNMP, because the Application Id uses 
        a global and well know registry, ie the IANA L4 protocol 
        number.  
      
                                       
     6.5. Example 4: Layer 7 Application 

        In this example, the Metering Process has observed some 
        Citrix traffic. 
         

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 25] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        From the list of Classification Engine IDs in Table 1, the L7 
        unique Classification Engine ID is 13.  
        Suppose that the Metering Process returns the ID 10000 for 
        Citrix traffic. 
         
        So, in the case of this Citrix application, the 
        Classification Engine ID is 13 and the Selector ID has the 
        value of 10000. 
         
        Therefore the Application Id is encoded as: 
         
      0                   1                   2                   3 
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
      |      13       |                     10000                     | 
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
       
        So the Application Id has the value of 218113808.  The format 
        '13..10000' is used for simplicity in the examples below.  
         
         
        The Exporting Process creates a Template Record with a few 
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application 
        Id. For example: 
         
        - sourceIPv4Address (key field) 
        - destinationIPv4Address (key field) 
        - ipDiffServCodePoint (key field) 
        - applicationId (key field) 
        - octetTotalCount (non key field) 
         
        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above 
        Template Record may contain: 
         
            { sourceIPv4Address=192.0.2.1,  
              destinationIPv4Address=192.0.2.2, 
              ipDiffServCodePoint=0,  
              applicationId='13..10000', 
              octetTotalCount=123456 } 
         
        The 10000 value is globally unique for the company, so that 
        the Collector can determine which application is represented 
        by the Application Id by loading the registry out of band.  A 
        reference to the Cisco Systems assigned numbers for the layer 
        7 Application Id and the different attribute assignments can 
        be found at [CISCO]. 
         
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 26] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        Along with this Flow Record, a new Options Template Record 
        would be exported, as shown in Section 6.7.  
         
         
     6.6. Example: port Obfuscation 

        For example, an HTTP server might run on a TCP port 23 
        (assigned to telnet in [IANA-PORTS]). If the Metering Process 
        is capable of detecting HTTP in the same case, the 
        Application Id representation must contain HTTP. However, if 
        the reporting application wants to determine whether or not 
        the default HTTP port 80 or 8080 was used, the destination 
        port (destinationTransportPort at [IANA-IPFIX]) must also be 
        exported in the corresponding IPFIX record.    
         
        In the case of a standardized IANA layer 4 port, the 
        Classification Engine ID is 2, and the Selector ID has the 
        value of 80 for HTTP (see [IANA-PORTS]). 
         
        Therefore the Application Id is encoded as: 
         
            0                   1                   2                   
            0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
           |       3       |             80                | 
           +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ 
         
        The Exporting Process creates a Template Record with a few 
        Information Elements: amongst other things, the Application 
        Id. For example: 
         
        - sourceIPv4Address (key field) 
        - destinationIPv4Address (key field) 
        - protocol (key field) 
        - destinationTransportPort (key field) 
        - applicationId (key field) 
        - octetTotalCount (non key field) 
         
        For example, a Flow Record corresponding to the above 
        Template Record may contain: 
         
            { sourceIPv4Address=192.0.2.1,  
              destinationIPv4Address=192.0.2.2, 
              protocol=17,  
              destinationTransportPort=23, 
              applicationId='3..80',  
              octetTotalCount=123456 } 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 27] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

                     
        The Collector has all the required information to determine 
        that the application is HTTP, but runs on port 23. 
      

     6.7. Example: Application Mapping Options Template 

        Along with the Flow Records shown in the above examples, a 
        new Options Template Record would be exported to express the 
        Application Name and Application Description associated with 
        each Application Id. 
         
        The Options Template Record contains the following 
        Information Elements: 
         
        1. Scope = applicationId. 
         
               From RFC 5101: "The scope, which is only available in 
               the Options Template Set, gives the context of the 
               reported Information Elements in the Data Records." 
                
        2. applicationName. 
         
        3. applicationDescription. 
         
         
        The Options Data Record associated with the examples above 
        would contain, for example: 
         
            { scope=applicationId='2..90', 
              applicationName="foo", 
              applicationDescription="The foo protocol", 
         
              scope=applicationId='13..10000', 
              applicationName="Citrix", 
              applicationDescription="A Citrix application" } 
         
        When combined with the example Flow Records above, these 
        Options Template Records tell the Collector: 
         
        1. A flow of 123456 bytes exists from sourceIPv4Address 
        192.0.2.1 to destinationIPv4address 192.0.2.2 with an 
        applicationId of '12..90', which maps to the "foo" 
        application. 
         
