Blockchain-based IoT Infrastructure Functional Requirements

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Last updated 2018-09-14
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DINRG                                                            H. Ding
Internet-Draft                                                   Z. Jiao
Intended status: Informational                                 Chaincomp
Expires: March 13, 2019                               September 14, 2018

Blockchain-based IoT Infrastructure Functional Requirements


This document specifies the functional requirements for a 
Blockchain-based IoT infrastructure, including the IoT device identity 
management, service demand and supply matching, support of smart 
contract, etc. 

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on March 13, 2019.

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Table of Contents
1. Introduction 2
2. Blockchain enabled IoT infrastructure requirements   3
2.1. Identity Management        3
2.2. Service Demand and Supply Matching 4
2.3. Decentralized Service Scheduling   4
2.3.1. Service Matching Policies        4
2.3.2. Consensus Protocols      4
2.4. Smart Contract     5
3. Different Node Types and Functions   5
4. Security Considerations      6
5. IANA Considerations  7
6. Acknowledgments      7

1. Introduction

With IoT devices proliferating in smart homes, smart cities, smart 
industries, smart transport, smart health, etc., these devices often 
lack security consideration due to constrained resources, hence 
vulnerable to hacking which may cause serious problems in businesses, 
environment and day-to-day lives. Besides, vendor specific IoT 
platforms hinder data exchange among devices, create isolated value 
island and hampers the growth of the ecosystem. The emerging Blockchain 
technologies, with a decentralized trustless architecture and 
incentives for sharing, may be able to resolve the trust, security and 
interoperability challenges for IoT. 

IoT devices play an important part in businesses growth via digital 
transformation, while Blockchain technologies can be adopted 
to manage the identities of those devices as the very beginning to 
establish trust. Once registered in the immutable decentralized ledger, 
admission control can be implemented, potential threats can be detected 
and mitigated.

Autonomous coordination among devices via transactions and smart 
contracts incentivize data and resource exchange across different 
vendor specific IoT devices, thus enables Device-to-Device economy.

2. Blockchain enabled IoT infrastructure requirements

The Blockchain-based IoT infrastructure should support identity 
management, service demand and supply matching, smart contract, etc. in 
a proper way to realize the value of Internet of Things. A possible 
large scale Blockchain-based IoT infrastructure can be a hybrid of 
permission-less chain and permissioned chain, and applications can 
choose different deployment that suits its business requirements.

2.1. Identity Management
The life span of an IoT device can be several years to decades. The 
infrastructure should support identity management which is able able to 
register the device on the immutable ledger and authenticate its 
identity when necessary during its lifetime. 

Once a device is produced, the manufacturer can register an 
identifiable ID along with its manufacturing information, such as 
warranty, to a permission-less chain so that it can provide maintenance 
to customers after products are sold. Besides, the registration on 
permission-less public chain allows every one accessIf necessary, such 
identity information can also be used in shipping and inventory 
management at retailor sites.

After the device is purchased, the user obtains its full ownership 
including the data it collects and generates. The device should be able 
to generate a pair of public key and private key. The public key is 
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