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Admin Interface for the OSCORE Group Manager
draft-ietf-ace-oscore-gm-admin-06

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (ace WG)
Authors Marco Tiloca , Rikard Höglund , Peter Van der Stok , Francesca Palombini
Last updated 2022-07-11
Replaces draft-tiloca-ace-oscore-gm-admin
Stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
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Stream WG state WG Document
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Dec 2021
Submission to the IESG of "Admin Interface for the OSCORE Group Manager"
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draft-ietf-ace-oscore-gm-admin-06
ACE Working Group                                              M. Tiloca
Internet-Draft                                                R. Höglund
Intended status: Standards Track                                 RISE AB
Expires: 12 January 2023                                 P. van der Stok
                                                              Consultant
                                                            F. Palombini
                                                             Ericsson AB
                                                            11 July 2022

              Admin Interface for the OSCORE Group Manager
                   draft-ietf-ace-oscore-gm-admin-06

Abstract

   Group communication for CoAP can be secured using Group Object
   Security for Constrained RESTful Environments (Group OSCORE).  A
   Group Manager is responsible to handle the joining of new group
   members, as well as to manage and distribute the group keying
   material.  This document defines a RESTful admin interface at the
   Group Manager, that allows an Administrator entity to create and
   delete OSCORE groups, as well as to retrieve and update their
   configuration.  The ACE framework for Authentication and
   Authorization is used to enforce authentication and authorization of
   the Administrator at the Group Manager.  Protocol-specific transport
   profiles of ACE are used to achieve communication security, proof-of-
   possession and server authentication.

Discussion Venues

   This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

   Discussion of this document takes place on the Authentication and
   Authorization for Constrained Environments Working Group mailing list
   (ace@ietf.org), which is archived at
   https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/browse/ace/.

   Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
   https://github.com/ace-wg/ace-oscore-gm-admin.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on 12 January 2023.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
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   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Group Administration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.1.  Managing OSCORE Groups  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     2.2.  Collection Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     2.3.  Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   3.  Format of Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.1.  On Enforcing Different Classes of Administrators  . . . .  13
   4.  Getting Access to the Group Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   5.  Group Configurations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     5.1.  Group Configuration Representation  . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       5.1.1.  Configuration Properties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       5.1.2.  Status Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
     5.2.  Default Values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       5.2.1.  Configuration Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
       5.2.2.  Status Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
   6.  Interactions with the Group Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     6.1.  Retrieve the Full List of Group Configurations  . . . . .  23
     6.2.  Retrieve a List of Group Configurations by Filters  . . .  24
     6.3.  Create a New Group Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . .  26

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     6.4.  Retrieve a Group Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     6.5.  Retrieve Part of a Group Configuration by Filters . . . .  35
     6.6.  Overwrite a Group Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
       6.6.1.  Effects on Joining Nodes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  41
       6.6.2.  Effects on the Group Members  . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
     6.7.  Selective Update of a Group Configuration . . . . . . . .  44
       6.7.1.  Effects on Joining Nodes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  48
       6.7.2.  Effects on the Group Members  . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
     6.8.  Delete a Group Configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  49
       6.8.1.  Effects on the Group Members  . . . . . . . . . . . .  50
   7.  ACE Groupcomm Error Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  51
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
     9.1.  ACE Groupcomm Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
     9.2.  ACE Groupcomm Errors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     9.3.  Resource Types  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53
     9.4.  Group OSCORE Admin Permissions  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  54
     9.5.  Expert Review Instructions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  55
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  58
   Appendix A.  Processing of Group Name Patterns at the AS  . . . .  60
   Appendix B.  Document Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     B.1.  Version -05 to -06  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     B.2.  Version -04 to -05  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  62
     B.3.  Version -03 to -04  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
     B.4.  Version -02 to -03  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
     B.5.  Version -01 to -02  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  63
     B.6.  Version -00 to -01  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  64

1.  Introduction

   The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) [RFC7252] can be used in
   group communication environments where messages are also exchanged
   over IP multicast [I-D.ietf-core-groupcomm-bis].  Applications
   relying on CoAP can achieve end-to-end security at the application
   layer by using Object Security for Constrained RESTful Environments
   (OSCORE) [RFC8613], and especially Group OSCORE
   [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm] in group communication scenarios.

   When group communication for CoAP is protected with Group OSCORE,
   nodes are required to explicitly join the correct OSCORE group.  To
   this end, a joining node interacts with a Group Manager (GM) entity
   responsible for that group, and retrieves the required keying
   material to securely communicate with other group members using Group
   OSCORE.

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   The method in [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore] specifies how nodes
   can join an OSCORE group through the respective Group Manager.  Such
   a method builds on the ACE framework for Authentication and
   Authorization [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz], so ensuring a secure
   joining process as well as authentication and authorization of
   joining nodes (clients) at the Group Manager (resource server).

   In some deployments, the application running on the Group Manager may
   know when a new OSCORE group has to be created, as well as how it
   should be configured and later on updated or deleted, e.g., based on
   the current application state or on pre-installed policies.  In this
   case, the Group Manager application can create and configure OSCORE
   groups when needed, by using a local application interface.  However,
   this requires the Group Manager to be application-specific, which in
   turn leads to error prone deployments and is poorly flexible.

   In other deployments, a separate Administrator entity, such as a
   Commissioning Tool, is directly responsible for creating and
   configuring the OSCORE groups at a Group Manager, as well as for
   maintaining them during their whole lifetime until their deletion.
   This allows the Group Manager to be agnostic of the specific
   applications using secure group communication.

   This document specifies a RESTful admin interface at the Group
   Manager, intended for an Administrator as a separate entity external
   to the Group Manager and its application.  The interface allows the
   Administrator to create and delete OSCORE groups, as well as to
   configure and update their configuration.

   Interaction examples are provided, in Link Format [RFC6690] and CBOR
   [RFC8949], as well as in CoRAL [I-D.ietf-core-coral].  While all the
   CoRAL examples show the CoRAL textual serialization format, its
   binary serialization format is used on the wire.

   [ NOTE:

   The reported CoRAL examples are based on the textual representation
   used until version -03 of [I-D.ietf-core-coral].  These will be
   revised to use the CBOR diagnostic notation instead.

   ]

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   The ACE framework is used to ensure authentication and authorization
   of the Administrator (client) at the Group Manager (resource server).
   In order to achieve communication security, proof-of-possession and
   server authentication, the Administrator and the Group Manager
   leverage protocol-specific transport profiles of ACE, such as
   [I-D.ietf-ace-oscore-profile][I-D.ietf-ace-dtls-authorize].  These
   include also possible forthcoming transport profiles that comply with
   the requirements in Appendix C of [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz].

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   Readers are expected to be familiar with the terms and concepts from
   the following specifications:

   *  CBOR [RFC8949] and COSE
      [I-D.ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-struct][I-D.ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-algs].

   *  The CoAP protocol [RFC7252], also in group communication scenarios
      [I-D.ietf-core-groupcomm-bis].  These include the concepts of:

      -  "application group", as a set of CoAP nodes that share a common
         set of resources; and of

      -  "security group", as a set of CoAP nodes that share the same
         security material, and use it to protect and verify exchanged
         messages.

   *  The OSCORE [RFC8613] and Group OSCORE
      [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm] security protocols.  These
      especially include the concepts of:

      -  Group Manager, as the entity responsible for a set of OSCORE
         groups where communications among members are secured using
         Group OSCORE.  An OSCORE group is used as security group for
         one or many application groups.

      -  Authentication credential, as the set of information associated
         with an entity, including that entity's public key and
         parameters associated with the public key.  Examples of
         authentication credentials are CBOR Web Tokens (CWTs) and CWT
         Claims Sets (CCSs) [RFC8392], X.509 certificates [RFC7925] and
         C509 certificates [I-D.ietf-cose-cbor-encoded-cert].

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   *  The ACE framework for authentication and authorization
      [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz].  The terminology for entities in the
      considered architecture is defined in OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749].  In
      particular, this includes Client (C), Resource Server (RS), and
      Authorization Server (AS).

   *  The management of keying material for groups in ACE
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm] and specifically for OSCORE groups
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].  These include the concept of
      group-membership resource hosted by the Group Manager, that new
      members access to join the OSCORE group, while current members can
      access to retrieve updated keying material.

   Note that, unless otherwise indicated, the term "endpoint" is used
   here following its OAuth definition, aimed at denoting resources such
   as /token and /introspect at the AS, and /authz-info at the RS.  This
   document does not use the CoAP definition of "endpoint", which is "An
   entity participating in the CoAP protocol".

   This document also refers to the following terminology.

   *  Administrator: entity responsible to create, configure and delete
      OSCORE groups at a Group Manager.

   *  Group name: stable and invariant name of an OSCORE group.  The
      group name MUST be unique under the same Group Manager, and MUST
      include only characters that are valid for a URI path segment.

   *  Group-collection resource: a single-instance resource hosted by
      the Group Manager.  An Administrator accesses a group-collection
      resource to retrieve the list of existing OSCORE groups, or to
      create a new OSCORE group, under that Group Manager.

      As an example, this document uses /manage as the url-path of the
      group-collection resource; implementations are not required to use
      this name, and can define their own instead.

   *  Group-configuration resource: a resource hosted by the Group
      Manager, associated with an OSCORE group under that Group Manager.
      A group-configuration resource is identifiable with the invariant
      group name of the respective OSCORE group.  An Administrator
      accesses a group-configuration resource to retrieve or change the
      configuration of the respective OSCORE group, or to delete that
      group.

      The url-path to a group-configuration resource has GROUPNAME as
      last segment, with GROUPNAME the invariant group name assigned
      upon its creation.  Building on the considered url-path of the

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      group-collection resource, this document uses /manage/GROUPNAME as
      the url-path of a group-configuration resource; implementations
      are not required to use this name, and can define their own
      instead.

   *  Admin endpoint: an endpoint at the Group Manager associated with
      the group-collection resource or to a group-configuration resource
      hosted by that Group Manager.

2.  Group Administration

   With reference to the ACE framework and the terminology defined in
   OAuth 2.0 [RFC6749]:

   *  The Group Manager acts as Resource Server (RS).  It provides one
      single group-collection resource, and one group-configuration
      resource per existing OSCORE group.  Each of those is exported by
      a distinct admin endpoint.

   *  The Administrator acts as Client (C), and requests to access the
      group-collection resource and group-configuration resources, by
      accessing the respective admin endpoint at the Group Manager.

   *  The Authorization Server (AS) authorizes the Administrator to
      access the group-collection resource and group-configuration
      resources at a Group Manager.  Multiple Group Managers can be
      associated with the same AS.

      The authorized access for an Administrator can be limited to
      performing only a subset of operations, according to what is
      allowed by the authorization information in the Access Token
      issued to that Administrator (see Section 3 and Section 4).  The
      AS can authorize multiple Administrators to access the group-
      collection resource and the (same) group-configuration resources
      at the Group Manager.

      The AS MAY release Access Tokens to the Administrator for other
      purposes than accessing admin endpoints of registered Group
      Managers.

2.1.  Managing OSCORE Groups

   Figure 1 shows the resources of a Group Manager available to an
   Administrator.

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                    ___
          Group    /   \
       Collection  \___/
                        \
                         \____________________
                          \___    \___        \___
                          /   \   /   \  ...  /   \        Group
                          \___/   \___/       \___/   Configurations

                   Figure 1: Resources of a Group Manager

   The Group Manager exports a single group-collection resource, with
   resource type "core.osc.gcoll" defined in Section 9.3 of this
   document.  The interface for the group-collection resource defined in
   Section 6 allows the Administrator to:

   *  Retrieve the list of existing OSCORE groups.

   *  Retrieve the list of existing OSCORE groups matching with
      specified filter criteria.

   *  Create a new OSCORE group, specifying its invariant group name
      and, optionally, its configuration.

   The Group Manager exports one group-configuration resource for each
   of its OSCORE groups.  Each group-configuration resource has resource
   type "core.osc.gconf" defined in Section 9.3 of this document, and is
   identified by the group name specified upon creating the OSCORE
   group.  The interface for a group-configuration resource defined in
   Section 6 allows the Administrator to:

   *  Retrieve the complete current configuration of the OSCORE group.

   *  Retrieve part of the current configuration of the OSCORE group, by
      applying filter criteria.

   *  Overwrite the current configuration of the OSCORE group.

   *  Selectively update only part of the current configuration of the
      OSCORE group.

   *  Delete the OSCORE group.

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2.2.  Collection Representation

   A list of group configurations is represented as a document
   containing the corresponding group-configuration resources in the
   list.  Each group-configuration is represented as a link, where the
   link target is the URI of the group-configuration resource.

