Commercial National Security Algorithm (CNSA) Suite Cryptography for Secure Shell (SSH)
draft-gajcowski-cnsa-ssh-profile-07

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Nicholas Gajcowski  , Michael Jenkins 
Last updated 2022-01-18 (latest revision 2022-01-14)
Stream Independent Submission
Intended RFC status Informational
Formats plain text html xml htmlized pdfized bibtex
IETF conflict review conflict-review-gajcowski-cnsa-ssh-profile
Stream ISE state Sent to the RFC Editor
Consensus Boilerplate Unknown
Document shepherd Adrian Farrel
Shepherd write-up Show (last changed 2021-12-17)
IESG IESG state I-D Exists
Telechat date
Responsible AD (None)
Send notices to Adrian Farrel <rfc-ise@rfc-editor.org>
IANA IANA review state Version Changed - Review Needed
IANA action state No IANA Actions
RFC Editor RFC Editor state EDIT
Details
Network Working Group                                       N. Gajcowski
Internet-Draft                                                M. Jenkins
Intended status: Informational                                       NSA
Expires: 18 July 2022                                    14 January 2022

  Commercial National Security Algorithm (CNSA) Suite Cryptography for
                           Secure Shell (SSH)
                  draft-gajcowski-cnsa-ssh-profile-07

Abstract

   The United States Government has published the NSA Commercial
   National Security Algorithm (CNSA) Suite, which defines cryptographic
   algorithm policy for national security applications.  This document
   specifies the conventions for using the United States National
   Security Agency's CNSA Suite algorithms with the Secure Shell
   Transport Layer Protocol and the Secure Shell Authentication
   Protocol.  It applies to the capabilities, configuration, and
   operation of all components of US National Security Systems that
   employ SSH.  US National Security Systems are described in NIST
   Special Publication 800-59.  It is also appropriate for all other US
   Government systems that process high-value information.  It is made
   publicly available for use by developers and operators of these and
   any other system deployments.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 18 July 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

Gajcowski & Jenkins       Expires 18 July 2022                  [Page 1]
Internet-Draft           CNSA Suite SSH Profile             January 2022

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  The Commercial National Security Algorithm Suite  . . . . . .   3
   4.  CNSA and Secure Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   5.  Security Mechanism Negotiation and Initialization . . . . . .   5
   6.  Key Exchange  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     6.1.  ECDH Key Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     6.2.  DH Key Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  Authentication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     7.1.  Server Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     7.2.  User Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   8.  Confidentiality and Data Integrity of SSH Binary Packets  . .   8
     8.1.  Galois/Counter Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     8.2.  Data Integrity  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   9.  Rekeying  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11

1.  Introduction

   This document specifies conventions for using the United States
   National Security Agency's CNSA Suite algorithms [CNSA] with Secure
   Shell Transport Layer Protocol [RFC4253] and the Secure Shell
   Authentication Protocol [RFC4252].  It applies to the capabilities,
   configuration, and operation of all components of US National
   Security Systems that employ SSH.  US National Security Systems are
   described in NIST Special Publication 800-59 [SP80059].  It is also
   appropriate for all other US Government systems that process high-
   value information.  It is made publicly available for use by
   developers and operators of these and any other system deployments.

Gajcowski & Jenkins       Expires 18 July 2022                  [Page 2]
Internet-Draft           CNSA Suite SSH Profile             January 2022

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  The Commercial National Security Algorithm Suite

   The National Security Agency (NSA) profiles commercial cryptographic
   algorithms and protocols as part of its mission to support secure,
   interoperable communications for US Government National Security
   Systems.  To this end, it publishes guidance both to assist with the
   US Government transition to new algorithms, and to provide vendors -
   and the Internet community in general - with information concerning
   their proper use and configuration.

