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SDP Security Assurance for Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)

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This is an older version of an Internet-Draft whose latest revision state is "Active".
Authors Kyzer R. Davis , Esteban Valverde , Gonzalo Salgueiro
Last updated 2023-08-04
Replaces draft-davis-valverde-srtp-assurance
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mmusic                                                       K. R. Davis
Internet-Draft                                               E. Valverde
Updates: 4568 (if approved)                                 G. Salgueiro
Intended status: Standards Track                           Cisco Systems
Expires: 5 February 2024                                   4 August 2023

 SDP Security Assurance for Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)


   This document specifies additional cryptographic attributes for
   signaling additional Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)
   cryptographic context information via the Session Description
   Protocol (SDP) in alongside those defined by RFC4568.

   The SDP extension defined in this document address situations where
   the receiver needs to quickly and robustly synchronize with a given
   sender.  The mechanism also enhances SRTP operation in cases where
   there is a risk of losing sender-receiver synchronization.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 5 February 2024.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2023 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights

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   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.2.  Previous Solutions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Conventions and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Protocol Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  SDP Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  Sender Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.3.  Receiver Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     3.4.  Update Frequency  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     3.5.  Extendability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   6.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

1.1.  Problem Statement

   While [RFC4568] provides most of the information required to
   instantiate an SRTP cryptographic context for RTP Packets, the state
   of a few crucial items in the SRTP cryptographic context are missing.
   One such item is the Rollover Counter (ROC) defined by Section 3.2.1
   [RFC3711] which is not signaled in any packet across the wire and
   shared between applications.

   The ROC is one item that is used to create the SRTP Packet Index
   along with the the [RFC3550] transmitted sequence numbers for a given
   synchronization sources (SSRC).  The Packet index is integral to the
   encryption, decryption and authentication process of SRTP key
   streams.  Failure to synchronize the value properly at any point in
   the SRTP media exchange leads to encryption or decryption failures,
   degraded user experience and at cross-vendor interoperability issues
   with many hours of engineering time spent debugging a value that is
   never negotiated on the wire (and oftentimes not even logged in
   application logs.)

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   The current method of ROC handling is to instantiate a new media
   stream's cryptographic context at 0 as per Section 3.3.1 of
   [RFC3711].  Then track the state ROC for a given cryptographic
   context as the time continues on and the stream progresses.

   When joining ongoing streams, resuming held/transferred streams, or
   devices without embedded application logic for clustering/high
   availability where a given cryptographic context is resumed; without
   any explicit signaling about the ROC state, devices must make an
   educated guess as defined by Section 3.3.1 of [RFC3711].  The method
   specially estimates the received ROC by calculating ROC-1, ROC, ROC+1
   to see which performs a successful decrypt.  While this may work on
   paper, this process usually only done at the initial instantiation of
   a cryptographic context rather than at later points later during the
   session.  Instead many applications take the easy route and set the
   value at 0 as if this is a new stream.  While technically true from
   that receivers perspective, the sender of this stream may be
   encrypting packets with a ROC greater than 0.  Further this does not
   cover scenarios where the ROC is greater than +1.

   Where possible the ROC state (and the rest of the cryptographic
   context) is usually synced across clustered devices or high
   availability pairs via proprietary methods rather than open

   These problems detailed technically above lead to a few very common
   scenarios where the ROC may become out of sync.  These are are
   briefly detailed below with the focus on the ROC Value.

   Joining an ongoing session:

   *  When a receiver joins an ongoing session, such as a broadcast
      conference, there is no signaling method which can quickly allow
      the new participant to know the state of the ROC assuming the
      state of the stream is shared across all participants.

   Hold/Resume, Transfer Scenarios:

   *  A session is created between sender A and receiver B.  ROC is
      instantiated at 0 normally and continues as expected.
   *  At some point the receiver is put on hold while the sender is
      connected to some other location such as music on hold or another
      party altogether.
   *  At some future point the receiver is reconnected to the sender and
      the original session is resumed.
   *  The sender may re-assume the original cryptographic context rather
      rather than create one net new.