   The list can be represented as a Link Format document [RFC6690] or a
   CoRAL document [I-D.ietf-core-coral].

   In the former case, the link to each group-configuration resource
   specifies the link target attribute 'rt' (Resource Type), with value
   "core.osc.gconf" defined in Section 9.3 of this document.

   In the latter case, the CoRAL document specifies the group-
   configuration resources in the list as top-level elements.  In
   particular, the link to each group-configuration resource has
   http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gcoll#item as relation type.

2.3.  Discovery

   The Administrator can discover the group-collection resource from a
   Resource Directory, for instance [RFC9176] and
   [I-D.hartke-t2trg-coral-reef], or from .well-known/core, by using the
   resource type "core.osc.gcoll" defined in Section 9.3 of this
   document.

   The Administrator can discover group-configuration resources for the
   group-collection resource as specified in Section 6.1 and
   Section 6.2.

3.  Format of Scope

   This section defines the exact format and encoding of scope to use,
   in order to express authorization information for the Administrator
   (see Section 4).

   To this end, this document uses the Authorization Information Format
   (AIF) [I-D.ietf-ace-aif].  In particular, it uses and extends the AIF
   specific data model AIF-OSCORE-GROUPCOMM defined in Section 3 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   The original definition of the data model AIF-OSCORE-GROUPCOMM
   specifies a scope as structured in scope entries, which express
   authorization information for users of an OSCORE group, i.e., actual
   group members or external signature verifiers.  In the rest of this
   section, these are referred to as "user scope entries".

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   This document extends the same AIF specific data model AIF-OSCORE-
   GROUPCOMM as defined below.  In particular, it defines how the same
   scope can (also) include scope entries that express authorization
   information for Administrators of OSCORE groups.  In the rest of this
   section, these are referred to as "admin scope entries".

   Like in the original definition of the data model AIF-OSCORE-
   GROUPCOMM, and with reference to the generic AIF model

      AIF-Generic<Toid, Tperm> = [* [Toid, Tperm]]

   the value of the CBOR byte string used as scope encodes the CBOR
   array [* [Toid, Tperm]], where each [Toid, Tperm] element corresponds
   to one scope entry.

   Then, the following applies for each admin scope entry intended to
   express authorization information for an Administrator, as defined in
   this document.

   *  The object identifier ("Toid") is specialized as either of the
      following, and specifies a group name pattern P for the admin
      scope entry.

      -  Wildcard pattern: "Toid" is specialized as the CBOR simple
         value "true" (0xf5), specifying the wildcard pattern.  That is,
         any group name expressed as a literal text string matches with
         this group name pattern.

      -  Literal pattern: "Toid" is specialized as a CBOR text string,
         whose value specifies an exact group name as a literal string.
         That is, only one specific group name expressed as a literal
         text string matches with this group name pattern.

      -  Complex pattern: "Toid" is specialized as a tagged CBOR data
         item, specifying a more complex group name pattern with the
         semantics signaled by the CBOR tag.  That is, multiple group
         names expressed as a literal text string match with this group
         name pattern.

         For example, and as typically expected, the data item can be a
         CBOR text string marked with the CBOR tag 35.  This indicates
         that the group name pattern specified as value of the CBOR text
         string is a regular expression (see Section 3.4.5.3 of
         [RFC8949]).

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         In case the AIF specific data model AIF-OSCORE-GROUPCOMM is
         used in a JSON payload, the semantics information conveyed by
         the CBOR tag can be equivalently conveyed, for example, in a
         nested JSON object.

         The AS and the Group Manager are expected to have agreed on
         commonly supported semantics for group name patterns.  This can
         happen, for instance, as part of the registration process of
         the Group Manager at the AS.

   *  The permission set ("Tperm") is specialized as a CBOR unsigned
      integer with value Q.  This specifies the permissions that the
      Administrator has to perform operations on the admin endpoints at
      the Group Manager, as pertaining to any OSCORE group whose name
      matches with the pattern P.  The value Q is computed as follows.

      -  Each permission in the permission set is converted into the
         corresponding numeric identifier X from the "Value" column of
         the "Group OSCORE Admin Permissions" registry, for which this
         document defines the entries in Figure 2.

      -  The set of N numbers is converted into the single value Q, by
         taking two to the power of each numeric identifier X_1, X_2,
         ..., X_N, and then computing the inclusive OR of the binary
         representations of all the power values.

      In general, a single permission can be associated with multiple
      different operations that are possible to be performed when
      interacting with the Group Manager.  For example, the "List"
      permission allows the Administrator to retrieve a list of group
      configurations (see Section 6.1) or only a subset of that
      according to specified filter criteria (see Section 6.2), by
      issuing a GET or FETCH request to the group-collection resource,
      respectively.

        +--------+-------+----------------------------------------+
        | Name   | Value | Description                            |
        +========+=======+========================================+
        | List   | 0     | Retrieve list of group configurations  |
        +--------+-------+----------------------------------------+
        | Create | 1     | Create new group configurations        |
        +--------+-------+----------------------------------------+
        | Read   | 2     | Retrieve group configurations          |
        +--------+-------+----------------------------------------+
        | Write  | 3     | Change group configurations            |
        +--------+-------+----------------------------------------+
        | Delete | 4     | Delete group configurations            |
        +--------+-------+----------------------------------------+

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          Figure 2: Numeric identifier of permissions on the admin
                        endpoints at a Group Manager

   The following CDDL [RFC8610] notation defines an admin scope entry
   that uses the data model AIF-OSCORE-GROUPCOMM and expresses a set of
   permissions from those in Figure 2.

      AIF-OSCORE-GROUPCOMM = AIF-Generic<oscore-gname, oscore-gperm>

      oscore-gname = true / tstr / #6.nnn(any) ; Group name pattern
      oscore-gperm = uint . bits admin-permissions
      admin-permissions = &(
         List: 0,
         Create: 1,
         Read: 2,
         Write: 3,
         Delete: 4
      )

      scope_entry = [oscore-gname, oscore-gperm]

   Future specifications that define new permissions on the admin
   endpoints at the Group Manager MUST register a corresponding numeric
   identifier in the "Group OSCORE Admin Permissions" registry defined
   in Section 9.4 of this document.

   When using the scope format as defined in this section, the
   permission set ("Tperm") of each admin scope entry MUST include the
   "List" permission.  It follows that, when expressing permissions for
   Administrators of OSCORE groups as defined in this document, an admin
   scope entry has the least significant bit of "Tperm" always set to 1.

   Therefore, an Administrator is always allowed to retrieve a list of
   existing group configurations.  The exact elements included in the
   returned list are determined by the Group Manager, based on the group
   name patterns specified in the admin scope entries of the
   Administrator's Access Token, as well as on possible filter criteria
   specified in the request from the Administrator (see Section 6.1 and
   Section 6.2).

   Building on the above, the same single scope can include user scope
   entries as well as admin scope entries, whose specific format is
   defined in Section 3 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore] and
   earlier in this section, respectively.  The two types of scope
   entries can be unambiguously distinguished by means of the least
   significant bit of their permission set "Tperm", which has value 0
   for the user scope entries and 1 for the admin scope entries.

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   The coexistence of user scope entries and admin scope entries within
   the same scope makes it possible to issue a single Access Token, in
   case the requesting Client wishes to be a user for some OSCORE groups
   and at the same time Administrator for some (other) OSCORE groups
   under the same Group Manager.

   Throughout the rest of this document, the term "scope entry" is used
   as referred to "admin scope entry", unless otherwise indicated.

3.1.  On Enforcing Different Classes of Administrators

   By relying on the scope format defined in this document and given an
   OSCORE group G1 created by a "main" Administrator, then a second
   "assistant" Administrator can be effectively authorized to perform
   some operations on G1, in spite of not being the group creator.

   Furthermore, having the object identifier ("Toid") specialized as a
   pattern displays a number of advantages.

   *  The encoded scope can be compact in size, while allowing the
      Administrator to operate on large pools of group names.

   *  The Administrator and the AS do not need to know exact group names
      when requesting and issuing an Access Token, respectively (see
      Section 4).  In turn, the Group Manager can effectively take the
      final decision about the name to assign to an OSCORE group, upon
      its creation (see Section 6.3).

   *  The Administrator may have established a secure communication
      association with the Group Manager based on a first Access Token
      T1, and then created an OSCORE group G.  Following the
      invalidation of T1 (e.g., due to expiration) and the establishment
      of a new secure communication association with the Group Manager
      based on a new Access Token T2, the Administrator can seamlessly
      perform authorized operations on the previously created group G.

4.  Getting Access to the Group Manager

   All communications between the involved entities rely on the CoAP
   protocol and MUST be secured.

   In particular, communications between the Administrator and the Group
   Manager leverage protocol-specific transport profiles of ACE to
   achieve communication security, proof-of-possession and server
   authentication.  To this end, the AS may explicitly signal the
   specific transport profile to use, consistently with requirements and
   assumptions defined in the ACE framework [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz].

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   With reference to the AS, communications between the Administrator
   and the AS (/token endpoint) as well as between the Group Manager and
   the AS (/introspect endpoint) can be secured by different means, for
   instance using DTLS [RFC6347][RFC9147] or OSCORE [RFC8613].  Further
   details on how the AS secures communications (with the Administrator
   and the Group Manager) depend on the specifically used transport
   profile of ACE, and are out of the scope of this document.

   In order to specify authorization information for Administrators, the
   format and encoding of scope defined in Section 3 of this document
   MUST be used, for both the 'scope' claim in the Access Token, as well
   as for the 'scope' parameter in the Authorization Request and
   Authorization Response exchanged with the AS (see Sections 5.8.1 and
   5.8.2 of [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz]).

   Furthermore, the AS MAY use the extended format of scope defined in
   Section 7 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm] for the 'scope' claim of
   the Access Token.  In such a case, the first element of the CBOR
   sequence [RFC8742] MUST be the CBOR integer with value SEM_ID_TBD,
   defined in Section 16.2 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].  This
   indicates that the second element of the CBOR sequence, as conveying
   the actual authorization information, follows the scope semantics of
   the AIF specific data model AIF-OSCORE-GROUPCOMM defined in Section 3
   of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore] and extended as per Section 3
   of this document.

   In order to get access to the Group Manager for managing OSCORE
   groups, an Administrator performs the following steps.

   1.  The Administrator requests an Access Token from the AS, in order
       to access the group-collection and group-configuration resources
       on the Group Manager.  To this end, the Administrator sends to
       the AS an Authorization Request as defined in Section 5.8.1 of
       [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz].

       If the 'scope' parameter in the Authorization Request includes
       scope entries whose "Toid" specifies a complex pattern (see
       Section 3), then all such scope entries MUST adhere to the same
       pattern semantics.

       The Administrator will start or continue using a secure
       communication association with the Group Manager, according to
       the response from the AS and the specifically used transport
       profile of ACE.

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   2.  The AS processes the Authorization Request as defined in
       Section 5.8.2 of [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz], especially verifying
       that the Administrator is authorized to obtain the requested
       permissions, or possibly a subset of those.

       The AS specifies the information on the authorization granted to
       the Administrator as the value of the 'scope' claim to include in
       the Access Token, in accordance with the scope format specified
       in Section 3.  It is implementation specific which particular
       approach the AS takes to evaluate the requested permissions
       against the access policies pertaining to the Administrator for
       the Group Manager in question.  Appendix A provides an example of
       such an approach that the AS can use.

       If the 'scope' claim in the Authorization Request includes scope
       entries whose "Toid" specifies a complex pattern, then all such
       scope entries MUST adhere to the same pattern semantics.

       If the 'scope' parameter in the Authorization Request includes
       scope entries whose "Toid" specifies a complex pattern adhering
       to a certain pattern semantics, then that semantics MUST be used
       for the scope entries specified in the 'scope' claim.

       The AS MUST include the 'scope' parameter in the Authorization
       Response defined in Section 5.8.2 of [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz],
       when the value included in the Access Token differs from the one
       specified by the Administrator in the Authorization Request.  In
       such a case, scope specifies the set of permissions that the
       Administrator actually has to perform operations at the Group
       Manager, encoded as specified in Section 3.

       If the 'scope' parameter in the Authorization Request includes
       scope entries whose "Toid" specifies a complex pattern and any of
       the following conditions holds, then the AS MUST reply with a
       4.00 (Bad Request) error response (see Section 5.8.3 of
       [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz]).  The 'error_description' parameter
       carried out in the response payload MUST specify the CBOR value 1
       (invalid_scope).