   Recently, cryptographic transition plans have become overshadowed by
   the prospect of the development of a cryptographically-relevant
   quantum computer.  NSA has established the Commercial National
   Security Algorithm (CNSA) Suite to provide vendors and IT users near-
   term flexibility in meeting their information assurance
   interoperability requirements using current cryptography.  The
   purpose behind this flexibility is to avoid vendors and customers
   making two major transitions (i.e. to elliptic curve cryptography,
   and then to post-quantum cryptography) in a relatively short
   timeframe, as we anticipate a need to shift to quantum-resistant
   cryptography in the near future.

   NSA is authoring a set of RFCs, including this one, to provide
   updated guidance concerning the use of certain commonly available
   commercial algorithms in IETF protocols.  These RFCs can be used in
   conjunction with other RFCs and cryptographic guidance (e.g., NIST
   Special Publications) to properly protect Internet traffic and data-
   at-rest for US Government National Security Systems.

4.  CNSA and Secure Shell

   Several RFCs have documented how each of the CNSA components are to
   be integrated into Secure Shell (SSH):

      kex algorithms

         ecdh-sha2-nistp384 [RFC5656]

         diffie-hellman-group15-sha512 [RFC8268]

Gajcowski & Jenkins       Expires 18 July 2022                  [Page 3]
Internet-Draft           CNSA Suite SSH Profile             January 2022

         diffie-hellman-group16-sha512 [RFC8268]

      public key algorithms

         ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 [RFC5656]

         rsa-sha2-512 [RFC8332]

      encryption algorithms (both client_to_server and server_to_client)

         AEAD_AES_256_GCM [RFC5647]

      MAC algorithms (both client_to_server and server_to_client)

         AEAD_AES_256_GCM [RFC5647]

   While the approved CNSA hash function for all purposes is SHA-384, as
   defined in [FIPS180], commercial products are more likely to
   incorporate the SHA-512 (sha2-512) based kex algorithms and public
   key algorithms defined in [RFC8268] and [RFC8332].  Therefore, the
   SHA-384 based kex and public key algorithms SHOULD be used; SHA-512
   based algorithms MAY be used.  Any hash algorithm other than SHA-384
   or SHA-512 MUST NOT be used.

   Use of AES GCM shall meet the requirements set forth in SP 800-38D
   with the additional requirements that all 16 octets of the
   authentication tag MUST be used as the SSH data integrity value and
   that AES is used with a 256-bit key.  Use of AES-GCM in SSH should be
   done as described in RFC 5647, with the exception that AES-GCM need
   not be listed as the MAC algorithm when its use is implicit (such as
   done in aes256-gcm@openssh.com).  In addition, RFC 5647 failed to
   specify that the AES GCM invocation counter is incremented mod 2^64.
   CNSA implementations MUST ensure the counter never repeats and is
   properly incremented after processing a binary packet:
   invocation_counter = invocation_counter + 1 mod 2^64.

   The purpose of this document is to draw upon all of these documents
   to provide guidance for CNSA compliant implementations of Secure
   Shell.  Algorithms specified in this document may be different to
   mandatory-to-implement algorithms; in that case the latter will be
   present but not used.  Note that while compliant Secure Shell
   implementations MUST follow the guidance in this document, that
   requirement does not in and of itself imply that a given
   implementation of Secure Shell is suitable for use national security
   systems.  An implementation must be validated by the appropriate
   authority before such usage is permitted.

Gajcowski & Jenkins       Expires 18 July 2022                  [Page 4]
Internet-Draft           CNSA Suite SSH Profile             January 2022

5.  Security Mechanism Negotiation and Initialization

   As described in Section 7.1 of [RFC4253], the exchange of
   SSH_MSG_KEXINIT between the server and the client establishes which
   key agreement algorithm, MAC algorithm, host key algorithm (server
   authentication algorithm), and encryption algorithm are to be used.
   This section specifies the use of CNSA components in the Secure Shell
   algorithm negotiation, key agreement, server authentication, and user
   authentication.

   The choice of all but the user authentication methods are determined
   by the exchange of SSH_MSG_KEXINIT between the client and the server.