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   *  Here if the sender starts the stream from the last observed
      sequence number the receiver observed the ROC will be in sync.
   *  However there are scenarios where the sender may have been
      transmitting packets on the previous cryptographic context and if
      a ROC increment occurred; the receiver would never know.  This can
      lead to problems when the streams are reconnected as the ROC is
      now out of sync between both parties.
   *  A similar scenario was brought up in Appendix A of [RFC4568]
      "Scenario B" and "Problem 3" of the summary within this section.
   *  Further, a sender may be transferred to some upstream device
      transparently to them.  If the sender does not reset their
      cryptographic context that new receiver will now be out of sync
      with possible ROC values.

   Application Failover (without stateful syncs):

   *  In this scenario a cryptographic context was was created with
      Device A and B of a high availability pair.
   *  An SRTP stream was created and ROC of 0 was created and media
      streamed from the source towards Device A.
   *  Time continues and the sequence wraps from 65535 to 0 and the ROC
      is incremented to 1.
   *  Both the sender and device A are tracking this locally and the
      encrypt/decrypt process proceeds normally.
   *  Unfortunate network conditions arise and Device B must assume
      sessions of Device A transparently.
   *  Without any proprietary syncing logic between Device A and B which
      disclose the state of the ROC, Device B will likely instantiate
      the ROC at 0.
   *  Alternatively Device B may try to renegotiate the stream over the
      desired signaling protocol however this does not ensure the remote
      sender will change their cryptographic context and reset the ROC
      to 0.
   *  The transparent nature of the upstream failover means the local
      application will likely proceed using ROC 1 while upstream
      receiver has no method of knowing ROC 1 is the current value.

   Secure SIPREC Recording:

   *  If a SIPREC recorder is brought into recording an ongoing session
      through some form of transfer or on-demand recording solution the
      ROC may have incremented.
   *  Without an SDP mechanism to share this information the SIPREC will
      be unaware of the full SRTP context required to ensure proper
      decrypt of media streams being monitored.

   Improper SRTP context resets:

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   *  As defined by Section 3.3.1 of [RFC3711] an SRTP re-key MUST NOT
      reset the ROC within SRTP Cryptographic context.
   *  However, some applications may incorrectly use the re-key event as
      a trigger to reset the ROC leading to out-of-sync encrypt/decrypt

   This is a problem that other SRTP Key Management protocols (MIKEY,
   DTLS-SRTP, EKT-SRTP) have solved but SDP Security has lagged behind
   in solution parity.  For a quick comparison of all SRTP Key
   Management negotiations refer to [RFC7201] and [RFC5479].

1.2.  Previous Solutions

   As per RFC3711, "Receivers joining an on-going session MUST be given
   the current ROC value using out-of-band signaling such as key-
   management signaling."  [RFC4771] aimed to solve the problem however
   this solution has a few technical shortcomings detailed below.

   First, this specifies the use of Multimedia Internet KEYing (MIKEY)
   defined by [RFC3830] as the out-of-band signaling method.  A proper
   MIKEY implementation requires more overhead than is needed to convey
   and solve this problem.  By selecting MIKEY as the out-of-band
   signaling method the authors may have inadvertently inhibited
   significant adoption by the industry.

   Second, [RFC4771] also transforms the SRTP Packet to include the four
   byte value after the encrypted payload and before an optional
   authentication tag.  This data about the SRTP context is unencrypted
   on the wire and not covered by newer SRTP encryption protocols such
   as [RFC6904] and [RFC9335].  Furthermore this makes the approach
   incompatible with AEAD SRTP Cipher Suites which state that trimming/
   truncating the authentication tag weakens the security of the
   protocol in Section 13.2 of [RFC7714].