       *  The "Toid" of the different scope entries do not all adhere to
          the same pattern semantics.

       *  The "Toid" of the different scope entries adhere to the same
          pattern semantics, but this is not supported by the AS or by
          the Group Manager.

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       Finally, as discussed in Section 3, the authorization information
       included in the Authorization Request or specified by the AS
       might also include permissions for the same Client as a user of
       the OSCORE group, i.e., as an actual group member or an external
       signature verifier.  As per Section 3, such authorization
       information is expressed by "user scope entries", whose format
       and processing is specified in
       [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   3.  The Administrator transfers authentication and authorization
       information to the Group Manager by posting the obtained Access
       Token, according to the used profile of ACE, such as
       [I-D.ietf-ace-dtls-authorize] and [I-D.ietf-ace-oscore-profile].
       After that, the Administrator must have a secure communication
       association established with the Group Manager, before performing
       any administrative operation on that Group Manager.  Possible
       ways to provide secure communication are DTLS [RFC6347][RFC9147]
       and OSCORE [RFC8613].  The Administrator and the Group Manager
       maintain the secure association, to support possible future
       communications.

   4.  Consistently with what is allowed by the authorization
       information in the Access Token, the Administrator performs
       administrative operations at the Group Manager, as described in
       Section 6.  These include retrieving a list of existing OSCORE
       groups, creating new OSCORE groups, retrieving and changing
       OSCORE group configurations, and removing OSCORE groups.
       Messages exchanged among the Administrator and the Group Manager
       are specified in Section 6.

       Upon receiving a request from the Administrator targeting the
       group-configuration resource or a group-collection resource, the
       Group Manager MUST check that it is storing a valid Access Token
       for that Administrator.  If this is not the case, the Group
       Manager MUST reply with a 4.01 (Unauthorized) error response.

       If the request targets the group-configuration resource
       associated with a group with name GROUPNAME, the Group Manager
       MUST check that it is storing a valid Access Token from that
       Administrator, such that the 'scope' claim specified in the
       Access Token: i) expresses authorization information through
       scope entries as defined in Section 3; and ii) specifically
       includes a scope entry where:

       *  The group name GROUPNAME matches with the pattern specified by
          the "Toid" of the scope entry; and

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       *  The permission set specified by the "Tperm" of the scope entry
          allows the Administrator to perform the requested
          administrative operation on the targeted group-configuration
          resource.

       Note that the checks defined above only consider scope entries
       expressing permissions for administrative operations, namely
       "admin scope entries" as defined in Section 3, while the
       alternative "user scope entries" defined in
       [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore] are not considered.

       Further detailed checks to perform are defined separately for
       each operation at the Group Manager, when specified in Section 6.

       In case the Group Manager stores a valid Access Token but the
       verifications above fail, the Group Manager MUST reply with a
       4.03 (Forbidden) error response.  This response MAY be an AS
       Request Creation Hints, as defined in Section 5.3 of
       [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz], in which case the Content-Format MUST
       be set to application/ace+cbor.

       If the request is not formatted correctly (e.g., required fields
       are not present or are not encoded as expected), the Group
       Manager MUST reply with a 4.00 (Bad Request) error response.

5.  Group Configurations

   A group configuration consists of a set of parameters.

5.1.  Group Configuration Representation

   The group configuration representation is a CBOR map which MUST
   include configuration properties and status properties.

5.1.1.  Configuration Properties

   The CBOR map MUST include the following configuration parameters,
   whose CBOR abbreviations are defined in Section 9.1 of this document.

   *  'hkdf', which specifies the HKDF Algorithm used in the OSCORE
      group, encoded as a CBOR text string or a CBOR integer.  Possible
      values are the same ones admitted for the 'hkdf' parameter of the
      Group_OSCORE_Input_Material object, defined in Section 6.4 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

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   *  'cred_fmt', which specifies the format of authentication
      credentials used in the OSCORE group, encoded as a CBOR integer.
      Possible values are the same ones admitted for the 'cred_fmt'
      parameter of the Group_OSCORE_Input_Material object, defined in
      Section 6.4 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   *  'group_mode', encoded as a CBOR simple value.  Its value is "true"
      (0xf5) if the OSCORE group uses the group mode of Group OSCORE
      [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm], or "false" (0xf4) otherwise.

   *  'sign_enc_alg', which is formatted as follows.  If the
      configuration parameter 'group_mode' has value "false" (0xf4),
      this parameter has as value the CBOR simple value "null" (0xf6).
      Otherwise, this parameter specifies the Signature Encryption
      Algorithm used in the OSCORE group to encrypt messages protected
      with the group mode, encoded as a CBOR text string or a CBOR
      integer.  Possible values are the same ones admitted for the
      'sign_enc_alg' parameter of the Group_OSCORE_Input_Material
      object, defined in Section 6.4 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   *  'sign_alg', which is formatted as follows.  If the configuration
      parameter 'group_mode' has value "false" (0xf4), this parameter
      has as value the CBOR simple value "null" (0xf6).  Otherwise, this
      parameter specifies the Signature Algorithm used in the OSCORE
      group, encoded as a CBOR text string or a CBOR integer.  Possible
      values are the same ones admitted for the 'sign_alg' parameter of
      the Group_OSCORE_Input_Material object, defined in Section 6.4 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   *  'sign_params', which is formatted as follows.  If the
      configuration parameter 'group_mode' has value "false" (0xf4),
      this parameter has as value the CBOR simple value "null" (0xf6).
      Otherwise, this parameter specifies the additional parameters for
      the Signature Algorithm used in the OSCORE group, encoded as a
      CBOR array.  Possible formats and values are the same ones
      admitted for the 'sign_params' parameter of the
      Group_OSCORE_Input_Material object, defined in Section 6.4 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   *  'pairwise_mode', encoded as a CBOR simple value.  Its value is
      "true" (0xf5) if the OSCORE group uses the pairwise mode of Group
      OSCORE [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm], or "false" (0xf4)
      otherwise.

   *  'alg', which is formatted as follows.  If the configuration
      parameter 'pairwise_mode' has value "false" (0xf4), this parameter
      has as value the CBOR simple value "null" (0xf6).  Otherwise, this

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      parameter specifies the AEAD Algorithm used in the OSCORE group to
      encrypt messages protected with the pairwise mode, encoded as a
      CBOR text string or a CBOR integer.  Possible values are the same
      ones admitted for the 'alg' parameter of the
      Group_OSCORE_Input_Material object, defined in Section 6.4 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   *  'ecdh_alg', which is formatted as follows.  If the configuration
      parameter 'pairwise_mode' has value "false" (0xf4), this parameter
      has as value the CBOR simple value "null" (0xf6).  Otherwise, this
      parameter specifies the Pairwise Key Agreement Algorithm used in
      the OSCORE group, encoded as a CBOR text string or a CBOR integer.
      Possible values are the same ones admitted for the 'ecdh_alg'
      parameter of the Group_OSCORE_Input_Material object, defined in
      Section 6.4 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   *  'ecdh_params', which is formatted as follows.  If the
      configuration parameter 'pairwise_mode' has value "false" (0xf4),
      this parameter has as value the CBOR simple value "null" (0xf6).
      Otherwise, this parameter specifies the parameters for the
      Pairwise Key Agreement Algorithm used in the OSCORE group, encoded
      as a CBOR array.  Possible formats and values are the same ones
      admitted for the 'ecdh_params' parameter of the
      Group_OSCORE_Input_Material object, defined in Section 6.4 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   The CBOR map MAY include the following configuration parameters,
   whose CBOR abbreviations are defined in Section 9.1 of this document.

   *  'det_req', encoded as a CBOR simple value.  Its value is "true"
      (0xf5) if the OSCORE group uses deterministic requests as defined
      in [I-D.amsuess-core-cachable-oscore], or "false" (0xf4)
      otherwise.  This parameter MUST NOT be present if the
      configuration parameter 'group_mode' has value "false" (0xf4).

   *  'det_hash_alg', encoded as a CBOR integer or text string.  If
      present, this parameter specifies the Hash Algorithm used in the
      OSCORE group when producing deterministic requests, as defined in
      [I-D.amsuess-core-cachable-oscore].  This parameter takes values
      from the "Value" column of the "COSE Algorithms" Registry
      [COSE.Algorithms].

      This parameter MUST NOT be present if the configuration parameter
      'det_req' is not present or if it is present with value "false"
      (0xf4).  If the configuration parameter 'det_req' is present with
      value "true" (0xf5) and 'det_hash_alg' is not present, the choice
      of the Hash Algorithm to use when producing deterministic requests
      is left to the Group Manager.

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5.1.2.  Status Properties

   The CBOR map MUST include the following status parameters:

   *  'rt', with value the resource type "core.osc.gconf" associated
      with group-configuration resources, encoded as a CBOR text string.

   *  'active', encoding the CBOR simple value "true" (0xf5) if the
      OSCORE group is currently active, or the CBOR simple value "false"
      (0xf4) otherwise.  This parameter is defined in Section 9.1 of
      this document.

   *  'group_name', with value the group name of the OSCORE group
      encoded as a CBOR text string.  This parameter is defined in
      Section 9.1 of this document.

   *  'group_title', with value either a human-readable description of
      the OSCORE group encoded as a CBOR text string, or the CBOR simple
      value "null" (0xf6) if no description is specified.  This
      parameter is defined in Section 9.1 of this document.

   *  'ace-groupcomm-profile', defined in Section 4.3.1 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm], with value "coap_group_oscore_app"
      defined in Section 25.5 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]
      encoded as a CBOR integer.

   *  'max_stale_sets', encoding a CBOR unsigned integer with value
      strictly greater than 1.  With reference to Section 2.2.1 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore], this parameter specifies N,
      i.e., the maximum number of sets of stale OSCORE Sender IDs that
      the Group Manager stores in the collection associated with the
      group.  This parameter is defined in Section 9.1 of this document.

   *  'exp', defined in Section 4.3.1 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].

   *  'gid_reuse', encoding the CBOR simple value "true" (0xf5) if, upon
      rekeying the OSCORE group, the Group Manager can reassign the
      values of the OSCORE Group ID used as OSCORE ID Context, as per
      Section 3.2.1.1 of [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm] and Section 11
      of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].  Otherwise, this parameter
      encodes the CBOR simple value "false" (0xf4).  This parameter is
      defined in Section 9.1 of this document.

   *  'app_groups', with value a list of names of application groups,
      encoded as a CBOR array.  Each element of the array is a CBOR text
      string, specifying the name of an application group using the
      OSCORE group as security group (see Section 2.1 of
      [I-D.ietf-core-groupcomm-bis]).

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   *  'joining_uri', with value the URI of the group-membership resource
      for joining the newly created OSCORE group as per Section 6.2 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore], encoded as a CBOR text
      string.  This parameter is defined in Section 9.1 of this
      document.

   The CBOR map MAY include the following status parameters:

   *  'group_policies', defined in Section 4.3.1 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm], and consistent with the format and
      content defined in Section 6.4 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   *  'as_uri', defined in Section 9.1 of this document, specifies the
      URI of the Authorization Server associated with the Group Manager
      for the OSCORE group, encoded as a CBOR text string.  Candidate
      group members will have to obtain an Access Token from that
      Authorization Server, before starting the joining process with the
      Group Manager to join the OSCORE group (see Sections 4 and 6 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).

5.2.  Default Values

   This section defines the default values that the Group Manager refers
   to for configuration and status parameters.

5.2.1.  Configuration Parameters

   For each of the configuration parameters listed below, the Group
   Manager refers to the following pre-configured default value, if none
   is specified by the Administrator.

   *  For 'group_mode', the Group Manager SHOULD use the CBOR simple
      value "true" (0xf5).

   *  If 'group_mode' has value "true" (0xf5), the Group Manager SHOULD
      use the same default values defined in Section 23.2 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore] for the parameters
      'sign_enc_alg', 'sign_alg' and 'sign_params'.

   *  If 'group_mode' has value "true" (0xf5), the Group Manager SHOULD
      use the CBOR simple value "false" (0xf4) for the parameter
      'det_req'.

   *  If 'det_req' has value "true" (0xf5), the Group Manager SHOULD use
      SHA-256 (COSE algorithm encoding: -16) as default value for the
      parameter 'det_hash_alg'.

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   *  For 'pairwise_mode', the Group Manager SHOULD use the CBOR simple
      value "false" (0xf4).

   *  If 'pairwise_mode' has value "true" (0xf5), the Group Manager
      SHOULD use the same default values defined in Section 23.3 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore] for the parameters 'alg',
      'ecdh_alg' and 'ecdh_params'.

