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Validation of IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Options
draft-gont-6man-nd-opt-validation-00

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Document Type This is an older version of an Internet-Draft whose latest revision is Replaced
Authors Fernando Gont , Ron Bonica , Will (Shucheng) LIU
Last updated 2014-08-08
Replaced by draft-ietf-6man-nd-opt-validation
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draft-gont-6man-nd-opt-validation-00
IPv6 maintenance Working Group (6man)                            F. Gont
Internet-Draft                                    SI6 Networks / UTN-FRH
Updates: 4861 (if approved)                                    R. Bonica
Intended status: Standards Track                        Juniper Networks
Expires: February 12, 2015                                        W. Liu
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                         August 11, 2014

             Validation of IPv6 Neighbor Discovery Options
                  draft-gont-6man-nd-opt-validation-00

Abstract

   This memo specifies validation rules for IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND)
   Options.  In order to avoid pathological outcomes, IPv6
   implementations validate incoming ND options using these rules.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 12, 2015.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of

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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  The Source Link-Layer Address (SLLA) Option . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  The Target Link-Layer Address (TLLA) Option . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  The Prefix Information Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   6.  The Redirected Header Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   7.  The MTU Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   8.  The Route Information Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   9.  The Recursive DNS Server (RDNSS) Option . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   10. The DNS Search List (DNSSL) Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   11. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   12. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   13. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   14. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12

1.  Introduction

   IPv6 [RFC2460] nodes use Neighbor Discovery (ND) [RFC4861] to
   discover their neighbors and to learn their neighbors' link-layer
   addresses.  IPv6 hosts also use ND to find neighboring routers that
   can forward packets on their behalf.  Finally, IPv6 nodes use ND to
   verify neighbor reachability, and to detect link-layer address
   changes.

   ND defines the following ICMPv6 [RFC4443] messages:

   o  Router Solicitation (RS)

   o  Router Advertisement (RA)

   o  Neighbor Solicitation (NS)

   o  Neighbor Advertisement (NA)

   o  Redirect

   ND messages can include options that convey additional information.
   Currently, the following ND options are specified:

   o  Source link-layer address(SLLA) [RFC4861]

   o  Target link-layer address (TLLA) [RFC4861]

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   o  Prefix information [RFC4861]

   o  Redirected header [RFC4861]

   o  MTU [RFC4861]

   o  Route Information [RFC4191]

   o  Recursive DNS Server (RDNSS) [RFC6106]

   o  DNS Search List (DNSSL) [RFC6106]

   This memo specifies validation rules for the ND options mentioned
   above.  In order to avoid pathological outcomes, IPv6 implementations
   validate incoming ND options using these rules.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  The Source Link-Layer Address (SLLA) Option

   NS, RS, and RA messages MAY contain an SLLA Option.  If any other ND
   message contains an SLLA Option, the SLLA Option MUST be ignored.
   However, the rest of the ND message MAY be processed.

   Figure 1 illustrates the SLLA Option:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |    Length     |    Link-Layer Address ...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 1: Source Link-Layer Address Option

   The Type field is set to 1.

   The Length field specifies the length of the option (including the
   Type and Length fields) in units of 8 octets.  The Length field MUST
   be valid for the underlying link layer.  For example, for IEEE 802
   addresses the Length field MUST be 1 [RFC2464].  If an incoming ND
   message does not pass this validation check, the entire ND message
   MUST be discarded.

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   The Link-Layer Address field specifies the link-layer address of the
   packet's originator.  It MUST NOT be any of the following:

   o  a broadcast address

   o  a multicast address

   o  an address belonging to the receiving node

   If an incoming ND message does not pass this validation check, the
   SLLA Option MUST be ignored.  However, the rest of the ND message MAY
   be processed.

   An ND message that carries the SLLA Option MUST have a source address
   other than the unspecified address (0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0).  If an incoming
   ND message does not pass this validation check, the SLLA Option MUST
   be ignored.  However, the rest of the ND message MAY be processed.