   Third, this is not in line with the standard method of RTP Packet
   modifications.  The proposal would have benefited greatly from being
   an RTP Header Extension rather than a value appended after payload.
   But even an RTP header extension proves problematic in where modern
   SRTP encryption such as Cryptex defined by [RFC9335] are applied.
   That is, the ROC is a required input to decrypt the RTP packet
   contents.  It does not make sense to convey this data as an RTP
   Header Extension obfuscated by the very encryption it is required to

   Lastly, there is no defined method for applications defined for
   applications to advertise the usage of this protocol via any
   signaling methods.

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   [RFC5159] also defined some SDP attributes namely the
   "a=SRTPROCTxRate" attribute however this does not cover other
   important values in the SRTP Cryptographic context and has not seen
   widespread implementation.

   [RFC8870] solves the problem for DTLS-SRTP [RFC5763]/[RFC5764]

2.  Conventions and Definitions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  Protocol Design

   A few points of note are below about this specifications relationship
   to other SRTP Key Management protocols or SRTP protocols as to leave
   no ambiguity.

   Session Description Protocol (SDP) Security Descriptions for Media
      The authors have chosen to avoid modifying RFC4568 a=crypto offers
      as to avoid backwards compatibility issues with a non-versioned
      protocol.  Instead this specification adds to what is defined in
      SDP Security Framework [RFC4568] by allowing applications to
      explicitly negotiate additional items from the cryptographic
      context such as the packet index ingredients: ROC, SSRC and
      Sequence Number via a new SDP Attribute.  By coupling this
      information with the applicable "a=crypto" offers; a receiving
      application can properly instantiate an SRTP cryptographic context
      at the start of a session, later in a session, after session
      modification or when joining an ongoing session.

   Key Management Extensions for Session Description Protocol (SDP)
   and Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP):
      This specifications makes no attempt to be compatible with the Key
      Management Extension for SDP "a=key-mgmt" defined by [RFC4567]

   ZRTP: Media Path Key Agreement for Unicast Secure RTP:
      This specifications makes no attempt to be compatible with the Key
      Management via SDP for ZRTP "a=zrtp-hash" defined by [RFC6189].

   DTLS-SRTP, EKT-SRTP, Privacy Enhanced Conferencing items (PERC):

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      All DTLS-SRTP items including Privacy Enhanced Conferencing items
      (PERC) [ [RFC8723] and [RFC8871] ] are out of scope for the
      purposes of this specification.

   Secure Real Time Control Protocol (SRTCP):
      This specification is not required by SRTCP since the packet index
      is carried within the SRTCP packet and does not need an out-of-
      band equivalent.

   Source-Specific Media Attributes in the Session Description
   Protocol (SDP):
      The authors of this specification vetted [RFC5576] SSRC Attribute
      "a=ssrc" but felt that it would require too much modification and
      additions to the SSRC Attribute specification to allow unknown
      SSRC values and the other information which needs to be conveyed.
      Further, requiring implementation of the core SSRC Attribute RFC
      could pose as a barrier entry and separating the two into
      different SDP Attributes is the better option.  An implementation
      SHOULD NOT send RFC5576 SSRC Attributes alongside SRTP Context
      SSRC Attributes.  If both are present in SDP, a receiver SHOULD
      utilize prioritize the SRTP Context attributes over SSRC
      Attributes since these attributes will provide better SRTP
      cryptographic context initialization.

   Completely Encrypting RTP Header Extensions and Contributing
      SRTP Context is compatible with [RFC9335] "a=cryptex" media and
      session level attribute.

3.1.  SDP Considerations

   This specification introduces a new SRTP Context attribute defined as

   The presence of the "a=srtpctx" attribute in the SDP (in either an
   offer or an answer) indicates that the endpoint is signaling explicit
   cryptographic context information and this data SHOULD be used in
   place of derived values such as those obtained from late binding or
   some other mechanism.