   *  For any other configuration parameter, the Group Manager SHOULD
      use the same default values defined in Section 23.1 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

5.2.2.  Status Parameters

   For each of the status parameters listed below, the Group Manager
   refers to the following pre-configured default value, if none is
   specified by the Administrator.

   *  For 'active', the Group Manager SHOULD use the CBOR simple value
      "false" (0xf4).

   *  For 'group_title', the Group Manager SHOULD use the CBOR simple
      value "null" (0xf6).

   *  For 'max_stale_sets', the Group Manager SHOULD use the CBOR
      unsigned integer value 3.

   *  For 'gid_reuse', the Group Manager SHOULD use the CBOR simple
      value "false" (0xf4).

   *  For 'app_groups', the Group Manager SHOULD use the empty CBOR
      array.

   *  For 'group_policies', the Group Manager SHOULD use the default
      values defined in Section 6.4 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

6.  Interactions with the Group Manager

   This section describes the operations that are possible to perform on
   the group-collection resource and the group-configuration resources
   at the Group Manager.

   For each operation, it is defined whether that operation is required
   or optional to support for the Group Manager and an Administrator.
   If the Group Manager supports an operation, then the Group Manager
   must be able to correctly handle authorized and valid requests sent
   by the Administrator to carry out that operation.  If the Group

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   Manager receives an authorized and valid request to perform an
   operation that it does not support, then the Group Manager MUST
   respond with a 5.01 (Not Implemented) response.

   When checking the scope claim of a stored access token to verify that
   any of the requests defined in the following is authorized, the Group
   Manager only considers scope entries expressing permissions for
   administrative operations, namely "admin scope entries" as defined in
   Section 3.  Instead, the alternative "user scope entries" defined in
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore] are not considered.  That is,
   when handling any of the requests for administrative operations
   defined in the following, the Group Manager ignores possible "user
   scope entries" specified in the scope of a stored access token.

   When custom CBOR is used, the Content-Format in messages containing a
   payload is set to application/ace-groupcomm+cbor, defined in
   Section 11.2 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].  Furthermore, the entry
   labels defined in Section 9.1 of this document MUST be used, when
   specifying the corresponding configuration and status parameters.

6.1.  Retrieve the Full List of Group Configurations

   This operation MUST be supported by the Group Manager and an
   Administrator.

   The Administrator can send a GET request to the group-collection
   resource, in order to retrieve a list of the existing OSCORE groups
   at the Group Manager.  This is returned as a list of links to the
   corresponding group-configuration resources.

   The Group Manager MUST prepare the list L to include in the response
   as follows.  For each group-configuration resource R:

   1.  The Group Manager considers the group name GROUPNAME of the
       OSCORE group associated with R.

   2.  The Group Manager retrieves the stored Access Token for the
       Administrator.  Then, it checks whether GROUPNAME matches with
       the group name pattern specified in any scope entry of the
       'scope' claim in the Access Token.

   3.  The link to the group-configuration resource R is added to the
       list L only in case of a positive match.

   Example in Link Format:

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   => 0.01 GET
      Uri-Path: manage

   <= 2.05 Content
      Content-Format: 40 (application/link-format)

      <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/manage/gp1>;rt="core.osc.gconf",
      <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/manage/gp2>;rt="core.osc.gconf",
      <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/manage/gp3>;rt="core.osc.gconf"

   Example in CoRAL:

   => 0.01 GET
      Uri-Path: manage

   <= 2.05 Content
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      #using <http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gcoll#>
      #base </manage/>
      item <gp1>
      item <gp2>
      item <gp3>

6.2.  Retrieve a List of Group Configurations by Filters

   This operation MUST be supported by the Group Manager and MAY be
   supported by an Administrator.

   The Administrator can send a FETCH request to the group-collection
   resource, in order to retrieve a list of the existing OSCORE groups
   that fully match a set of specified filter criteria.  This is
   returned as a list of links to the corresponding group-configuration
   resources.

   When custom CBOR is used, the set of filter criteria is specified in
   the request payload as a CBOR map, whose possible entries are
   specified in Section 5.1 and use the same abbreviations defined in
   Section 9.1.  Entry values are the ones admitted for the
   corresponding labels in the POST request for creating a group
   configuration (see Section 6.3).  A valid request MUST NOT include
   the same entry multiple times.

   When CoRAL is used, the filter criteria are specified in the request
   payload with top-level elements, each of which corresponds to an
   entry specified in Section 5.1, with the exception of the
   'app_groups' status parameter.  If names of application groups are
   used as filter criteria, each element of the 'app_groups' array from

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   the status properties is included as a separate element with name
   'app_group'.  With the exception of the 'app_group' element, a valid
   request MUST NOT include the same element multiple times.  Element
   values are the ones admitted for the corresponding labels in the POST
   request for creating a group configuration (see Section 6.3).

   The Group Manager MUST prepare the list L to include in the response
   as follows.

   1.  The Group Manager prepares a preliminary version of the list L,
       as specified in Section 6.1 for the processing of a GET request
       to the group-collection resource.

   2.  The Group Manager applies the filter criteria specified in the
       FETCH request to the list L from the previous step.  The result
       is the list L to include in the response.

   Example in custom CBOR and Link Format:

   => 0.05 FETCH
      Uri-Path: manage
      Content-Format: TBD2 (application/ace-groupcomm+cbor)

      {
          "group_mode" : true,
          "sign_enc_alg" : 10,
          "hkdf" : 5
      }

   <= 2.05 Content
      Content-Format: 40 (application/link-format)

      <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/manage/gp1>;rt="core.osc.gconf",
      <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/manage/gp2>;rt="core.osc.gconf",
      <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/manage/gp3>;rt="core.osc.gconf"

   Example in CoRAL:

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   => 0.05 FETCH
      Uri-Path: manage
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      group_mode true
      sign_enc_alg 10
      hkdf 5

   <= 2.05 Content
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      #using <http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gcoll#>
      #base </manage/>
      item <gp1>
      item <gp2>
      item <gp3>

6.3.  Create a New Group Configuration

   This operation MUST be supported by the Group Manager and an
   Administrator.

   The Administrator can send a POST request to the group-collection
   resource, in order to create a new OSCORE group at the Group Manager.
   The request MUST specify the intended group name GROUPNAME, and MAY
   specify the intended group title together with pieces of information
   concerning the group configuration.

   When custom CBOR is used, the request payload is a CBOR map, whose
   possible entries are specified in Section 5.1 and use the same
   abbreviations defined in Section 9.1.

   When CoRAL is used, each element of the request payload corresponds
   to an entry specified in Section 5.1, with the exception of the
   'app_groups' status parameter (see below).

   In particular:

   *  The payload MAY include any of the configuration parameters
      defined in Section 5.1.1.

   *  The payload MUST include the status parameter 'group_name' defined
      in Section 5.1.2 and specifying the intended group name.

   *  The payload MAY include any of the status parameters 'active',
      'group_title', 'max_stale_sets', 'exp', 'gid_reuse', 'app_groups,
      'group_policies' and 'as_uri' defined in Section 5.1.2.

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      When CoRAL is used, each element of the 'app_groups' array from
      the status properties is included as a separate element with name
      'app_group'.

   *  The payload MUST NOT include any of the status parameters 'rt',
      'ace-groupcomm-profile' and 'joining_uri' defined in
      Section 5.1.2.

   Consistently with what is defined at step 4 of Section 4, the Group
   Manager MUST check whether the group name specified in the
   'group_name' parameter matches with the group name pattern specified
   in any scope entry of the 'scope' claim in the stored Access Token
   for the Administrator.  In case of a positive match, the Group
   Manager MUST check whether the permission set in the found scope
   entry specifies the permission "Create".

   If the verification above fails (i.e., there are no matching scope
   entries specifying the "Create" permission), the Group Manager MUST
   reply with a 4.03 (Forbidden) error response.  The response MUST have
   Content-Format set to application/ace-groupcomm+cbor and is formatted
   as defined in Section 4.1.2 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].

   Otherwise, if any of the following occurs, the Group Manager MUST
   respond with a 4.00 (Bad Request) response.

   *  Any of the received parameters is specified multiple times, with
      the exception of the 'app_group' element when using CoRAL.

   *  Any of the received parameters is not recognized, or not valid, or
      not consistent with respect to other related parameters.

   *  The Group Manager does not trust the Authorization Server with URI
      specified in the 'as_uri' parameter, and has no alternative
      Authorization Server to consider for the OSCORE group to create.

   After a successful processing of the POST request, the Group Manager
   performs the following actions.

   If the 'group_name' parameter specifies the group name of an already
   existing OSCORE group, the Group Manager MUST find an alternative
   name for the new OSCORE group to create.

   In addition to that, the final decision about the name assigned to
   the new OSCORE group is always of the Group Manager, which may have
   more constraints than the Administrator can be aware of, possibly
   beyond the availability of suggested names.  For example, the Group
   Manager may specifically want to use a randomized character string as
   the name of a newly created group.

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   If the Group Manager has selected a name GROUPNAME different from the
   name GROUPNAME* indicated in the parameter 'group_name' of the
   request, then the following conditions MUST hold.

   *  The chosen name GROUPNAME is available to assign; and

   *  If GROUPNAME* matches with the group name pattern of certain scope
      entries from the 'scope' claim in the stored Access Token for the
      Administrator, then the chosen group name GROUPNAME also matches
      with each of those group name patterns.

   If the Group Manager does not find any group name for which both the
   above conditions hold, the Group Manager MUST respond with a 5.03
   (Service Unavailable) response.

   Otherwise, the Group Manager creates a new group-configuration
   resource, accessible to the Administrator at /manage/GROUPNAME, where
   GROUPNAME is the name of the OSCORE group as either indicated in the
   parameter 'group_name' of the request or uniquely assigned by the
   Group Manager.

   The value of the status parameter 'rt' is set to "core.osc.gconf".
   The values of other parameters specified in the request are used as
   group configuration information for the newly created OSCORE group.

   If the request specifies the parameter 'gid_reuse' encoding the CBOR
   simple value "true" (0xf5) and the Group Manager does not support the
   reassignment of OSCORE Group ID values (see Section 3.2.1.1 of
   [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm] and Section 11 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]), then the Group Manager sets the
   value of the 'gid_reuse' status parameter in the group-configuration
   resource to the CBOR simple value "false" (0xf4).

   For each parameter not specified in the request, the Group Manager
   refers to the default values specified in Section 5.2.

   After that, the Group Manager creates a new group-membership resource
   accessible at ace-group/GROUPNAME to nodes that want to join the
   OSCORE group, as specified in Section 6.2 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].  Note that such group
   membership-resource comprises a number of sub-resources intended to
   current group members, as defined in Section 4.1 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm] and Section 5 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   From then on, the Group Manager will rely on the current group
   configuration to build the Joining Response message defined in
   Section 6.4 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore], when handling the

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   joining of a new group member.  Furthermore, the Group Manager
   generates the following pieces of information, and assigns them to
   the newly created OSCORE group.

   *  The OSCORE Master Secret.

   *  The OSCORE Master Salt (optionally).

   *  The Group ID, used as OSCORE ID Context, which MUST be unique
      within the set of OSCORE groups under the Group Manager.

   Finally, the Group Manager replies to the Administrator with a 2.01
   (Created) response.  The Location-Path option MUST be included in the
   response, indicating the location of the just created group-
   configuration resource.  The response MUST NOT include a Location-
   Query option.

   The response payload specifies the parameters 'group_name',
   'joining_uri' and 'as_uri', from the status properties of the newly
   created OSCORE group (see Section 5.1), as detailed below.

   When custom CBOR is used, the response payload is a CBOR map, where
   entries use the same abbreviations defined in Section 9.1.  When
   CoRAL is used, the response payload includes one element for each
   specified parameter.

   *  'group_name', with value the group name of the OSCORE group.  This
      value can be different from the group name possibly specified by
      the Administrator in the POST request, and reflects the final
      choice of the Group Manager as 'group_name' status property for
      the OSCORE group.  This parameter MUST be included.

   *  'joining_uri', with value the URI of the group-membership resource
      for joining the newly created OSCORE group.  This parameter MUST
      be included.

   *  'as_uri', with value the URI of the Authorization Server
      associated with the Group Manager for the newly created OSCORE
      group.  This parameter MUST be included if specified in the status
      properties of the group.  This value can be different from the URI
      possibly specified by the Administrator in the POST request, and
      reflects the final choice of the Group Manager as 'as_uri' status
      property for the OSCORE group.