   The kex_algorithms name-list is used to negotiate a single key
   agreement algorithm between the server and client in accordance with
   the guidance given in Section 2.  While ID.ietf-curdle-ssh-kex-sha2
   establishes general guidance on the capabilities of SSH
   implementations and requires support for "diffie-hellman-
   group14-sha256", it MUST NOT be used.  The result MUST be one of the
   following kex_algorithms or the connection MUST be terminated.

      ecdh-sha2-nistp384 [RFC5656]

      diffie-hellman-group15-sha512 [RFC8268]

      diffie-hellman-group16-sha512 [RFC8268]

   One of the following sets MUST be used for the encryption_algorithms
   and mac_algorithms name-lists.  Either set MAY be used for each
   direction (i.e. client_to_server, server_to_client) but the result
   must be the same (i.e. use of AEAD_AES_256_GCM).  This option MUST be
   used.

      encryption_algorithm_name_list := { AEAD_AES_256_GCM }

      mac_algorithm_name_list := { AEAD_AES_256_GCM }

   or

      encryption_algorithm_name_list := { aes256-gcm@openssh.com }

      mac_algorithm_name_list := {}

   One of the following public key algorithms MUST be used.

      rsa-sha2-512 [RFC8332]

      ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 [RFC5656]

Gajcowski & Jenkins       Expires 18 July 2022                  [Page 5]
Internet-Draft           CNSA Suite SSH Profile             January 2022

   The procedures for applying the negotiated algorithms are given in
   the following sections.

6.  Key Exchange

   The key exchange to be used is determined by the name-lists exchanged
   in the SSH_MSG_KEXINIT packets as described above.  Either elliptic
   curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) or Diffie-Hellman (DH) MUST be used to
   establish a shared secret value between the client and the server.

   A compliant system MUST NOT allow the reuse of ephemeral/exchange
   values in a key exchange algorithm due to security concerns related
   to this practice.  Section 5.6.3.3 of [SP80056A] states that an
   ephemeral private key must be used in exactly one key establishment
   transaction and must be destroyed (zeroized) as soon as possible.
   Section 5.8 of [SP80056A] states that such shared secrets must be
   destroyed (zeroized) immediately after its use.  CNSA compliant
   systems MUST follow these mandates.

6.1.  ECDH Key Exchange

   The key exchange begins with the SSH_MSG_KEXECDH_INIT message which
   contains the client's ephemeral public key used to generate a shared
   secret value.

   The server responds to a SSH_MSG_KEXECDH_INIT message with a
   SSH_MSG_KEXECDH_REPLY message which contains the server's ephemeral
   public key, the server's public host key, and a signature of the
   exchange hash value formed from the newly established shared secret
   value.  The kex algorithm MUST be ecdh-sha2-nistp384, and the public
   key algorithm MUST be either ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 or rsa-sha2-512.

6.2.  DH Key Exchange

   The key exchange begins with the SSH_MSG_KEXDH_INIT message which
   contains the client's DH exchange value used to generate a shared
   secret value.

   The server responds to a SSH_MSG_KEXDH_INIT message with a
   SSH_MSG_KEXDH_REPLY message.  The SSH_MSG_KEXDH_REPLY contains the
   server's DH exchange value, the server's public host key, and a
   signature of the exchange hash value formed from the newly
   established shared secret value.  The kex algorithm MUST be one of
   diffie-hellman-group15-sha512 or diffie-hellman-group16-sha512, and
   the public key algorithm MUST be either ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 or rsa-
   sha2-512.

Gajcowski & Jenkins       Expires 18 July 2022                  [Page 6]
Internet-Draft           CNSA Suite SSH Profile             January 2022

7.  Authentication

7.1.  Server Authentication

   A signature on the exchange hash value derived from the newly
   established shared secret value is used to authenticate the server to
   the client.  Servers MUST be authenticated using digital signatures.
   The public key algorithm implemented MUST be ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 or
   rsa-sha2-512.  The RSA public key modulus MUST be 3072 or 4096 bits
   in size; clients MUST NOT accept RSA signatures from a public key
   modulus of any other size.