   The SRTP Context value syntax utilizes standard attribute field=value
   pairs separated by semi-colons as seen in Figure 1.  The
   implementation's goal is extendable allowing for additional vendor
   specific field=value pairs alongside the ones defined in this
   document or room for future specifications to add additional
   field=value pairs.

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   a=srtpctx:<a-crypto-tag> \

                     Figure 1: Base SRTP Context Syntax

   This specification specifically defines SRTP Context Attribute Fields
   of SSRC, ROC, and SEQ shown in Figure 2.

 a=srtpctx:<a-crypto-tag> \

                 Figure 2: Example SRTP Context Syntax

   Note that long lines in this document have been broken into multiple
   lines using the "The Single Backslash Strategy ('')" defined by

   The formal definition of the SRTP Context Attribute, including custom
   extension field=value pairs is provided by the following ABNF

   srtp-assurance = srtp-attr
   srtp-attr      = "a=srtpctx:"
   srtp-tag       = 1*9DIGIT 1WSP
   srtp-ssrc      = "ssrc=" ("0x"1*8HEXDIG / "unknown")
   srtp-roc       = "roc=" ("0x"1*4HEXDIG / "unknown")
   srtp-seq       = "seq=" ("0x"1*4HEXDIG / "unknown")
   srtp-ext       = 1*VCHAR "=" (1*VCHAR / "unknown")
   ALPHA          = %x41-5A / %x61-7A   ; A-Z / a-z
   DIGIT          = %x30-39
   HEXDIG         = DIGIT / "A" / "B" / "C" / "D" / "E" / "F"
   VCHAR          = %x21-7E

   Leading 0s may be omitted and the alphanumeric hex may be upper or
   lowercase but at least one 0 must be present.  Additionally the "0x"
   provided additional context that these values are hex and not
   integers.  Thus as per Figure 3 these two lines are functionally

   a=srtpctx:1 ssrc=0x00845FED;roc=0x00000000;seq=0x005D
   a=srtpctx:1 ssrc=0x845fed;roc=0x0;seq=0x05d

              Figure 3: Comparison with and without Leading 0s

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   When SSRC, ROC, or Sequence information needs to be conveyed about a
   given stream, the a=srtpctx attribute is coupled with the relevant
   a=crypto attribute in the SDP.

   In Figure 4 the sender has shares the usual cryptographic information
   as per a=crypto but has included other information such as the 32 bit
   SSRC, 32 bit ROC, and 16 bit Last Known Sequence number as Hex values
   within the a=srtpctx attribute.  Together these two attributes
   provide better insights as to the state of the SRTP cryptographic
   context from the senders perspective.

  a=crypto:1 AEAD_AES_256_GCM \
  a=srtpctx:1 ssrc=0x00845FED;roc=0x0000;seq=0x0150

                 Figure 4: Example SRTP Context attribute

   The value of "unknown" MAY be used in place of any of the fields to
   indicate default behavior SHOULD be utilized by the receiving
   application (usually falling back to late binding or locally derived/
   stored cryptographic contact information for the packet index.)  The
   example shown in Figure 5 indicates that only the SSRC of the stream
   is unknown to the sender at the time of the SDP exchange but values
   for ROC and Last Known Sequence are present.  Alternatively, the
   attribute key and value MAY be omitted entirely.

   This MAY be updated via signaling at any later time but applications
   SHOULD ensure any offer/answer has the appropriate SRTP Context

   Applications SHOULD NOT include SRTP Context attribute if all three
   values are unknown or would be omitted.  For example, starting a new
   sending session instantiation or for advertising potential
   cryptographic attributes that are part of a new offer.