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   If the POST request specified the parameter 'gid_reuse' encoding the
   CBOR simple value "true" (0xf5) but the Group Manager has set the
   value of the 'gid_reuse' status parameter in the group-configuration
   resource to the CBOR simple value "false" (0xf4), then the response
   payload MUST include also the parameter 'gid_reuse' encoding the CBOR
   simple value "false" (0xf4).

   If the POST request did not specify certain parameters and the Group
   Manager used default values different from the ones recommended in
   Section 5.2, then the response payload MUST include also those
   parameters, specifying the values chosen by the Group Manager for the
   current group configuration.

   The Group Manager can register the link to the group-membership
   resource with URI specified in 'joining_uri' to a Resource Directory
   [RFC9176][I-D.hartke-t2trg-coral-reef], as defined in Section 2 of
   [I-D.tiloca-core-oscore-discovery].  The Group Manager considers the
   current group configuration when specifying additional information
   for the link to register.

   Alternatively, the Administrator can perform the registration in the
   Resource Directory on behalf of the Group Manager, acting as
   Commissioning Tool.  The Administrator considers the following when
   specifying additional information for the link to register.

   *  The name of the OSCORE group MUST take the value specified in
      'group_name' from the 2.01 (Created) response.

   *  The names of the application groups using the OSCORE group MUST
      take the values possibly specified by the elements of the
      'app_groups' parameter (when custom CBOR is used) or by the
      different 'app_group' elements (when CoRAL is used) in the POST
      request.

   *  If also registering a related link to the Authorization Server
      associated with the OSCORE group, the related link MUST have as
      link target the URI in 'as_uri' from the 2.01 (Created) response,
      if the 'as_uri' parameter was included in the response.

   *  As to every other information element describing the current group
      configuration, the following applies.

      -  If a certain parameter was specified in the POST request, the
         Administrator MUST use either the value specified in the 2.01
         (Created) response, if the Group Manager specified one, or the
         value specified in the POST request otherwise.

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      -  If a certain parameter was not specified in the POST request,
         the Administrator MUST use either the value specified in the
         2.01 (Created) response, if the Group Manager specified one, or
         the corresponding default value recommended in Section 5.2.1
         otherwise.

   Note that, compared to the Group Manager, the Administrator is less
   likely to remain closely aligned with possible changes and updates
   that would require a prompt update to the registration in the
   Resource Directory.  This applies especially to the address of the
   Group Manager, as well as the URI of the group-membership resource or
   of the Authorization Server associated with the Group Manager.

   Therefore, it is RECOMMENDED that registrations of links to group-
   membership resources in the Resource Directory are made (and possibly
   updated) directly by the Group Manager, rather than by the
   Administrator.

   Example in custom CBOR:

   => 0.02 POST
      Uri-Path: manage
      Content-Format: TBD2 (application/ace-groupcomm+cbor)

      {
        "sign_enc_alg" : 10,
        "hkdf" : 5,
        "pairwise_mode" : true,
        "active" : true,
        "group_name" : "gp4",
        "group_title" : "rooms 1 and 2",
        "app_groups": : ["room1", "room2"],
        "as_uri" : "coap://as.example.com/token"
      }

   <= 2.01 Created
      Location-Path: manage
      Location-Path: gp4
      Content-Format: TBD2 (application/ace-groupcomm+cbor)

      {
        "group_name" : "gp4",
        "joining_uri" : "coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/gp4/",
        "as_uri" : "coap://as.example.com/token"
      }

   Example in CoRAL:

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   => 0.02 POST
      Uri-Path: manage
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      #using <http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gconf#>
      sign_enc_alg 10
      hkdf 5
      pairwise_mode true
      active true
      group_name "gp4"
      group_title "rooms 1 and 2"
      app_group "room1"
      app_group "room2"
      as_uri <coap://as.example.com/token>

   <= 2.01 Created
      Location-Path: manage
      Location-Path: gp4
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      #using <http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gconf#>
      group_name "gp4"
      joining_uri <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/gp4/>
      as_uri <coap://as.example.com/token>

6.4.  Retrieve a Group Configuration

   This operation MUST be supported by the Group Manager and an
   Administrator.

   The Administrator can send a GET request to the group-configuration
   resource manage/GROUPNAME associated with an OSCORE group with group
   name GROUPNAME, in order to retrieve the complete current
   configuration of that group.

   Consistently with what is defined at step 4 of Section 4, the Group
   Manager MUST check whether GROUPNAME matches with the group name
   pattern specified in any scope entry of the 'scope' claim in the
   stored Access Token for the Administrator.  In case of a positive
   match, the Group Manager MUST check whether the permission set in the
   found scope entry specifies the permission "Read".

   If the verification above fails (i.e., there are no matching scope
   entries specifying the "Read" permission), the Group Manager MUST
   reply with a 4.03 (Forbidden) error response.  The response MUST have
   Content-Format set to application/ace-groupcomm+cbor and is formatted
   as defined in Section 4.1.2 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].

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   Otherwise, after a successful processing of the GET request, the
   Group Manager replies to the Administrator with a 2.05 (Content)
   response.  The response has as payload the representation of the
   group configuration as specified in Section 5.1.  The exact content
   of the payload reflects the current configuration of the OSCORE
   group.  This includes both configuration properties and status
   properties.

   When custom CBOR is used, the response payload is a CBOR map, whose
   possible entries are specified in Section 5.1 and use the same
   abbreviations defined in Section 9.1.

   When CoRAL is used, the response payload includes one element for
   each entry specified in Section 5.1, with the exception of the
   'app_groups' status parameter.  That is, each element of the
   'app_groups' array from the status properties is included as a
   separate element with name 'app_group'.

   Example in custom CBOR:

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   => 0.01 GET
      Uri-Path: manage
      Uri-Path: gp4

   <= 2.05 Content
      Content-Format: TBD2 (application/ace-groupcomm+cbor)

      {
        "hkdf" : 5,
        "cred_fmt" : 33,
        "group_mode" : true,
        "sign_enc_alg" : 10,
        "sign_alg" : -8,
        "sign_params" : [[1], [1, 6]],
        "pairwise_mode" : true,
        "alg" : 10,
        "ecdh_alg" : -27,
        "ecdh_params" : [[1], [1, 6]],
        "rt" : "core.osc.gconf",
        "active" : true,
        "group_name" : "gp4",
        "group_title" : "rooms 1 and 2",
        "ace-groupcomm-profile" : "coap_group_oscore_app",
        "max_stale_sets" : 3,
        "exp" : 1360289224,
        "app_groups": : ["room1", "room2"],
        "joining_uri" : "coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/gp4/",
        "as_uri" : "coap://as.example.com/token"
      }

   Example in CoRAL:

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   => 0.01 GET
      Uri-Path: manage
      Uri-Path: gp4

   <= 2.05 Content
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      #using <http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gconf#>
      hkdf 5
      cred_fmt 33
      group_mode true
      sign_enc_alg 10
      sign_alg -8
      sign_params.alg_capab.key_type 1
      sign_params.key_type_capab.key_type 1
      sign_params.key_type_capab.curve 6
      pairwise_mode true
      alg 10
      ecdh_alg -27
      ecdh_params.alg_capab.key_type 1
      ecdh_params.key_type_capab.key_type 1
      ecdh_params.key_type_capab.curve 6
      rt "core.osc.gconf",
      active true
      group_name "gp4"
      group_title "rooms 1 and 2"
      ace-groupcomm-profile "coap_group_oscore_app"
      max_stale_sets 3
      exp 1360289224
      app_group "room1"
      app_group "room2"
      joining_uri <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/gp4/>
      as_uri <coap://as.example.com/token>

6.5.  Retrieve Part of a Group Configuration by Filters

   This operation MUST be supported by the Group Manager and MAY be
   supported by an Administrator.

   The Administrator can send a FETCH request to the group-configuration
   resource manage/GROUPNAME associated with an OSCORE group with group
   name GROUPNAME, in order to retrieve part of the current
   configuration of that group.

   When custom CBOR is used, the request payload is a CBOR map, which
   contains the following fields:

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   *  'conf_filter', defined in Section 9.1 of this document and encoded
      as a CBOR array.  Each element of the array specifies one
      requested configuration parameter or status parameter of the
      current group configuration (see Section 5.1), using the
      corresponding abbreviation defined in Section 9.1.

   When CoRAL is used, the request payload includes one element for each
   requested configuration parameter or status parameter of the current
   group configuration (see Section 5.1).  All the specified elements
   have no value.

   The Group Manager MUST perform the same authorization checks defined
   for the processing of a GET request to a group-configuration resource
   in Section 6.4.  That is, the Group Manager MUST verify that the
   Administrator has been granted a "Read" permission applicable to the
   targeted group-configuration resource.

   After a successful processing of the FETCH request, the Group Manager
   replies to the Administrator with a 2.05 (Content) response.  The
   response has as payload a partial representation of the group
   configuration (see Section 5.1).  The exact content of the payload
   reflects the current configuration of the OSCORE group, and is
   limited to the configuration properties and status properties
   requested by the Administrator in the FETCH request.

   The response payload includes the requested configuration parameters
   and status parameters, and is formatted as in the response payload of
   a GET request to a group-configuration resource (see Section 6.4).

   Example in custom CBOR:

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   => 0.05 FETCH
      Uri-Path: manage
      Uri-Path: gp4
      Content-Format: TBD2 (application/ace-groupcomm+cbor)

      {
        "conf_filter" : ["sign_enc_alg",
                         "hkdf",
                         "pairwise_mode",
                         "active",
                         "group_title",
                         "app_groups"]
      }

   <= 2.05 Content
      Content-Format: TBD2 (application/ace-groupcomm+cbor)

      {
        "sign_enc_alg" : 10,
        "hkdf" : 5,
        "pairwise_mode" : true,
        "active" : true,
        "group_title" : "rooms 1 and 2",
        "app_groups": : ["room1", "room2"]
      }

   Example in CoRAL:

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   => 0.05 FETCH
      Uri-Path: manage
      Uri-Path: gp4
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      #using <http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gconf#>
      sign_enc_alg
      hkdf
      pairwise_mode
      active
      group_title
      app_groups

   <= 2.05 Content
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      #using <http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gconf#>
      sign_enc_alg 10
      hkdf 5
      pairwise_mode true
      active true
      group_title "rooms 1 and 2"
      app_group "room1"
      app_group "room2"

6.6.  Overwrite a Group Configuration

   This operation MAY be supported by the Group Manager and an
   Administrator.

   The Administrator can send a PUT request to the group-configuration
   resource associated with an OSCORE group, in order to overwrite the
   current configuration of that group with a new one.  The payload of
   the request has the same format of the POST request defined in
   Section 6.3, with the exception that the configuration parameters
   'group_mode' and 'pairwise_mode' as well as the status parameters
   'group_name' and 'gid_reuse' MUST NOT be included.

   The error handling for the PUT request is the same as for the POST
   request defined in Section 6.3, with the following difference in
   terms of authorization checks.

   Consistently with what is defined at step 4 of Section 4, the Group
   Manager MUST check whether GROUPNAME matches with the group name
   pattern specified in any scope entry of the 'scope' claim in the
   stored Access Token for the Administrator.  In case of a positive
   match, the Group Manager MUST check whether the permission set in the
   found scope entry specifies the permission "Write".

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   If the verification above fails (i.e., there are no matching scope
   entries specifying the "Write" permission), the Group Manager MUST
   reply with a 4.03 (Forbidden) error response.  The response MUST have
   Content-Format set to application/ace-groupcomm+cbor and is formatted
   as defined in Section 4.1.2 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].

   If no error occurs and the PUT request is successfully processed, the
   Group Manager performs the following actions.

   First, the Group Manager updates the group-configuration resource,
   consistently with the values indicated in the PUT request from the
   Administrator.  For each parameter not specified in the PUT request,
   the Group Manager MUST use default values as specified in
   Section 5.2.

   If a new value N' is specified for the 'max_stale_sets' status
   parameter and N' is smaller than the current value N, the Group
   Manager preserves the (up to) N' most recent sets in the collection
   of sets of stale OSCORE Sender IDs associated with the group, and
   deletes any possible older set from the collection (see Section 2.2.1
   of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).

   From then on, the Group Manager relies on the latest updated
   configuration to build the Joining Response message defined in
   Section 6.4 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore], when handling the
   joining of a new group member.  Similarly, the Group Manager relies
   on the new group configuration when building responses specifying
   (part of) the group configuration to a current group member.  For
   instance, this applies when a group member retrieves from the Group
   Manager the updated group keying material (see Section 8 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]) or the current group status (see
   Section 16 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).