4.  The Target Link-Layer Address (TLLA) Option

   NA and Redirect messages MAY contain a TLLA Option.  If any other ND
   message contains an TLLA Option, the TLLA Option MUST be ignored.
   However, the rest of the ND message MAY be processed.

   Figure 2 illustrates the Target link-layer address:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |    Length     |    Link-Layer Address ...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

             Figure 2: Target link-layer address option format

   The Type field is set to 2.

   The Length field specifies the length of the option (including the
   Type and Length fields) in units of 8 octets.  The Length field MUST
   be valid for the underlying link layer.  For example, for IEEE 802
   addresses the Length field MUST be 1 [RFC2464].  If an incoming ND
   message does not pass this validation check, the entire ND message
   MUST be discarded.

   An ND message that carries the TLLA option also includes a Target
   Address.  The TLLA Option Link-Layer Address maps to the Target
   Address.  The TLLA Option Link-Layer Address MUST NOT be any of the
   following:

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   o  a broadcast address

   o  a multicast address

   o  an address belonging to the receiving node

   If an incoming ND message does not pass this validation check, the
   TLLA Option MUST be ignored.  However, the rest of the ND message MAY
   be processed.

5.  The Prefix Information Option

   The RA message MAY contain a Prefix Information Option.  If any other
   ND message contains an Prefix Information Option, the Prefix
   Information Option MUST be ignored.  However, the rest of the ND
   message MAY be processed.

   Figure 3 illustrates the Prefix Information Option:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |    Length     | Prefix Length |L|A|R|Reserved1|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                         Valid Lifetime                        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                       Preferred Lifetime                      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                           Reserved2                           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +                            Prefix                             +
     |                                                               |
     +                                                               +
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 3: Prefix Information option format

   The Type field is set to 3.

   The Length field MUST BE set to 4.  If an incoming ND message does
   not pass this validation check, the entire ND message MUST be
   discarded.

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   The Prefix Length is an 8-bit unsigned integer that specifies the
   prefix length (i.e., the number of leading bits in the Prefix field
   that are significant).  Its value MUST be greater than or equal to
   32.  If an incoming ND message does not pass this validation check,
   the Prefix Information Option MUST be ignored.  However, the rest of
   the ND message MAY be processed.

   The Valid Lifetime field is a 32-bit unsigned integer that specifies
   the amount of time (in seconds) this prefix can be used for on-link
   determination (with a value of 0xffffffff representing 'infinity').
   Host SHOULD set the effective Valid Lifetime as follows:

           EffectiveVL = max(Valid Lifetime, MIN_VALID_LIFETIME)

   Where EffectiveVL is the effective 'Valid Lifetime', and
   MIN_VALID_LIFETIME is set to 1800 (seconds).

   The value of 1800 seconds for MIN_VALID_LIFETIME has been selected to
   coincide with the lower limit enforced on the Router Lifetime
   (MIN_ROUTER_LIFETIME).

   The Preferred Lifetime is a 32-bit unsigned integer that specifies
   the length of time (in seconds) that addresses generated from this
   prefix via stateless address auto-configuration (SLAAC) should remain
   'preferred' (with a value of 0xffffffff representing 'infinity').

   As stated in [RFC4861] the Preferred Lifetime MUST BE less than or
   equal to the Valid Lifetime.  If an incoming ND message does not pass
   this validation check, the Prefix Information Option MUST be ignored.
   However, the rest of the ND message MAY be processed.

   The Prefix field MUST NOT contain a link-local or multicast prefix.
   If an incoming ND message does not pass this validation check, the
   Prefix Information Option MUST be ignored.  However, the rest of the
   ND message MAY be processed.

6.  The Redirected Header Option

   The Redirect message MAY contain a Redirect Header Option.  If any
   other ND message contains an Redirect Header Option, the Redirect
   Header Option MUST be ignored.  However, the rest of the ND message
   MAY be processed.

   Figure 4 illustrates the Redirected Header option:

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      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |    Length     |            Reserved           |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                           Reserved                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     ~                       IP header + data                        ~
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 4: Redirected Header Option format

   The Type field is 4.