   The following public key algorithms MUST be used:

      ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 [RFC5656]

      rsa-sha2-512 [RFC8332]

   The client MUST verify that the presented key is a valid
   authenticator for the server before verifying the server signature.
   If possible, validation SHOULD be done using certificates.
   Otherwise, the client MUST validate the presented public key through
   some other secure, possibly off-line mechanism.  Implementations MUST
   NOT employ a trust on first use (TOFU) security model where a client
   accepts the first public host key presented to it from a not yet
   verified server.  Use of a TOFU model would allow an intermediate
   adversary to present itself to the client as the server.

   Where X.509v3 certificates are used, their use MUST comply with
   [RFC8603]

7.2.  User Authentication

   The Secure Shell Transport Layer Protocol authenticates the server to
   the host but does not authenticate the user (or the user's host) to
   the server.  All users MUST be authenticated, MUST follow [RFC4252],
   and SHOULD be authenticated using a public key method.  Users MAY
   authenticate using passwords.  Other methods of authentication MUST
   not be used, including "none".

   When authenticating with public key, the following public key
   algorithms MUST be used:

      ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 [RFC5656]

      rsa-sha2-512 [RFC8332]

Gajcowski & Jenkins       Expires 18 July 2022                  [Page 7]
Internet-Draft           CNSA Suite SSH Profile             January 2022

   The server MUST verify that the public key is a valid authenticator
   for the user.  If possible, validation SHOULD be done using
   certificates.  Otherwise, the server must validate the public key
   through another secure, possibly off-line mechanism.

   Where X.509v3 certificates are used, their use MUST comply with
   [RFC8603].

   If authenticating with RSA, the client's public key modulus MUST be
   3072 or 4096 bits in size, and the server MUST NOT accept signatures
   from an RSA public key modulus of any other size.

   To facilitate client authentication with RSA using SHA-512, clients
   and servers SHOULD implement the server-sig-algs extension as
   specified in [RFC8308].  In that case, in the SSH_MSG_KEXINIT, the
   client SHALL include the indicator ext-info-c to the kex_algorithms
   field, and the server SHOULD respond with a SSH_MSG_EXT_INFO message
   containing the server-sig-algs extension.  The server MUST list only
   ecdsa-sha2-nistp384 and-or rsa-sha2-512 as the acceptable public key
   algorithms in this response.

   If authenticating by passwords, it is essential that passwords have
   sufficient entropy to protect against dictionary attacks.  During
   authentication, the password MUST be protected in the established
   encrypted communications channel.  Additional guidelines are provided
   in [SP80063].

8.  Confidentiality and Data Integrity of SSH Binary Packets

   Secure Shell transfers data between the client and the server using
   its own binary packet structure.  The SSH binary packet structure is
   independent of any packet structure on the underlying data channel.
   The contents of each binary packet and portions of the header are
   encrypted, and each packet is authenticated with its own message
   authentication code.  Use of the Advanced Encryption Standard in
   Galois Counter Mode (AES GCM) will both encrypt the packet and form a
   16-octet authentication tag to ensure data integrity.

8.1.  Galois/Counter Mode

   Use of AES GCM in Secure Shell is described in [RFC5647].  CNSA
   complaint SSH implementations MUST support AES GCM (negotiated as
   AEAD_AES_GCM_256 or aes256-gcm@openssh, see Section 5) to provide
   confidentiality and ensure data integrity.  No other confidentiality
   or data integrity algorithms are permitted.

   The AES GCM invocation counter is incremented mod 2^64.  That is,
   after processing a binary packet:

Gajcowski & Jenkins       Expires 18 July 2022                  [Page 8]
Internet-Draft           CNSA Suite SSH Profile             January 2022

      invocation_counter = invocation_counter + 1 mod 2^64

   The invocation counter MUST NOT repeat a counter value.

8.2.  Data Integrity

   As specified in [RFC5647], all 16 octets of the authentication tag
   MUST be used as the SSH data integrity value of the SSH binary
   packet.