        2. A flow of 123456 bytes exists from sourceIPv4Address 
        192.0.2.1 to destinationIPv4address 192.0.2.2 with an 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 28] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        Application Id of '13..10000', which maps to the "Citrix" 
        application. 
         
         
     6.8. Example: Attributes Values Options Template Record 

        Along with the Flow Records shown in the above examples, a 
        new Options Template Record is exported to express the values 
        of the different attributes related to the Application Ids. 
         
        The Options Template Record would contain the following 
        Information Elements: 
         
          1. Scope = applicationId. 
         
               From RFC 5101: "The scope, which is only available in 
               the Options Template Set, gives the context of the 
               reported Information Elements in the Data Records." 
                
          2. applicationCategoryName. 
              
          3. applicationSubCategoryName. 
           
          4. applicationGroupName 
           
          5. p2pTechnology 
           
          6. tunnelTechnology 
                                   
          7. encryptedTechnology 
         
         
        The Options Data Record associated with the examples above 
        would contain, for example: 
         
            { scope=applicationId='2..90', 
              applicationCategoryName="foo-category", 
              applicationSubCategoryName="foo-subcategory", 
              applicationGroupName="foo-group", 
              p2pTechnology=NO 
              tunnelTechnology=YES 
              encryptedTechnology=NO 
      
        When combined with the example Flow Records above, these 
        Options Template Records tell the Collector: 
         
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 29] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

        A flow of 123456 bytes exists from sourceIPv4Address 
        192.0.2.1 to destinationIPv4address 192.0.2.2 with a DSCP 
        value of 0 and an applicationId of '12..90', which maps to 
        the "foo" application.  This application can be characterized 
        by the relevant attributes values.  
      

     7. IANA Considerations 

     7.1. New Information Elements 

      This document specifies 10 new IPFIX Information Elements: the 
      applicationDescription, applicationId, applicationName, 
      classificationEngineId, applicationCategoryName, 
      applicationSubCategoryName, applicationGroupName, 
      p2pTechnology, tunnelTechnology, and encryptedTechnology. 
       
      New Information Elements to be added to the IPFIX Information 
      Element registry at [IANA-IPFIX] are listed below. 
       
      EDITOR'S NOTE: the XML specification in Appendix A must be 
      updated with the elementID values allocated below. 
       
      RFC-EDITOR/IANA-EDITOR: some entries are already present in 
      IPFIX-IANA. However, those must be updated with the current 
      content.  
       
       
     7.1.1. applicationDescription  

      Name: applicationDescription  
      Description:  
        Specifies the description of an application. 
      Abstract Data Type: string 
      Data Type Semantics:  
      ElementId: 94 
      Status: current  
      
      
     7.1.2. applicationId 

      Name: applicationId  
      Description:  
        Specifies an Application Id. 
      Abstract Data Type: octetArray 
      Data Type Semantics: identifier 

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 30] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

      Reference: See section 4. of [EDITORS NOTE: this document] for 
      the applicationId Information Element Specification. 
      ElementId: 95 
      Status: current 
      
      
     7.1.3. applicationName 

      Name: applicationName  
      Description:  
        Specifies the name of an application. 
      Abstract Data Type: string  
      Data Type Semantics: 
      ElementId: 96 
      Status: current 
       
       
     7.1.4. classificationEngineId 

      Name: classificationEngineId 
      Description: 
       A unique identifier for the engine which determined the 
       Selector ID.  Thus the Classification Engine ID defines the 
       context for the Selector ID. The Classification Engine can 
       be considered as a specific registry for application 
       assignments. 
        
       Initial values for this field are listed below. Further 
       values may be assigned by IANA in the Classification Engine 
       Ids registry. 
        
            0 Invalid. 
                
            1 IANA-L3: The IANA protocol (layer 3) number is 
              exported in the Selector ID. See 
              http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers. 
            
            2 PANA-L3: Proprietary layer 3 definition. A company 
              can export its own layer 3 protocol numbers, while 
              waiting for IANA to assign it. The Selector ID has a 
              global significance for all devices from the same 
              company. Hopefully the same Selector IDs will be 
              maintained after the IANA standardization. 
            
            3 IANA-L4: The IANA layer 4 well-known port number is 
              exported in the Selector ID. See 
              http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers. Note: 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 31] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

              as an IPFIX flow is unidirectional, it contains the 
              destination port in a flow from the client to the 
              server. 
            
