Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) version 2

Document Type Expired Internet-Draft (individual)
Author Paul Hoffman 
Last updated 2009-03-04
Stream (None)
Intended RFC status (None)
Expired & archived
pdf htmlized (tools) htmlized bibtex
Stream Stream state (No stream defined)
Consensus Boilerplate Unknown
RFC Editor Note (None)
IESG IESG state Expired
Telechat date
Responsible AD (None)
Send notices to (None)

This Internet-Draft is no longer active. A copy of the expired Internet-Draft can be found at


IDNA has been a world-wide success since it was introduced over five years ago. However, it has some notable deficiencies, including being tied to an old version of the Unicode standard and needless restrictions that prevented some languages from being used. This document describes IDNA version 2, which rectifies those problems while making the fewest changes necessary to the original protocol.


Paul Hoffman (

(Note: The e-mail addresses provided for the authors of this Internet-Draft may no longer be valid.)