   Then, the Group Manager replies to the Administrator with a 2.04
   (Changed) response.  The payload of the response has the same format
   of the 2.01 (Created) response defined in Section 6.3.

   If the PUT request did not specify certain parameters and the Group
   Manager used default values different from the ones recommended in
   Section 5.2, then the response payload MUST include also those
   parameters, specifying the values chosen by the Group Manager for the
   current group configuration.

   If the link to the group-membership resource was registered in the
   Resource Directory [RFC9176], the GM is responsible to refresh the
   registration, as defined in Section 3 of
   [I-D.tiloca-core-oscore-discovery].

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   Alternatively, the Administrator can update the registration in the
   Resource Directory on behalf of the Group Manager, acting as
   Commissioning Tool.  The Administrator considers the following when
   specifying additional information for the link to update.

   *  The name of the OSCORE group MUST take the value specified in
      'group_name' from the 2.04 (Changed) response.

   *  The names of the application groups using the OSCORE group MUST
      take the values possibly specified by the elements of the
      'app_groups' parameter (when custom CBOR is used) or by the
      different 'app_group' elements (when CoRAL is used) in the PUT
      request.

   *  If also registering a related link to the Authorization Server
      associated with the OSCORE group, the related link MUST have as
      link target the URI in 'as_uri' from the 2.04 (Changed) response,
      if the 'as_uri' parameter was included in the response.

   *  As to every other information element describing the current group
      configuration, the following applies.

      -  If a certain parameter was specified in the PUT request, the
         Administrator MUST use either the value specified in the 2.04
         (Changed) response, if the Group Manager specified one, or the
         value specified in the PUT request otherwise.

      -  If a certain parameter was not specified in the PUT request,
         the Administrator MUST use either the value specified in the
         2.04 (Changed) response, if the Group Manager specified one, or
         the corresponding default value recommended in Section 5.2.1
         otherwise.

   As discussed in Section 6.3, it is RECOMMENDED that registrations of
   links to group-membership resources in the Resource Directory are
   made (and possibly updated) directly by the Group Manager, rather
   than by the Administrator.

   Example in custom CBOR:

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   => 0.03 PUT
      Uri-Path: manage
      Uri-Path: gp4
      Content-Format: TBD2 (application/ace-groupcomm+cbor)

      {
        "sign_enc_alg" : 11,
        "hkdf" : 5
      }

   <= 2.04 Changed
      Content-Format: TBD2 (application/ace-groupcomm+cbor)

      {
        "group_name" : "gp4",
        "joining_uri" : "coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/gp4/",
        "as_uri" : "coap://as.example.com/token"
      }

   Example in CoRAL:

   => 0.03 PUT
      Uri-Path: manage
      Uri-Path: gp4
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      #using <http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gconf#>
      sign_enc_alg 11
      hkdf 5

   <= 2.04 Changed
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      #using <http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gconf#>
      group_name "gp4"
      joining_uri <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/gp4/>
      as_uri <coap://as.example.com/token>

6.6.1.  Effects on Joining Nodes

   After having overwritten a group configuration, if the value of the
   status parameter 'active' is changed from "true" (0xf5) to "false"
   (0xf4), the Group Manager MUST stop admitting new members in the
   OSCORE group.  In particular, until the status parameter 'active' is
   changed back to "true" (0xf5), the Group Manager MUST respond to a
   Joining Request with a 5.03 (Service Unavailable) response, as
   defined in Section 6.3 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

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   If the value of the status parameter 'active' is changed from "false"
   (0xf4) to "true" (0xf5), the Group Manager resumes admitting new
   members in the OSCORE group, by processing their Joining Requests
   (see Section 6.3 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).

6.6.2.  Effects on the Group Members

   After having overwritten a group configuration, the Group Manager
   informs the members of the OSCORE group, over the pairwise secure
   communication channels established when joining the group (see
   Section 6 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).

   To this end, the Group Manager can individually target the
   'control_uri' URI of each group member (see Section 4.3.1 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm]), if provided by the intended recipient
   upon joining the OSCORE group (see Section 6.2 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).  To this end, messages sent by
   the Group Manager to each group member MUST have Content-Format set
   to application/ace-groupcomm+cbor, and MUST be formatted as the
   Joining Response defined in Section 6.4 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore], with the following differences.

   *  Only the parameters 'gkty', 'key', 'num', 'exp' and 'ace-
      groupcomm-profile' are present.

   *  The 'key' parameter includes only the parameters 'hkdf',
      'cred_fmt', 'sign_enc_alg', 'sign_alg', 'sign_params', 'alg',
      'ecdh_alg' and 'ecdh_params', with values reflecting the new
      configuration of the OSCORE group.

   Alternatively, group members can subscribe for updates to the group-
   membership resource of the OSCORE group, e.g., by using CoAP Observe
   [RFC7641].

   If the value of the status parameter 'active' is changed from "true"
   (0xf5) to "false" (0xf4):

   *  The Group Manager MUST stop accepting requests for new individual
      keying material from current group members (see Section 9 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).  In particular, until the
      status parameter 'active' is changed back to "true" (0xf5), the
      Group Manager MUST respond to a Key Renewal Request with a 5.03
      (Service Unavailable) response, as defined in Section 9 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   *  The Group Manager MUST stop accepting updated authentication
      credentials uploaded by current group members (see Section 11 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).  In particular, until the

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      status parameter 'active' is changed back to "true" (0xf5), the
      Group Manager MUST respond to a Public Key Update Request with a
      5.03 (Service Unavailable) response, as defined in Section 11 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   Every group member, upon learning that the OSCORE group has been
   deactivated (i.e., 'active' has value "false" (0xf4)), SHOULD stop
   communicating in the group.

   Every group member, upon learning that the OSCORE group has been
   reactivated (i.e., 'active' has value "true" (0xf5) again), can
   resume communicating in the group.

   Every group member, upon receiving updated values for 'hkdf',
   'sign_enc_alg' and 'alg', MUST either:

   *  Leave the OSCORE group (see Section 18 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]), e.g., if not supporting the
      indicated new algorithms; or

   *  Use the new parameter values, and accordingly re-derive the OSCORE
      Security Context for the OSCORE group (see Section 2 of
      [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm]).

   Every group member, upon receiving updated values for 'cred_fmt',
   'sign_alg', 'sign_params', 'ecdh_alg' and 'ecdh_params' MUST either:

   *  Leave the OSCORE group, e.g., if not supporting the indicated new
      format, algorithms, parameters and encoding; or

   *  Leave the OSCORE group and rejoin it (see Section 6 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).  When rejoining the group, a
      new authentication credential in the indicated format used in the
      OSCORE group MUST be provided to the Group Manager.  The
      authentication credential as well as the included public key MUST
      be compatible with the indicated algorithms and parameters.

   *  Use the new parameter values, and, if required, perform the
      following actions.

      -  Provide the Group Manager with a new authentication credential
         to use in the OSCORE group (see Section 11 of
         [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).  The new authentication
         credential MUST be in the indicated format used in the OSCORE
         group.  The new authentication credential as well as the
         included public key MUST be compatible with the indicated
         algorithms and parameters.

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      -  Retrieve from the Group Manager the new Group Manager's
         authentication credential (see Section 12 of
         [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).  The new Group Manager's
         authentication credential is in the indicated format used in
         the OSCORE group.  The new authentication credential as well as
         the included public key are compatible with the indicated
         algorithms and parameters.

6.7.  Selective Update of a Group Configuration

   This operation MAY be supported by the Group Manager and an
   Administrator.

   The Administrator can send a PATCH/iPATCH request [RFC8132] to the
   group-configuration resource associated with an OSCORE group, in
   order to update the value of only part of the group configuration.

   The request payload has the same format of the PUT request defined in
   Section 6.6, with the difference that it MAY also specify names of
   application groups to be removed from or added to the 'app_groups'
   status parameter.  The names of such application groups are provided
   as defined below.

   *  When custom CBOR is used, the CBOR map in the request payload
      includes the field 'app_groups_diff'.  This field MUST NOT be
      present multiple times, and it is encoded as a CBOR array
      including the following two elements.

      -  The first element is a CBOR array, namely 'app_groups_del'.
         Each of its elements is a CBOR text string, with value the name
         of an application group to remove from the 'app_groups' status
         parameter.

      -  The second element is a CBOR array, namely 'app_groups_add'.
         Each of its elements is a CBOR text string, with value the name
         of an application group to add to the 'app_groups' status
         parameter.

      The CDDL definition [RFC8610] of the CBOR array 'app_groups_diff'
      formatted as in the response from the Group Manager is provided
      below.

      app-group-name = tstr
      name-patch = [* app-group-name]
      app_groups_diff = [app_groups_del: name-patch,
                         app_groups_add: name-patch]

          Figure 3: CDDL definition of the 'app_groups_diff' field

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   The Group Manager MUST respond with a 4.00 (Bad Request) response, in
   case both the inner CBOR arrays 'app_groups_del' and 'app_groups_add'
   are empty, or in case the 'app_groups_diff' field occurs more than
   once.

   The Group Manager MUST respond with a 4.00 (Bad Request) response, in
   case the CBOR map in the request payload includes both the
   'app_groups' field and the 'app_groups_diff' field.

   *  When CoRAL is used, the request payload includes the following
      top-level elements.

      -  'app_group_del', with value a text string specifying the name
         of an application group to remove from the 'app_groups' status
         parameter.  This element can be included multiple times.

      -  'app_group_add', with value a text string specifying the name
         of an application group to add to the 'app_groups' status
         parameter.  This element can be included multiple times.

      The Group Manager MUST respond with a 4.00 (Bad Request) response,
      in case the request payload includes both any 'app_group' element
      as well as any 'app_group_del' and/or 'app_group_add' element.

   The error handling for the PATCH/iPATCH request is the same as for
   the PUT request defined in Section 6.6, with the following additions.

   *  The set of group configuration parameters to update MUST NOT be
      empty.  That is, the Group Manager MUST respond with a 4.00 (Bad
      Request) response, if the request payload includes an empty CBOR
      map (when custom CBOR is used) or no elements (when CoRAL is
      used).

   *  If the Request-URI does not point to an existing group-
      configuration resource, the Group Manager MUST NOT create a new
      resource, and MUST respond with a 4.04 (Not Found) response.

   *  When applying the specified updated values would yield an
      inconsistent group configuration, the Group Manager MUST respond
      with a 4.09 (Conflict) response.

      The response, MAY include the current representation of the group
      configuration resource, like when responding to a GET request as
      defined in Section 6.4.  Otherwise, the response SHOULD include a
      diagnostic payload with additional information for the
      Administrator to recognize the source of the conflict.

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   *  When the request uses specifically the iPATCH method, the Group
      Manager MUST respond with a 4.00 (Bad Request) response, in case:

      -  When custom CBOR is used, the CBOR map includes the parameter
         'app_groups_diff'; or

      -  When CoRAL is used, any element 'app_group_del' and/or
         'app_group_add' is included.

   Furthermore, the Group Manager MUST perform the same authorization
   checks defined for the processing of a PUT request to a group-
   configuration resource in Section 6.6.  That is, the Group Manager
   MUST verify that the Administrator has been granted a "Write"
   permission applicable to the targeted group-configuration resource.

   If no error occurs and the PATCH/iPATCH request is successfully
   processed, the Group Manager performs the following actions.

   First, the Group Manager updates the group-configuration resource,
   consistently with the values indicated in the PATCH/iPATCH request
   from the Administrator.

   Unlike for the PUT request defined in Section 6.6, the Group Manager
   does not alter the value of configuration parameters and status
   parameters for which updated values are not specified in the request
   payload.  In particular, the Group Manager does not assign possible
   default values to those parameters.

   Special processing occurs when updating the 'app_groups' status
   parameter by difference, as defined below.  The Administrator should
   not expect the Group Manager to add or delete names of application
   group names according to any particular order.

   *  If the name of an application group to add (delete) is specified
      multiple times, the Group Manager considers it only once for
      addition to (deletion from) the 'app_groups' status parameter.

   *  If the name of an application group to delete is not present in
      the 'app_groups' status parameter before any change is applied,
      the Group Manager ignores that name.

   *  If the name of an application group to add is already present in
      the 'app_groups' status parameter before any change is applied,
      the Group Manager ignores that name.

   *  When custom CBOR is used, the Group Manager:

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      -  Deletes from the 'app_groups' status parameter the names of the
         application groups specified in the inner 'app_groups_del' CBOR
         array of the 'app_groups_diff' field.