            4 PANA-L4: Proprietary layer 4 definition. A company 
              can export its own layer 4 port numbers, while 
              waiting for IANA to assign it. The Selector ID has 
              global significance for devices from the same 
              company. Hopefully the same Selector IDs will be 
              maintained after the IANA standardization. Example: 
              IPFIX had the port 4739 pre-assigned in the IETF 
              draft for years. While waiting for the RFC and its 
              associated IANA registration, the Selector ID 4739 
              was used with this PANA-L4. 
            
            5 Reserved 
            
            6 USER-Defined: The Selector ID represents 
              applications defined by the user (using CLI or GUI) 
              based on the methods described in section 2. The 
              Selector ID has a local significance per device. 
            
            7 Reserved 
            
            8 Reserved 
            
            9 Reserved 
            
           10 Reserved 
            
           11 Reserved 
            
           12 PANA-L2: Proprietary layer 2 definition.  A company 
              can export its own layer 2 identifiers.  The 
              Selector ID represents the company unique global 
              layer 2 applications. The Selector ID has a global 
              significance for all devices from the same company. 
              Examples include Cisco Subnetwork Access Protocol 
              (SNAP). 
            
           13 PANA-L7: Proprietary layer 7 definition. The 
              Selector ID represents the company unique global ID 
              for the layer 7 applications. The Selector ID has a 
              global significance for all devices from the same 
              company.  
            
           14 Reserved 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 32] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

            
           15 Reserved 
            
           16 Reserved 
            
           17 Reserved 
            
           18 ETHERTYPE: The Selector ID represents the  
              well-known  Ethertype. See 
              http://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/ethertype/
              eth.txt. Note that the Ethertype is usually 
              expressed in hexadecimal. However, the corresponding 
              decimal value is used in this Selector ID. 
            
           19 LLC: The Selector ID represents the well-known IEEE 
              802.2 Link Layer Control (LLC) Destination Service 
              Access Point (DSAP). See  
              http://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/ethertype/
              eth.txt. Note that LLC DSAP is usually expressed in 
              hexadecimal. However, the corresponding decimal 
              value is used in this Selector ID. 
            
           Some values (5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, and 17), 
           are reserved to be compliant with existing 
           implementations already using the 
           classificationEngineId.  
            
      Abstract Data Type: unsigned8 
      Data Type Semantics: identifier 
      ElementId: 101 
      Status: current 
       
       
     7.1.5. applicationCategoryName 

      Name: applicationCategoryName 
      Description:  
       An attribute that provides a first level categorization for 
       each Application Id. 
      Abstract Data Type: string  
      Data Type Semantics: 
      ElementId: <to be assigned> 
      Status: current  
       
      

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 33] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

     7.1.6. applicationSubCategoryName 

      Name: applicationSubCategoryName 
      Description:  
       An attribute that provides a second level categorization for 
       each Application Id. 
      Abstract Data Type: string  
      Data Type Semantics: 
      ElementId: <to be assigned> 
      Status: current  
       
     7.1.7. applicationGroupName 

      Name: applicationGroupName  
      Description:  
       An attribute that groups multiple Application Ids that belong 
       to the same networking application. 
      Abstract Data Type: string  
      Data Type Semantics: 
      ElementId: <to be assigned> 
      Status: current  
       
       
     7.1.8. p2pTechnology 

      Name: p2pTechnology  
      Description:  
       Specifies if the Application Id is based on peer-to-peer 
       technology. Possible values are: { "yes", "y", 1 },  
       { "no", "n", 2 } and { "unassigned" , "u", 0 }. 
      Abstract Data Type: string  
      Data Type Semantics: 
      ElementId: 288 
      Status: current 
       
       
     7.1.9. tunnelTechnology 

      Name: tunnelTechnology  
      Description:  
        Specifies if the Application Id is used as a tunnel 
      technology.    
        Possible values are: { "yes", "y", 1 }, { "no", "n", 2 } and  
        { "unassigned" , "u", 0 }. 
      Abstract Data Type: string 
      Data Type Semantics: 

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 34] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

      ElementId: 289 
      Status: current  
       
       
     7.1.10. encryptedTechnology 

      Name: encryptedTechnology 
      Description:  
       Specifies if the Application Id is an encrypted networking 
       protocol. Possible values are: { "yes", "y", 1 },  
       { "no", "n", 2 } and { "unassigned" , "u", 0 }. 
      Abstract Data Type: string 
      Data Type Semantics: 
      ElementId: 290 
      Status: current 
      

     7.2. Classification Engine Ids Registry 

      The Information Element #101, named classificationEngineId, 
      carries information about the context for the Selector ID, and 
      can be considered as a specific registry for application 
      assignments. For ensuring extensibility of this information, 
      IANA has created a new registry for Classification Engine Ids 
      and filled it with the initial list from the description 
      Information Element #101, classificationEngineId. 
       
