Security Assessment of Neighbor Discovery (ND) for IPv6
draft-gont-opsec-ipv6-nd-security-00

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Operational Security Capabilities for                            F. Gont
IP Network Infrastructure (opsec)                 SI6 Networks / UTN-FRH
Internet-Draft                                         November 29, 2012
Intended status: Informational
Expires: June 2, 2013

        Security Assessment of Neighbor Discovery (ND) for IPv6
                  draft-gont-opsec-ipv6-nd-security-00

Abstract

   Neighbor Discovery is one of the core protocols of the IPv6 suite,
   and provides in IPv6 similar functions to those provided in the IPv4
   protocol suite by the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and the
   Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP).  Its increased flexibility
   implies a somewhat increased complexity, which has resulted in a
   number of bugs and vulnerabilities found in popular implementations.
   This document provides guidance in the implementation of Neighbor
   Discovery, and documents issues that have affected popular
   implementations, in the hopes that the same issues do not repeat in
   other implementations.

Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 2, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal

Gont                      Expires June 2, 2013                  [Page 1]
Internet-Draft           ND Security Assessment            November 2012

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Table of Contents

   1.  DISCLAIMER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   3.  Neighbor Discovery messages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  Router Solicitation message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  Router Advertisement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.3.  Neighbor Solicitation message  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.4.  Neighbor Advertisement message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.5.  Redirect message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     3.6.  Neighbor Discovery Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
       3.6.1.  General issues with Neighbor Discovery options . . . . 19
       3.6.2.  Source Link-Layer Address Option . . . . . . . . . . . 20
       3.6.3.  Target Link-Layer Address Option . . . . . . . . . . . 22
       3.6.4.  Prefix Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
       3.6.5.  Redirected Header Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
       3.6.6.  MTU Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
       3.6.7.  Route Information Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
       3.6.8.  Recursive DNS Server Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   4.  Router and Prefix Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     4.1.  Router Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
     4.2.  Host Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
   5.  Address Resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
     5.1.  Interface initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
     5.2.  Receipt of Neighbor Solicitation messages  . . . . . . . . 38
   6.  Vulnerability analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
     6.1.  Denial of Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
       6.1.1.  Neighbor Cache poisoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
       6.1.2.  Tampering with Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) . . . 40
       6.1.3.  Tampering with Neighbor Unreachability Detection
               (NUD)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
       6.1.4.  Rogue Router . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
       6.1.5.  Parameter spoofing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
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