9.  Rekeying

   Section 9 of [RFC4253] allows either the server or the client to
   initiate a 'key re-exchange by sending an SSH_MSG_KEXINIT packet' and
   to 'change some or all of the (cipher) algorithms during re-
   exchange.'  This specification requires the same cipher suite to be
   employed when re-keying, that is, the cipher algorithms MUST NOT be
   changed when a rekey occurs.

10.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations of [RFC4251], [RFC4252], [RFC4253],
   [RFC5647], and [RFC5656] apply.

11.  IANA Considerations

   No IANA actions are requested.

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

   [CNSA]     Committee for National Security Systems, "Use of Public
              Standards for Secure Information Sharing", CNSSP 15,
              October 2016,
              <https://www.cnss.gov/CNSS/Issuances/Policies.htm>.

   [FIPS180]  National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Secure
              Hash Standard (SHS)", Federal Information Processing
              Standard 180-4, August 2015,
              <https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.FIPS.180-4>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

Gajcowski & Jenkins       Expires 18 July 2022                  [Page 9]
Internet-Draft           CNSA Suite SSH Profile             January 2022

   [RFC4251]  Ylonen, T. and C. Lonvick, Ed., "The Secure Shell (SSH)
              Protocol Architecture", RFC 4251, DOI 10.17487/RFC4251,
              January 2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4251>.

   [RFC4252]  Ylonen, T. and C. Lonvick, Ed., "The Secure Shell (SSH)
              Authentication Protocol", RFC 4252, DOI 10.17487/RFC4252,
              January 2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4252>.

   [RFC4253]  Ylonen, T. and C. Lonvick, Ed., "The Secure Shell (SSH)
              Transport Layer Protocol", RFC 4253, DOI 10.17487/RFC4253,
              January 2006, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4253>.

   [RFC5647]  Igoe, K. and J. Solinas, "AES Galois Counter Mode for the
              Secure Shell Transport Layer Protocol", RFC 5647,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5647, August 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5647>.

   [RFC5656]  Stebila, D. and J. Green, "Elliptic Curve Algorithm
              Integration in the Secure Shell Transport Layer",
              RFC 5656, DOI 10.17487/RFC5656, December 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5656>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8268]  Baushke, M., "More Modular Exponentiation (MODP) Diffie-
              Hellman (DH) Key Exchange (KEX) Groups for Secure Shell
              (SSH)", RFC 8268, DOI 10.17487/RFC8268, December 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8268>.

   [RFC8308]  Bider, D., "Extension Negotiation in the Secure Shell
              (SSH) Protocol", RFC 8308, DOI 10.17487/RFC8308, March
              2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8308>.

   [RFC8332]  Bider, D., "Use of RSA Keys with SHA-256 and SHA-512 in
              the Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol", RFC 8332,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8332, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8332>.

   [RFC8603]  Jenkins, M. and L. Zieglar, "Commercial National Security
              Algorithm (CNSA) Suite Certificate and Certificate
              Revocation List (CRL) Profile", RFC 8603,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8603, May 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8603>.

12.2.  Informative References

Gajcowski & Jenkins       Expires 18 July 2022                 [Page 10]
Internet-Draft           CNSA Suite SSH Profile             January 2022

   [SP80056A] National Institute of Standards and Technology,
              "Recommendation for Pair-Wise Key Establishment Schemes
              Using Discrete Logarithm Cryptography", NIST Special
              Publication 800-56A, Revision 3, April 2018,
              <https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.SP.800-56Ar3>.

   [SP80059]  National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Guideline
              for Identifying an Information System as a National
              Security System", Special Publication 800-59 , August
              2003, <https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.SP.800-59>.

   [SP80063]  National Institute of Standards and Technology, "Digital
              Identity Guidelines", NIST Special Publication 800-63,
              Revision 3, June 2017,
              <https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.SP.800-63-3>.

Authors' Addresses

   Nicholas Gajcowski
   National Security Agency

   Email: nhgajco@uwe.nsa.gov

   Michael Jenkins
   National Security Agency

   Email: mjjenki@cyber.nsa.gov

Gajcowski & Jenkins       Expires 18 July 2022                 [Page 11]