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Internationalized Resource Identifiers (IRIs)

Document type: Replaced Internet-Draft (individual in app area)
Document stream: IETF
Last updated: 2010-07-07 (latest revision 2009-10-26)
Intended RFC status: Proposed Standard
Other versions: (expired, archived): plain text, pdf, html

IETF State: (None)
Document shepherd: No shepherd assigned

IESG State: Replaced by draft-ietf-iri-3987bis
Responsible AD: Alexey Melnikov
Send notices to:,,

This Internet-Draft is no longer active. A copy of the expired Internet-Draft can be found here:


This document defines the Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI) protocol element, as an extension of the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). An IRI is a sequence of characters from the Universal Character Set (Unicode/ISO 10646). Grammar and processing rules are given for IRIs and related syntactic forms. In addition, this document provides named additional rule sets for processing otherwise invalid IRIs, in a way that supports other specifications that wish to mandate common behavior for 'error' handling. In particular, rules used in some XML languages (LEIRI) and web applications are given. Defining IRI as new protocol element (rather than updating or extending the definition of URI) allows independent orderly transitions: other protocols and languages that use URIs must explicitly choose to allow IRIs. Guidelines are provided for the use and deployment of IRIs and related protocol elements when revising protocols, formats, and software components that currently deal only with URIs. [RFC Editor: Please remove this paragraph before publication.] This document is intended to update RFC 3987 and move towards IETF Draft Standard. This is an interim version in preparation for the IRI BOF at IETF 76 in Hiroshima. For discussion and comments on this draft, please use the mailing list.


Martin Dürst <>
Michel Suignard <>
Larry Masinter <>

(Note: The e-mail addresses provided for the authors of this Internet-Draft may no longer be valid)