      New assignments for Classification Engine Ids will be 
      administered by IANA through Expert Review [RFC5226], i.e., 
      review by one of a group of experts designated by an IETF Area 
      Director.  The group of experts must double check the new 
      definitions with already defined Classification Engine Ids for 
      completeness, accuracy, and redundancy.  The specification of 
      Classification Engine Ids MUST be published using a well-
      established and persistent publication medium. 
       
      RFC-EDITOR: this should be assigned similarly to 
      mplsTopLabelType subregistry at 
      http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipfix/ipfix.xml 
      
     8. Security Considerations 

      The same security considerations as for the IPFIX Protocol 
      [RFC5101] apply. 
       
      As mentioned in Section 2.1. , the application knowledge is 
      useful in security based applications.  Security applications 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 35] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

      may impose supplementary requirements on the export of 
      application information, and these need to be examined on a 
      case by case basis. 
       
      
     9. References 

     9.1. Normative References 

        [RFC2119] S. Bradner, Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate 
                Requirement Levels, BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. 
      
        [RFC5101] Claise, B., Ed., "Specification of the IP Flow 
                Information Export (IPFIX) Protocol for the Exchange 
                of IP Traffic Flow Information", RFC 5101, January 
                2008. 
      
        [RFC5102] Quittek, J., Bryant, S., Claise, B., Aitken, P., 
                and J. Meyer, "Information Model for IP Flow 
                Information Export", RFC 5102, January 2008. 
         
        [RFC5226] Narten, T., and H. Alverstrand, "Guidelines for 
                Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", RFC 
                5226, May 2008 
         
        [ETHERTYPE]  
                http://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/ethertype/e
                th.txt 
      
        [LLC] 
                http://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/llc/public.
                html. 
         
         
         
     9.2. Informative References 

         
        [RFC792] J. Postel, Internet Control Message Protocol, RFC 
                792, September 1981. 
          
        [RFC3917] Quittek, J., Zseby, T., Claise, B., and S. Zander, 
                Requirements for IP Flow Information Export, RFC 
                3917, October 2004. 
         
        [RFC3954] B. Claise, "Cisco Systems NetFlow Services Export 
                Version 9", RFC 3954, October 2004. 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 36] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

         
         
        [RFC5103] Trammell, B., and E. Boschi, "Bidirectional Flow 
                Export Using IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)", RFC 
                5103, January 2008. 
      
        [RFC5470] Sadasivan, G., Brownlee, N., Claise, B., and J. 
                Quittek, "Architecture for IP Flow Information 
                Export", RFC 5470, March 2009. 
         
        [RFC5471] Schmoll, C., Aitken, P., and B. Claise, "Guidelines 
                for IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Testing", RFC 
                5471, March 2009. 
         
         
        [RFC5473] Boschi, E., Mark, L., and B. Claise, "Reducing 
                Redundancy in IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) and 
                Packet Sampling (PSAMP) Reports", RFC 5473, March 
                2009. 
      
        [RFC5476] Claise, B., Ed., "Packet Sampling (PSAMP) Protocol 
                Specifications", RFC 5476, March 2009. 
         
        [RFC6313] Claise, B., Dhandapani, G. Aitken, P., and S. 
                Yates, "Export of Structured Data in IP Flow 
                Information Export (IPFIX)", RFC6313, July 20111  
         
        [LLDP] "IEEE Std 802.1AB-2005, Standard for Local and 
                metropolitan area networks - Station and Media Access 
                Control Connectivity Discovery", IEEE Std 802.1AB-
                2005 IEEE Std, 2005. 
         
        [IANA-IPFIX] http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipfix/ipfix.xml 
         
         
        [IANA-PORTS] http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers 
         
        [IANA-PROTO] http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers 
         
         
        [CISCO] http://www.cisco.com 
         

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 37] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

     10. Acknowledgement 

      The authors would like to thank their many colleagues across 
      Cisco Systems who made this work possible. Specifically Patrick 
      Wildi for his time and expertise. 
       