      -  Adds to the 'app_groups' status parameter the names of the
         application groups specified in the inner 'app_groups_add' CBOR
         array of the 'app_groups_diff' field.

   *  When CoRAL is used, the Group Manager:

      -  Deletes from the 'app_groups' status parameter the names of the
         application groups specified in the different 'app_group_del'
         elements.

      -  Adds to the 'app_groups' status parameter the names of the
         application groups specified in the different 'app_group_add'
         elements.

   After having updated the group-configuration resource, from then on
   the Group Manager relies on the new group configuration to build the
   Joining Response message defined in Section 6.4 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore], when handling the joining of a
   new group member.  Similarly, the Group Manager relies on the new
   group configuration when building responses specifying (part of) the
   group configuration to a current group member.  For instance, this
   applies when a group member retrieves from the Group Manager the
   updated group keying material (see Section 8 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]) or the current group status (see
   Section 16 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).

   Finally, the Group Manager replies to the Administrator with a 2.04
   (Changed) response.  The payload of the response has the same format
   of the 2.01 (Created) response defined in Section 6.3.

   The same considerations as for the PUT request defined in Section 6.6
   hold also in this case, with respect to refreshing a possible
   registration of the link to the group-membership resource in the
   Resource Directory [RFC9176].

   Example in custom CBOR:

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   => 0.06 PATCH
      Uri-Path: manage
      Uri-Path: gp4
      Content-Format: TBD2 (application/ace-groupcomm+cbor)

      {
        "sign_enc_alg" : 10,
        "app_groups_diff" : [["room1"],
                             ["room3", "room4"]]
      }

   <= 2.04 Changed
      Content-Format: TBD2 (application/ace-groupcomm+cbor)

      {
        "group_name" : "gp4",
        "joining_uri" : "coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/gp4/",
        "as_uri" : "coap://as.example.com/token"
      }

   Example in CoRAL:

   => 0.06 PATCH
      Uri-Path: manage
      Uri-Path: gp4
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      #using <http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gconf#>
      sign_enc_alg 10
      app_group_del "room1"
      app_group_add "room3"
      app_group_add "room4"

   <= 2.04 Changed
      Content-Format: TBD1 (application/coral+cbor)

      #using <http://coreapps.org/core.osc.gconf#>
      group_name "gp4"
      joining_uri <coap://[2001:db8::ab]/ace-group/gp4/>
      as_uri <coap://as.example.com/token>

6.7.1.  Effects on Joining Nodes

   After having selectively updated part of a group configuration, the
   effects on candidate joining nodes are the same as defined in
   Section 6.6.1 for the case of group configuration overwriting.

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6.7.2.  Effects on the Group Members

   After having selectively updated part of a group configuration, the
   effects on the current group members are the same as defined in
   Section 6.6.2 for the case of group configuration overwriting.

6.8.  Delete a Group Configuration

   This operation MUST be supported by the Group Manager and an
   Administrator.

   The Administrator can send a DELETE request to the group-
   configuration resource, in order to delete that OSCORE group.

   Consistently with what is defined at step 4 of Section 4, the Group
   Manager MUST check whether GROUPNAME matches with the group name
   pattern specified in any scope entry of the 'scope' claim in the
   stored Access Token for the Administrator.  In case of a positive
   match, the Group Manager MUST check whether the permission set in the
   found scope entry specifies the permission "Delete".

   If the verification above fails (i.e., there are no matching scope
   entries specifying the "Delete" permission), the Group Manager MUST
   reply with a 4.03 (Forbidden) error response.  The response MUST have
   Content-Format set to application/ace-groupcomm+cbor and is formatted
   as defined in Section 4.1.2 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].

   Otherwise, the Group Manager continues processing the request, which
   would be successful only on an inactive OSCORE group.  That is, the
   DELETE request actually yields a successful deletion of the OSCORE
   group, only if the corresponding status parameter 'active' has
   current value "false" (0xf4).  The Administrator can ensure that, by
   first performing an update of the group-configuration resource
   associated with the OSCORE group (see Section 6.6), and setting the
   corresponding status parameter 'active' to "false" (0xf4).

   If, upon receiving the DELETE request, the current value of the
   status parameter 'active' is "true" (0xf5), the Group Manager MUST
   respond with a 4.09 (Conflict) response.  The response MUST have
   Content-Format set to application/ace-groupcomm+cbor and is formatted
   as defined in Section 4.1.2 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].  The
   value of the 'error' field MUST be set to 8 ("Group currently
   active").

   After a successful processing of the DELETE request, the Group
   Manager performs the following actions.

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   First, the Group Manager deletes the OSCORE group and deallocates
   both the group-configuration resource as well as the group-membership
   resource associated with that group.

   Then, the Group Manager replies to the Administrator with a 2.02
   (Deleted) response.

   Example:

   => 0.04 DELETE
      Uri-Path: manage
      Uri-Path: gp4

   <= 2.02 Deleted

6.8.1.  Effects on the Group Members

   After having deleted an OSCORE group, the Group Manager can inform
   the group members by means of the following two methods.  When
   contacting a group member, the Group Manager uses the pairwise secure
   communication association established with that member during its
   joining process (see Section 6 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).

   *  The Group Manager sends an individual request message to each
      group member, targeting the respective resource used to perform
      the group rekeying process (see Section 20.1 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]).  The Group Manager uses the
      same format of the Joining Response message in Section 6.4 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore], where only the parameters
      'gkty', 'key' and 'ace-groupcomm-profile' are present, and the
      'key' parameter is the empty CBOR map.

   *  A group member may subscribe for updates to the group-membership
      resource associated with the OSCORE group.  In particular, if this
      relies on CoAP Observe [RFC7641], a group member would receive a
      4.04 (Not Found) notification response from the Group Manager,
      since the group-configuration resource has been deallocated upon
      deleting the OSCORE group (see Section 6.1 of
      [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm]).  The response MUST have Content-
      Format set to application/ace-groupcomm+cbor and is formatted as
      defined in Section 4.1.2 of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].  The
      value of the 'error' field MUST be set to 5 ("Group deleted").

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   When being informed about the deletion of the OSCORE group, a group
   member deletes the OSCORE Security Context that it stores as
   associated with that group, and possibly deallocates any dedicated
   control resource intended for the Group Manager that it has for that
   group.

7.  ACE Groupcomm Error Identifiers

   In addition to what is defined in Section 9 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm], this document defines a new value that
   the Group Manager can include as error identifiers, in the 'error'
   field of an error response with Content-Format application/ace-
   groupcomm+cbor.

                    +-------+------------------------+
                    | Value |      Description       |
                    +-------+------------------------+
                    |  10   | Group currently active |
                    +-------+------------------------+

                 Figure 4: ACE Groupcomm Error Identifiers

   A Client supporting the 'error' parameter (see Sections 4.1.2 and 8
   of [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm]) and able to understand the specified
   error may use that information to determine what actions to take
   next.  If it is included in the error response and supported by the
   Client, the 'error_description' parameter may provide additional
   context.  In particular, the following guidelines apply.

   *  In case of error 10, the Client should stop sending the request in
      question to the Group Manager, until the group becomes inactive.
      As per this document, this error is relevant only for the
      Administrator, if it tries to delete a group without having set
      its status to inactive first (see Section 6.8).  In such a case,
      the Administrator should take the expected course of actions, and
      set the group status to inactive first (see Section 6.6 and
      Section 6.7), before proceeding with the group deletion.

8.  Security Considerations

   Security considerations are inherited from the ACE framework for
   Authentication and Authorization [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz], and from
   the specific transport profile of ACE used between the Administrator
   and the Group Manager, such as [I-D.ietf-ace-dtls-authorize] and
   [I-D.ietf-ace-oscore-profile].

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9.  IANA Considerations

   This document has the following actions for IANA.

   Note to RFC Editor: Please replace all occurrences of "[RFC-XXXX]"
   with the RFC number of this specification and delete this paragraph.

9.1.  ACE Groupcomm Parameters

   IANA is asked to register the following entries in the "ACE Groupcomm
   Parameters" registry defined in Section 11.7 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].

        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | Name            | CBOR Key | CBOR Type    | Reference  |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | hkdf            | TBD      | tstr / int   | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | cred_fmt        | TBD      | int          | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | group_mode      | TBD      | simple value | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | sign_enc_alg    | TBD      | tstr / int / | [RFC-XXXX] |
        |                 |          | simple value |            |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | sign_alg        | TBD      | tstr / int / | [RFC-XXXX] |
        |                 |          | simple value |            |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | sign_params     | TBD      | array /      | [RFC-XXXX] |
        |                 |          | simple value |            |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | pairwise_mode   | TBD      | simple value | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | alg             | TBD      | tstr / int / | [RFC-XXXX] |
        |                 |          | simple value |            |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | ecdh_alg        | TBD      | tstr / int / | [RFC-XXXX] |
        |                 |          | simple value |            |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | ecdh_params     | TBD      | array /      | [RFC-XXXX] |
        |                 |          | simple value |            |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | det_req         | TBD      | simple value | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | det_hash_alg    | TBD      | tstr / int   | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | active          | TBD      | simple value | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+

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        | group_name      | TBD      | tstr         | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | group_title     | TBD      | tstr /       | [RFC-XXXX] |
        |                 |          | simple value |            |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | gid_reuse       | TBD      | simple value | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | app_groups      | TBD      | array        | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | joining_uri     | TBD      | tstr         | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | max_stale_sets  | TBD      | uint         | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | as_uri          | TBD      | tstr         | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | conf_filter     | TBD      | array        | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+
        | app_groups_diff | TBD      | array        | [RFC-XXXX] |
        +-----------------+----------+--------------+------------+

                     Figure 5: ACE Groupcomm Parameters

9.2.  ACE Groupcomm Errors

   IANA is asked to register the following entry in the "ACE Groupcomm
   Errors" registry defined in Section 11.13 of
   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm].

   *  Value: 10

   *  Description: Group currently active.

   *  Reference: [RFC-XXXX]

9.3.  Resource Types

   IANA is asked to enter the following values in the "Resource Type
   (rt=) Link Target Attribute Values" registry within the "Constrained
   Restful Environments (CoRE) Parameters" registry group.

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   +----------------+------------------------------+------------+
   | Value          | Description                  | Reference  |
   +----------------+------------------------------+------------+
   | core.osc.gcoll | Group-collection resource    | [RFC-XXXX] |
   |                | of an OSCORE Group Manager   |            |
   +----------------+------------------------------+------------+
   | core.osc.gconf | Group-configuration resource | [RFC-XXXX] |
   |                | of an OSCORE Group Manager   |            |
   +----------------+------------------------------+------------+

9.4.  Group OSCORE Admin Permissions

   This document establishes the IANA "Group OSCORE Admin Permissions"
   registry.  The registry has been created to use the "Expert Review"
   registration procedure [RFC8126].  Expert review guidelines are
   provided in Section 9.5.

   This registry includes the possible permissions that Administrators
   can have to perform operations on an OSCORE Group Manager, each in
   combination with a numeric identifier.  These numeric identifiers are
   used to express authorization information about performing
   administrative operations concerning OSCORE groups under the control
   of the Group Manager, as specified in Section 3 of [RFC-XXXX].

   The columns of this registry are:

   *  Name: A value that can be used in documents for easier
      comprehension, to identify a possible permission that
      Administrators can perform when interacting with an OSCORE Group
      Manager.

   *  Value: The numeric identifier for this permission.  Integer values
      greater than 65535 are marked as "Private Use", all other values
      use the registration policy "Expert Review" [RFC8126].

      Note that, in general, a single permission can be associated with
      multiple different operations that are possible to be performed
      when interacting with the Group Manager.

   *  Description: This field contains a brief description of the
      permission.

   *  Reference: This contains a pointer to the public specification for
      the permission.

   This registry will be initially populated by the values in Figure 2.

   The Reference column for all of these entries will be [RFC-XXXX].

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9.5.  Expert Review Instructions

   The IANA registry established in this document is defined as "Expert
   Review".  This section gives some general guidelines for what the
   experts should be looking for, but they are being designated as
   experts for a reason so they should be given substantial latitude.

   Expert reviewers should take into consideration the following points:

   *  Clarity and correctness of registrations.  Experts are expected to
      check the clarity of purpose and use of the requested entries.
      Experts should inspect the entry for the considered permission, to
      verify the correctness of its description against the permission
      as intended in the specification that defined it.  Expert should
      consider requesting an opinion on the correctness of registered
      parameters from the Authentication and Authorization for
      Constrained Environments (ACE) Working Group and the Constrained
      RESTful Environments (CoRE) Working Group.