   Figure 5 shows that tag 1 does not have any SRTP Context parameters
   rather than rather an SRTP Context attribute with all three values
   set to "unknown".  This same example shows an unknown value carried
   with tag 2 and seq has been committed leaving only the ROC as a value
   shared with the second a=crypto tag.

   a=crypto:1 AES_CM_128_HMAC_SHA1_32 \
   a=crypto:2 AES_CM_128_HMAC_SHA1_80 \
   a=srtpctx:2 ssrc=unknown;roc=0x0001

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            Figure 5: Example SRTP Context with unknown mappings

   The tag for an SRTP Context attribute MUST follow the peer SDP
   Security a=crypto tag for a given media stream (m=).  The example in
   shown in Figure 6 the sender is advertising an explicit packet index
   mapping for a=crypto tag 2 for the audio stream and tag 1 for the
   video media stream.  Note that some SDP values have been truncated
   for the sake of simplicity.

   c=IN IP4
   m=audio 49170 RTP/SAVP 0
   a=crypto:1 AES_CM_128_HMAC_SHA1_80 \
   a=crypto:2 AEAD_AES_256_GCM \
   a=srtpctx:2 ssrc=0xBFBDD;roc=0x0001;seq=0x3039
   m=video 49172 RTP/SAVP 126
   a=crypto:1 AEAD_AES_128_GCM \
   a=srtpctx:1 ssrc=0xDD147C14;roc=0x0001;seq=0x3039

           Figure 6: Example crypto and SRTP Context tag mapping

   It is unlikely a sender will send SRTP Context attributes for every
   crypto attribute since many will be fully unknown (such as the start
   of a session.)  However it is theoretically possible for every
   a=crypto tag to have a similar a=srtpctx attribute for additional

   For scenarios where RTP Multiplexing are concerned, EKT-SRTP
   ([RFC8870]) MUST be used in lieu of SDP Security as per [RFC8872]
   Section 4.3.2.

   For scenarios where SDP Bundling are concerned, SRTP Context
   attributes follow the same bundling guidelines defined by [RFC8859],
   section 5.7 for SDP Securities a=crypto attribute.

3.2.  Sender Behavior

   Senders utilizing SDP Security via "a=crypto" MUST make an attempt to
   signal any known packet index values to the peer receiver.  The
   exception being when all values are unknown, such as at the very
   start of medias stream negotiation.

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   For best results all sending parties of a given session stream SHOULD
   advertise known packet index values for all media streams.  This
   should continue throughout the life of the session to ensure any
   errors or out of sync errors can be quickly corrected via new
   signaling methods.  See Section 3.4 for update frequency

3.3.  Receiver Behavior

   Receivers SHOULD utilize the signaled information in application
   logic to instantiate the SRTP cryptographic context.  In the even
   there is no SRTP Context attributes present in SDP receivers MUST
   fallback to [RFC3711] for guesting the ROC and [RFC4568] logic for
   late binding to gleam the SSRC and sequence numbers.

3.4.  Update Frequency

   Senders SHOULD provide SRTP Context SDP when SDP Crypto attributes
   are negotiated.  There is no explicit time or total number of packets
   in which a new update is required from sender to receiver.  By
   following natural session updates, session changes and session
   liveliness checks this specification will not cause overcrowding on
   the session establishment protocol's signaling channel.

3.5.  Extendability

   As stated in Section 3.1, the SRTP Context SDP implementation's goal
   is extendability allowing for additional vendor specific field=value
   pairs alongside the ones defined in this document.  This ensures that
   a=crypto SDP security may remain compatible with future algorithms
   that need to signal cryptographic context information outside of what
   is currently specified in [RFC4568].