       

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 38] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

     11. Authors' Addresses 

       
      Benoit Claise 
      Cisco Systems, Inc. 
      De Kleetlaan 6a b1 
      Diegem 1813 
      Belgium 
          
      Phone: +32 2 704 5622 
      EMail: bclaise@cisco.com 
       
       
       
      Paul Aitken 
      Cisco Systems, Inc. 
      96 Commercial Quay 
      Commercial Street 
      Edinburgh, EH6 6LX, United Kingdom 
          
      Phone: +44 131 561 3616 
      EMail: paitken@cisco.com 
       
       
       
      Nir Ben-Dvora 
      Cisco Systems, Inc. 
      32 HaMelacha St.,  
      P.O.Box 8735, I.Z.Sapir  
      South Netanya, 42504  
      Israel 
       
      Phone: +972 9 892 7187 
      EMail: nirbd@cisco.com 
       
       
      Appendix A.  Additions to XML Specification of IPFIX 
      Information Elements 

        This appendix contains additions to the machine-readable 
        description of the IPFIX information model coded in XML in 
        Appendix A and Appendix B in [RFC5102].  Note that this 
        appendix is of informational nature, while the text in 
        Section 7. (generated from this appendix) is normative. 
         
        The following field definitions are appended to the IPFIX 
        information model in Appendix A of [RFC5102]. 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 39] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

      
          <field name="applicationDescription" 
                 dataType="string" 
                 group="application" 
                 elementId="94" applicability="all" status="current"> 
            <description> 
              <paragraph> 
                 Specifies the description of an application. 
              </paragraph> 
            </description> 
          </field> 
         
          <field name="applicationId" 
                 dataType="octetArray" 
                 group="application" 
                 dataTypeSemantics="identifier" 
                 elementId="95" applicability="all" status="current"> 
            <description> 
              <paragraph> 
                 Specifies an Application Id. 
              </paragraph> 
            </description> 
            <reference> 
              <paragraph> 
                 See section 4. of [EDITORS NOTE: this document] for 
                the applicationId Information Element Specification. 
              </paragraph> 
            </reference> 
          </field> 
         
          <field name="applicationName" 
                 dataType="string" 
                 group="application" 
                 elementId="96" applicability="all" status="current"> 
            <description> 
              <paragraph> 
                 Specifies the name of an application. 
              </paragraph> 
            </description> 
          </field> 
         
          <field name="classificationEngineId" 
                 dataType="unsigned8" 
                 group="application" 
                 dataTypeSemantics="identifier" 
                 elementId="101" applicability="all" 
        status="current"> 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 40] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

            <description> 
              <paragraph>  
                A unique identifier for the engine which 
                determined the Selector ID.  Thus the 
                Classification Engine ID defines the context for 
                the Selector ID. The Classification Engine can be 
                considered as a specific registry for application 
                assignments. 
                 
                Initial values for this field are listed below. 
                Further values may be assigned by IANA in the 
                Classification Engine Ids registry. 
                 
                 0 Invalid. 
                  
                 1 IANA-L3: The IANA protocol (layer 3) number is 
                 exported in the Selector ID. See 
                 http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers. 
                  
                 2 PANA-L3: Proprietary layer 3 definition. A 
                 company can export its own layer 3 protocol 
                 numbers, while waiting for IANA to assign it. The 
                 Selector ID has a global significance for all 
                 devices from the same company. Hopefully the same 
                 Selector IDs will be maintained after the IANA 
                 standardization. 
                  
                 3 IANA-L4: The IANA layer 4 well-known port 
                 number is exported in the Selector ID. See 
                 http://www.iana.org/assignments/port-numbers. 
                 Note: as an IPFIX flow is unidirectional, it 
                 contains the destination port in a flow from the 
                 client to the server. 
                  
                 4 PANA-L4: Proprietary layer 4 definition. A 
                 company can export its own layer 4 port numbers, 
                 while waiting for IANA to assign it. The Selector 
                 ID has global significance for devices from the 
                 same company. Hopefully the same Selector IDs 
                 will be maintained after the IANA 
                 standardization. Example: IPFIX had the port 4739 
                 pre-assigned in the IETF draft for years. While 
                 waiting for the RFC and its associated IANA 
                 registration, the Selector ID 4739 was used with 
                 this PANA-L4. 
                  
                 5 Reserved 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 41] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

                  
                 6 USER-Defined: The Selector ID represents 
                 applications defined by the user (using CLI or 
                 GUI) based on the methods described in section 2. 
                 The Selector ID has a local significance per 
                 device. 
                  