   The Length field specifies the option size (including the Type and
   Length fields) in units of 8 octets.  Its value MUST be greater than
   or equal to 6.  If an incoming ND message does not pass this
   validation check, the entire ND message MUST be discarded.

   The value 6 was chosen to accommodate mandatory fields (8 octets)
   plus the base IPv6 header (40 octets).

7.  The MTU Option

   The RA message MAY contain an MTU Option.  If any other ND message
   contains an MTU Option, the MTU Option MUST be ignored.  However, the
   rest of the ND message MAY be processed.

   Figure 5 illustrates the MTU option:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |    Length     |           Reserved            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                              MTU                              |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                        Figure 5: MTU Option Format

   The Type field identifies the kind of option and is set to 5.

   The Length field MUST BE set to 1 by the sender.  If an incoming ND
   message does not pass this validation check, the entire ND message
   MUST be discarded.

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   The MTU field is a 32-bit unsigned integer that specifies the MTU
   value that should be used for this link.  [RFC2460] specifies that
   the minimum IPv6 MTU is 1280 octets.  Therefore, the MTU MUST be
   greater than or equal to 1280.  If an incoming ND message does not
   pass this validation check, the MTU Option MUST be ignored.  However,
   the rest of the ND message MAY be processed.

   Additionally, the advertised MTU MUST NOT exceed the maximum MTU
   specified for the link-type (e.g., [RFC2464] for Ethernet networks).
   If an incoming ND message does not pass this validation check, the
   MTU Option MUST be ignored.  However, the rest of the ND message MAY
   be processed.

8.  The Route Information Option

   The RA message MAY contain a Route Information Option.  If any other
   ND message contains an Route Information Option, the Route
   Information Option MUST be ignored.  However, the rest of the ND
   message MAY be processed.

   Figure 6 illustrates Router Information option:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |    Length     | Prefix Length |Resvd|Prf|Resvd|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                        Route Lifetime                         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                   Prefix (Variable Length)                    |
     .                                                               .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 6: Route Information Option Format

   The Type field is 24.

   The Length field contains the length of the option (including the
   Type and Length fields) in units of 8 octets.  Its value MUST be at
   least 1 and at most 3.  If an incoming ND message does not pass this
   validation check, the entire ND message MUST be discarded.

   The Prefix Length field indicates the number of significant bits in
   the Prefix field that are significant.  Its value MUST be less than
   or equal to 128.  If an incoming ND message does not pass this
   validation check, the entire ND message MUST be discarded.

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   The Length field and the Prefix Length field are closely related, as
   the Length field constrains the possible values of the Prefix Length
   field.  If the Prefix Length is equal to 0, the Length MUST be equal
   to 1.  If the Prefix Length is greater than 0 and less than 65, the
   Length MUST be equal to 2.  If the Prefix Length is greater than 65
   and less than 129, the Length MUST be equal to 3.  If an incoming ND
   message does not pass thes validation checks, the entire ND message
   MUST be discarded.

   The Prefix field MUST NOT contain a link-local unicast prefix
   (fe80::/10) or a link-local multicast prefix (e.g., ff02::0/64).  If
   an incoming ND message does not pass this validation check, the Route
   Information Option MUST be ignored.  However, the rest of the ND
   message MAY be processed.

9.  The Recursive DNS Server (RDNSS) Option

   The RA message MAY contain a Recursive DNS Server (RDNSS) Option.  If
   any other ND message contains an RDNSS Option, the RDNSS Option MUST
   be ignored.  However, the rest of the ND message MAY be processed.

   Figure 7 illustrates the RDNSS options:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |     Length    |           Reserved            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                           Lifetime                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     :            Addresses of IPv6 Recursive DNS Servers            :
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

               Figure 7: Recursive DNS Server Option Format

   The Type field is 25.

   The Length field specifies the length of the option (including the
   Type and Length fields) in units of 8 octets.  Its value MUST be
   greater than or equal to 3.  Also, its value MUST NOT be divisible by
   2.  If an incoming ND message does not pass these validation checks,
   the entire ND message MUST be discarded.