   To illustrate, imagine a new example SRTP algorithm and crypto suite
   is created named "FOO_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256" and the application
   needs to signal "Foo, "Bar", and "Nonce" values to properly
   instantiate the SRTP context.  Rather than modify a=crypto SDP
   security or create a new unique SDP attribute, one can simply utilize
   SRTP Context SDP's key=value pairs to convey the information.

a=crypto:1 FOO_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256 \
a=srtpctx:1 foo=1;bar=abc123;nonce=8675309

   With this extendable method, all that is now required in the
   fictional RFC defining "FOO_CHACHA20_POLY1305_SHA256" is to include
   an "SDP parameters" section which details the expected "a=srtpctx"
   values and their usages.  This approach is similar to how Media

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   Format Parameter Capability ("a=fmtp") is utilized in modern SDP.  An
   example is [RFC6184], Section 8.2.1 for H.264 video Media Format

4.  Security Considerations

   When SDP carries SRTP Context attributes additional insights are
   present about the SRTP cryptographic context.  Due to this an
   intermediary MAY be able to analyze how long a session has been
   active by the ROC value.

   Since the SRTP Context attribute is carried in plain-text (alongside
   existing values like the SRTP Master Key for a given session) care
   MUST be taken as per the [RFC8866] that keying material must not be
   sent over unsecure channels unless the SDP can be both private
   (encrypted) and authenticated.

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document updates the "attribute-name (formerly "att-field")"
   sub-registry of the "Session Description Protocol (SDP) Parameters"
   registry (see Section 8.2.4 of [RFC8866]).  Specifically, it adds the
   SDP "a=srtpctx" attribute for use at the media level.

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     | Form          | Value                                         |
     | Contact name  | IESG                                          |
     | Contact email |                             |
     | address       |                                               |
     | Attribute     | srtpctx                                       |
     | name          |                                               |
     | Attribute     | srtpctx                                       |
     | value         |                                               |
     | Attribute     | Provided by ABNF found in Section 3.1         |
     | syntax        |                                               |
     | Attribute     | Provided by sub-sections of Section 3         |
     | semantics     |                                               |
     | Usage level   | media                                         |
     | Charset       | No                                            |
     | dependent     |                                               |
     | Purpose       | Provide additional insights about SRTP        |
     |               | context information not conveyed required by  |
     |               | a receiver to properly decrypt SRTP.          |
     | O/A           | SDP O/A procedures are described in           |
     | procedures    | Section 3.1, specifically sections            |
     |               | Section 3.2 and Section 3.3 of this document. |
     | Mux Category  | TRANSPORT                                     |

                    Table 1: IANA SDP Registration Form

6.  Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Paul Jones for reviewing early draft material and providing
   valueable feedback.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

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   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC3711]  Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
              Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
              RFC 3711, DOI 10.17487/RFC3711, March 2004,

   [RFC4568]  Andreasen, F., Baugher, M., and D. Wing, "Session
              Description Protocol (SDP) Security Descriptions for Media
              Streams", RFC 4568, DOI 10.17487/RFC4568, July 2006,

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <>.

   [RFC8859]  Nandakumar, S., "A Framework for Session Description
              Protocol (SDP) Attributes When Multiplexing", RFC 8859,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8859, January 2021,

   [RFC8866]  Begen, A., Kyzivat, P., Perkins, C., and M. Handley, "SDP:
              Session Description Protocol", RFC 8866,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8866, January 2021,

7.2.  Informative References

   [RFC3550]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
              Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
              Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, DOI 10.17487/RFC3550,
              July 2003, <>.

   [RFC3830]  Arkko, J., Carrara, E., Lindholm, F., Naslund, M., and K.
              Norrman, "MIKEY: Multimedia Internet KEYing", RFC 3830,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3830, August 2004,

   [RFC4567]  Arkko, J., Lindholm, F., Naslund, M., Norrman, K., and E.
              Carrara, "Key Management Extensions for Session
              Description Protocol (SDP) and Real Time Streaming
              Protocol (RTSP)", RFC 4567, DOI 10.17487/RFC4567, July
              2006, <>.