                 7 Reserved 
                  
                 8 Reserved 
                  
                 9 Reserved 
                  
                 10 
                    Reserved 
                  
                 11 
                    Reserved 
                  
                 12 PANA-L2: Proprietary layer 2 definition.  A 
                 company can export its own layer 2 identifiers.  
                 The Selector ID represents the company unique 
                 global layer 2 applications. The Selector ID has 
                 a global significance for all devices from the 
                 same company. Examples include Cisco Subnetwork 
                 Access Protocol (SNAP). 
                  
                 13 PANA-L7: Proprietary layer 7 definition. The 
                 Selector ID represents the company unique global 
                 ID for the layer 7 applications. The Selector ID 
                 has a global significance for all devices from 
                 the same company.  
                  
                 14 Reserved 
                  
                 15 Reserved 
                  
                 16 Reserved 
                  
                 17 Reserved 
      
                 18 ETHERTYPE: The Selector ID represents the 
                 well-known Ethertype. See 
                 http://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/etherty
                 pe/eth.txt. Note that the Ethertype is usually 
                 expressed in hexadecimal. However, the 
                 corresponding decimal value is used in this 
                 Selector ID. 
                  
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 42] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

                 19 LLC: The Selector ID represents the  
                 well-known IEEE 802.2 Link Layer Control (LLC) 
                 Destination Service Access Point (DSAP). See  
                 http://standards.ieee.org/develop/regauth/etherty
                 pe/eth.txt. Note that LLC DSAP is usually 
                 expressed in hexadecimal. However, the 
                 corresponding decimal value is used in this 
                 Selector ID. 
              </paragraph> 
            </description> 
          </field> 
         
          <field name="applicationCategoryName" 
                 dataType="string" 
                 group="application" 
                 elementId="<to be assigned>" 
                 applicability="all" 
                 status="current"> 
            <description> 
              <paragraph> 
                 An attribute that provides a first level 
      categorization  
                 for each Application Id. 
              </paragraph> 
            </description> 
          </field> 
       
          <field name="applicationSubCategoryName" 
                 dataType="string" 
                 group="application" 
                 elementId="<to be assigned>" 
                 applicability="all" 
                 status="current"> 
            <description> 
              <paragraph> 
                 An attribute that provides a second level   
                 categorization for each Application Id. 
              </paragraph> 
            </description> 
          </field> 
       
          <field name="applicationGroupName" 
                 dataType="string" 
                 group="application" 
                 elementId="<to be assigned>" 
                 applicability="all" 
                 status="current"> 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 43] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

            <description> 
              <paragraph> 
                 An attribute that groups multiple Application Ids  
                 that belong to the same networking application. 
              </paragraph> 
            </description> 
          </field> 
       
          <field name="p2pTechnology" 
                 dataType="string" 
                 group="application" 
                 elementId="288" 
                 applicability="all" 
                 status="current"> 
            <description> 
              <paragraph> 
                 Specifies if the Application Id is based on peer- 
                 to-peer technology. Possible values are:  
                 { "yes", "y", 1 }, { "no", "n", 2 } and  
                 { "unassigned" , "u", 0 }. 
              </paragraph> 
            </description> 
          </field> 
       
          <field name="tunnelTechnology" 
                 dataType="string" 
                 group="application" 
                 elementId="289" 
                 applicability="all" 
                 status="current"> 
            <description> 
              <paragraph> 
                 Specifies if the Application Id is used as a  
                 tunnel technology. Possible values are:  
                 { "yes", "y", 1 }, { "no", "n", 2 } and  
                 { "unassigned" , "u", 0 }. 
              </paragraph> 
            </description> 
          </field> 
         
          <field name="encryptedTechnology" 
                 dataType="string" 
                 group="application" 
                 elementId="290" 
                 applicability="all" 
                 status="current"> 
            <description> 
      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 44] 
                                       

     Internet-Draft  <Export of App. Info. in IPFIX >     May 2012 
         

              <paragraph> 
                 Specifies if the Application Id is an encrypted  
                 networking protocol. Possible values are:  
                 { "yes", "y", 1 }, { "no", "n", 2 } and  
                 { "unassigned" , "u", 0 }. 
              </paragraph> 
            </description> 
          </field> 
         
      

      
      
     <Claise, Aitken, Ben-Dvora>     Expires Nov 5 2012       [Page 45]