   The Lifetime field specifies the maximum time in seconds that a node
   may use the IPv6 addresses included in the option for name
   resolution, with a value of 0 indicating that they can no longer be

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   used.  If the Lifetime field is not equal to 0, it MUST be at least
   1800 (MinRtrAdvInterval) and at most 3600 (2*MaxRtrAdvInterval).  If
   an incoming ND message does not pass this validation check, the RDNSS
   Option MUST be ignored.  However, the rest of the ND message MAY be
   processed.

   The RDNSS address list MUST NOT contain multicast addresses or the
   unspecified address.  If an incoming ND message does not pass this
   validation check, the RDNSS Option MUST be ignored.  However, the
   rest of the ND message MAY be processed.

10.  The DNS Search List (DNSSL) Option

   The RA message MAY contain a DNS Search List (DNSSL) Option.  If any
   other ND message contains an DNSSL Option, the DNSSL Option MUST be
   ignored.  However, the rest of the ND message MAY be processed.

   Figure 8 illustrates the DNSSL option:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |     Length    |           Reserved            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                           Lifetime                            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |                                                               |
     :                Domain Names of DNS Search List                :
     |                                                               |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                  Figure 8: DNS Search List Option Format

   The Type field is 31.

   The Length field specifies the length of the option (including the
   Type and Length fields) in units of 8 octets.  Its value MUST be
   greater than or equal to 2.  If an incoming ND message does not pass
   these validation checks, the entire ND message MUST be discarded.

   The Lifetime field specifies the maximum time, in seconds (relative
   to the time the packet is sent), over which this DNSSL domain name
   may be used for name resolution, with a value of 0 indicating that it
   can no longer be used.  If the Lifetime field is not equal to 0, it
   MUST be at least 1800 (MinRtrAdvInterval) and at most 3600
   (2*MaxRtrAdvInterval).  If an incoming ND message does not pass this
   validation check, the DNSSL Option MUST be ignored.  However, the
   rest of the ND message MAY be processed.

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   The domain suffixes included in this option MUST be encoded with the
   simple encoding specified in Section 3.1 of [RFC1035].  Therefore, if
   any of the labels of a domain does not have the first two bits set to
   zero, the corresponding DNSSL option MUST be ignored.

11.  IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA registries within this document.  The RFC-Editor
   can remove this section before publication of this document as an
   RFC.

12.  Security Considerations

   This document specifies sanity checks to be performed on Neighbor
   Discovery options.  By enforcing the checks specified in this
   document, a number of pathological behaviors (including some leading
   to Denial of Service scenarios) are eliminated.

13.  Acknowledgements

   TBD.

14.  Normative References

   [RFC1035]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and
              specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2464]  Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet
              Networks", RFC 2464, December 1998.

   [RFC4191]  Draves, R. and D. Thaler, "Default Router Preferences and
              More-Specific Routes", RFC 4191, November 2005.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC4443]  Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, "Internet Control
              Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol
              Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443, March 2006.

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, December 1998.

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   [RFC6106]  Jeong, J., Park, S., Beloeil, L., and S. Madanapalli,
              "IPv6 Router Advertisement Options for DNS Configuration",
              RFC 6106, November 2010.

Authors' Addresses

   Fernando Gont
   SI6 Networks / UTN-FRH
   Evaristo Carriego 2644
   Haedo, Provincia de Buenos Aires  1706
   Argentina

   Phone: +54 11 4650 8472
   Email: fgont@si6networks.com
   URI:   http://www.si6networks.com

   Ronald P. Bonica
   Juniper Networks
   2251 Corporate Park Drive
   Herndon, VA  20171
   US

   Phone: 571 250 5819
   Email: rbonica@juniper.net

   Will (Shucheng) Liu
   Huawei Technologies
   Bantian, Longgang District
   Shenzhen  518129
   P.R. China

   Email: liushucheng@huawei.com

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