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   [RFC4771]  Lehtovirta, V., Naslund, M., and K. Norrman, "Integrity
              Transform Carrying Roll-Over Counter for the Secure Real-
              time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC 4771,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4771, January 2007,

   [RFC5159]  Dondeti, L., Ed. and A. Jerichow, "Session Description
              Protocol (SDP) Attributes for Open Mobile Alliance (OMA)
              Broadcast (BCAST) Service and Content Protection",
              RFC 5159, DOI 10.17487/RFC5159, March 2008,

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed. and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for Syntax
              Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5234, January 2008,

   [RFC5479]  Wing, D., Ed., Fries, S., Tschofenig, H., and F. Audet,
              "Requirements and Analysis of Media Security Management
              Protocols", RFC 5479, DOI 10.17487/RFC5479, April 2009,

   [RFC5576]  Lennox, J., Ott, J., and T. Schierl, "Source-Specific
              Media Attributes in the Session Description Protocol
              (SDP)", RFC 5576, DOI 10.17487/RFC5576, June 2009,

   [RFC5763]  Fischl, J., Tschofenig, H., and E. Rescorla, "Framework
              for Establishing a Secure Real-time Transport Protocol
              (SRTP) Security Context Using Datagram Transport Layer
              Security (DTLS)", RFC 5763, DOI 10.17487/RFC5763, May
              2010, <>.

   [RFC5764]  McGrew, D. and E. Rescorla, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security (DTLS) Extension to Establish Keys for the Secure
              Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC 5764,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5764, May 2010,

   [RFC6184]  Wang, Y.-K., Even, R., Kristensen, T., and R. Jesup, "RTP
              Payload Format for H.264 Video", RFC 6184,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6184, May 2011,

   [RFC6189]  Zimmermann, P., Johnston, A., Ed., and J. Callas, "ZRTP:
              Media Path Key Agreement for Unicast Secure RTP",
              RFC 6189, DOI 10.17487/RFC6189, April 2011,

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   [RFC6904]  Lennox, J., "Encryption of Header Extensions in the Secure
              Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC 6904,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6904, April 2013,

   [RFC7201]  Westerlund, M. and C. Perkins, "Options for Securing RTP
              Sessions", RFC 7201, DOI 10.17487/RFC7201, April 2014,

   [RFC7714]  McGrew, D. and K. Igoe, "AES-GCM Authenticated Encryption
              in the Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)",
              RFC 7714, DOI 10.17487/RFC7714, December 2015,

   [RFC8723]  Jennings, C., Jones, P., Barnes, R., and A.B. Roach,
              "Double Encryption Procedures for the Secure Real-Time
              Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC 8723,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8723, April 2020,

   [RFC8792]  Watsen, K., Auerswald, E., Farrel, A., and Q. Wu,
              "Handling Long Lines in Content of Internet-Drafts and
              RFCs", RFC 8792, DOI 10.17487/RFC8792, June 2020,

   [RFC8870]  Jennings, C., Mattsson, J., McGrew, D., Wing, D., and F.
              Andreasen, "Encrypted Key Transport for DTLS and Secure
              RTP", RFC 8870, DOI 10.17487/RFC8870, January 2021,

   [RFC8871]  Jones, P., Benham, D., and C. Groves, "A Solution
              Framework for Private Media in Privacy-Enhanced RTP
              Conferencing (PERC)", RFC 8871, DOI 10.17487/RFC8871,
              January 2021, <>.

   [RFC8872]  Westerlund, M., Burman, B., Perkins, C., Alvestrand, H.,
              and R. Even, "Guidelines for Using the Multiplexing
              Features of RTP to Support Multiple Media Streams",
              RFC 8872, DOI 10.17487/RFC8872, January 2021,

   [RFC9335]  Uberti, J., Jennings, C., and S. Murillo, "Completely
              Encrypting RTP Header Extensions and Contributing
              Sources", RFC 9335, DOI 10.17487/RFC9335, January 2023,

Authors' Addresses

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   Kyzer R. Davis
   Cisco Systems

   Esteban Valverde
   Cisco Systems

   Gonzalo Salgueiro
   Cisco Systems

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