Character Normalization in IETF Protocols

Document Type Expired Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Martin Dürst  , Mark Davis 
Last updated 2000-09-13
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This Internet-Draft is no longer active. A copy of the expired Internet-Draft can be found at


The Universal Character Set (UCS) [ISO10646, Unicode] covers a very wide repertoire of characters. The IETF, in [RFC 2277], requires that future IETF protocols support UTF-8 [RFC 2279], an ASCII-compatible encoding of UCS. The wide range of characters included in the UCS has lead to some cases of duplicate encodings. This document proposes that in IETF protocols, the class of duplicates called canonical equivalents be dealt with by using Early Uniform Normalization according to Unicode Normalization Form C, Canonical Composition (NFC) [UTR15]. This document describes both Early Uniform Normalization and Normalization Form C.


Martin Dürst (
Mark Davis (

(Note: The e-mail addresses provided for the authors of this Internet-Draft may no longer be valid.)