      Entries that do not meet these objective of clarity and
      completeness should not be registered.

   *  Duplicated registration and point squatting should be discouraged.
      Reviewers are encouraged to get sufficient information for
      registration requests to ensure that the usage is not going to
      duplicate one that is already registered and that the point is
      likely to be used in deployments.

   *  Experts should take into account the expected usage of permissions
      when approving point assignment.  Given a 'Value' V as code point,
      the length of the encoding of (2^(V+1) - 1) should be weighed
      against the usage of the entry, considering the resources and
      capabilities of devices it will be used on.  Additionally, given a
      'Value' V as code point, the length of the encoding of (2^(V+1) -
      1) should be weighed against how many code points resulting in
      that encoding length are left, and the resources and capabilities
      of devices it will be used on.

   *  Specifications are recommended.  When specifications are not
      provided, the description provided needs to have sufficient
      information to verify the points above.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

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   [COSE.Algorithms]
              IANA, "COSE Algorithms",
              <https://www.iana.org/assignments/cose/
              cose.xhtml#algorithms>.

   [I-D.ietf-ace-aif]
              Bormann, C., "An Authorization Information Format (AIF)
              for ACE", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              ace-aif-07, 15 March 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-ace-aif-
              07.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm]
              Palombini, F. and M. Tiloca, "Key Provisioning for Group
              Communication using ACE", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-15, 23 December 2021,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-ace-key-
              groupcomm-15.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore]
              Tiloca, M., Park, J., and F. Palombini, "Key Management
              for OSCORE Groups in ACE", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore-14, 28 April
              2022, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-ace-key-
              groupcomm-oscore-14.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz]
              Seitz, L., Selander, G., Wahlstroem, E., Erdtman, S., and
              H. Tschofenig, "Authentication and Authorization for
              Constrained Environments (ACE) using the OAuth 2.0
              Framework (ACE-OAuth)", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-ace-oauth-authz-46, 8 November 2021,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-ace-oauth-
              authz-46.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-ace-oscore-profile]
              Palombini, F., Seitz, L., Selander, G., and M. Gunnarsson,
              "OSCORE Profile of the Authentication and Authorization
              for Constrained Environments Framework", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ace-oscore-profile-19, 6 May
              2021, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-ace-
              oscore-profile-19.txt>.

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   [I-D.ietf-core-coral]
              Amsüss, C. and T. Fossati, "The Constrained RESTful
              Application Language (CoRAL)", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-ietf-core-coral-05, 7 March 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-core-coral-
              05.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-core-groupcomm-bis]
              Dijk, E., Wang, C., and M. Tiloca, "Group Communication
              for the Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-core-groupcomm-bis-
              07, 11 July 2022, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-
              ietf-core-groupcomm-bis-07.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-core-oscore-groupcomm]
              Tiloca, M., Selander, G., Palombini, F., Mattsson, J. P.,
              and J. Park, "Group OSCORE - Secure Group Communication
              for CoAP", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              core-oscore-groupcomm-14, 7 March 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-core-oscore-
              groupcomm-14.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-algs]
              Schaad, J., "CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE):
              Initial Algorithms", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-algs-12, 24 September 2020,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-cose-
              rfc8152bis-algs-12.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-struct]
              Schaad, J., "CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE):
              Structures and Process", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-cose-rfc8152bis-struct-15, 1 February 2021,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-cose-
              rfc8152bis-struct-15.txt>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC6690]  Shelby, Z., "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE) Link
              Format", RFC 6690, DOI 10.17487/RFC6690, August 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6690>.

   [RFC6749]  Hardt, D., Ed., "The OAuth 2.0 Authorization Framework",
              RFC 6749, DOI 10.17487/RFC6749, October 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6749>.

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   [RFC7252]  Shelby, Z., Hartke, K., and C. Bormann, "The Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7252,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7252, June 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7252>.

   [RFC7641]  Hartke, K., "Observing Resources in the Constrained
              Application Protocol (CoAP)", RFC 7641,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7641, September 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7641>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

   [RFC8132]  van der Stok, P., Bormann, C., and A. Sehgal, "PATCH and
              FETCH Methods for the Constrained Application Protocol
              (CoAP)", RFC 8132, DOI 10.17487/RFC8132, April 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8132>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8610]  Birkholz, H., Vigano, C., and C. Bormann, "Concise Data
              Definition Language (CDDL): A Notational Convention to
              Express Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR) and
              JSON Data Structures", RFC 8610, DOI 10.17487/RFC8610,
              June 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8610>.

   [RFC8613]  Selander, G., Mattsson, J., Palombini, F., and L. Seitz,
              "Object Security for Constrained RESTful Environments
              (OSCORE)", RFC 8613, DOI 10.17487/RFC8613, July 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8613>.

   [RFC8742]  Bormann, C., "Concise Binary Object Representation (CBOR)
              Sequences", RFC 8742, DOI 10.17487/RFC8742, February 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8742>.

   [RFC8949]  Bormann, C. and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object
              Representation (CBOR)", STD 94, RFC 8949,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8949, December 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8949>.

10.2.  Informative References

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   [I-D.amsuess-core-cachable-oscore]
              Amsüss, C. and M. Tiloca, "Cacheable OSCORE", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-amsuess-core-cachable-
              oscore-05, 11 July 2022, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/
              draft-amsuess-core-cachable-oscore-05.txt>.

   [I-D.hartke-t2trg-coral-reef]
              Hartke, K., "Resource Discovery in Constrained RESTful
              Environments (CoRE) using the Constrained RESTful
              Application Language (CoRAL)", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-hartke-t2trg-coral-reef-04, 9 May 2020,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-hartke-t2trg-coral-
              reef-04.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-ace-dtls-authorize]
              Gerdes, S., Bergmann, O., Bormann, C., Selander, G., and
              L. Seitz, "Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)
              Profile for Authentication and Authorization for
              Constrained Environments (ACE)", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-ace-dtls-authorize-18, 4 June
              2021, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-ace-
              dtls-authorize-18.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-cose-cbor-encoded-cert]
              Mattsson, J. P., Selander, G., Raza, S., Höglund, J., and
              M. Furuhed, "CBOR Encoded X.509 Certificates (C509
              Certificates)", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              ietf-cose-cbor-encoded-cert-04, 10 July 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-cose-cbor-
              encoded-cert-04.txt>.

   [I-D.tiloca-core-oscore-discovery]
              Tiloca, M., Amsuess, C., and P. V. D. Stok, "Discovery of
              OSCORE Groups with the CoRE Resource Directory", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-tiloca-core-oscore-
              discovery-11, 7 March 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-tiloca-core-oscore-
              discovery-11.txt>.

   [RFC6347]  Rescorla, E. and N. Modadugu, "Datagram Transport Layer
              Security Version 1.2", RFC 6347, DOI 10.17487/RFC6347,
              January 2012, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6347>.

   [RFC7925]  Tschofenig, H., Ed. and T. Fossati, "Transport Layer
              Security (TLS) / Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS)
              Profiles for the Internet of Things", RFC 7925,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7925, July 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7925>.

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   [RFC8392]  Jones, M., Wahlstroem, E., Erdtman, S., and H. Tschofenig,
              "CBOR Web Token (CWT)", RFC 8392, DOI 10.17487/RFC8392,
              May 2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8392>.

   [RFC9147]  Rescorla, E., Tschofenig, H., and N. Modadugu, "The
              Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) Protocol Version
              1.3", RFC 9147, DOI 10.17487/RFC9147, April 2022,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9147>.

   [RFC9176]  Amsüss, C., Ed., Shelby, Z., Koster, M., Bormann, C., and
              P. van der Stok, "Constrained RESTful Environments (CoRE)
              Resource Directory", RFC 9176, DOI 10.17487/RFC9176, April
              2022, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9176>.

Appendix A.  Processing of Group Name Patterns at the AS

   When processing an Authorization Request from an Administrator (see
   Section 4), the AS builds the authorization information expressing
   granted permissions as scope entries, according to the AIF specific
   data model AIF-OSCORE-GROUPCOMM and to its extension specified in
   Section 3.  These scope entries are in turn specified as value of the
   'scope' claim to include in the Access Token.

   In order to evaluate the requested permissions against the access
   policies pertaining to the Administrator for the Group Manager in
   question, the AS can perform the following steps.

   The following specifically refers only to "admin scope entries",
   i.e., scope entries that express authorization information for
   Administrators of OSCORE groups.

   1.  The AS initializes three empty sets of scope entries, namely S1,
       S2 and S3.

   2.  For each scope entry E in the 'scope' parameter of the
       Authorization Request, the AS performs the following actions.

       *  In its access policies related to administrative operations at
          the Group Manager for the Administrator, the AS determines
          every group name superpattern P*, such that every group name
          matching with the pattern P of the scope entry E matches also
          with P*.

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       *  If no superpatterns are found, the AS proceeds with the next
          scope entry, if any.  Otherwise, the AS computes Tperm* as the
          union of the permission sets associated with the superpatterns
          found at the previous step.  That is, Tperm* is the inclusive
          OR of the binary representations of the Tperm values
          associated with the found superpatterns and encoding the
          corresponding permission sets as per Section 3.

       *  The AS adds to the set S1 a scope entry, such that its Toid is
          the same as in the scope entry E, while its Tperm is the AND
          of Tperm* with the Tperm in the scope entry E.

   3.  For each scope entry E in the 'scope' parameter of the
       Authorization Request, the AS performs the following actions.

       *  In its access policies related to administrative operations at
          the Group Manager for the Administrator, the AS determines
          every group name subpattern P*, such that: i) the pattern P of
          the scope entry E is different from P*; and ii) every group
          name matching with P* also matches with P.

       *  If no subpatterns are found, the AS proceeds with the next
          scope entry, if any.  Otherwise, for each found subpattern P*,
          the AS adds to the set S2 a scope entry, such that its Toid is
          the same as in the subpattern P*, while its Tperm is the AND
          of the Tperm from the subpattern P* with the Tperm in the
          scope entry E.

   4.  For each scope entry E in the 'scope' parameter of the
       Authorization Request, the AS performs the following actions.

       *  For each group name pattern P* in its access policies related
          to administrative operations at the Group Manager for the
          Administrator, the AS performs the following actions.

          -  The AS attempts to determine a crosspattern P** such that:
             i) in the previous steps, P** was not identified as a
             superpattern or subpattern for the pattern P of the scope
             entry E; ii) every group name matching with P** also
             matches with both P and P*.

          -  If no crosspattern is built, the AS proceeds with the next
             pattern in its access policies related to administrative
             operations at the Group Manager for the Administrator, if
             any.  Otherwise, the AS adds to the set S3 a scope entry,
             such that its Toid is the same as in the crosspattern P**,
             while its Tperm is the AND of the Tperm from the pattern P*
             and the Tperm in the scope entry E.

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   5.  If the sets S1, S2 and S3 are all empty, the Authorization
       Request has not been successfully verified, and the AS returns an
       error response as per Section 5.8.3 of
       [I-D.ietf-ace-oauth-authz].  Otherwise, the AS uses the scope
       entries in the sets S1, S2 and S3 as the scope entries for the
       'scope' claim to include in the Access Token, as per the format
       defined in Section 3.

Appendix B.  Document Updates

   RFC EDITOR: PLEASE REMOVE THIS SECTION.

B.1.  Version -05 to -06

   *  Use and extend the same AIF specific data model AIF-OSCORE-
      GROUPCOMM defined in [I-D.ietf-ace-key-groupcomm-oscore].

   *  Revised Client-AS interaction, based on the used AIF specific data
      model.

   *  Categorized operations at the Group Manager as required and
      optional to support.

   *  Added status parameter 'gid_reuse', on reassigning OSCORE Group
      IDs upon group rekeying.

   *  Clarifications on the group name ultimately chosen by the Group
      Manager.

   *  Moved the detailed processing of group name patterns at the AS to
      an Appendix, as an example.

   *  Editorial improvements.

B.2.  Version -04 to -05

   *  Defined format of scope based on a new AIF data model.

   *  Specified authorization checks at the Group Manager.

   *  Revised resource handlers based on the new scope format.

   *  Renamed 'pub_key_enc' to 'cred_fmt'.

   *  Mandatory to include 'group_name' in the group creation request.

   *  Suggesting a used 'group_name' results in a new name, not in an
      error.

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   *  Distinction between authentication credentials and public keys.

   *  More details on informing group members about changes in the group
      configuration.

   *  Revised order of sections; editorial improvements.

B.3.  Version -03 to -04

   *  Clarifications on what to do in case of enhanced error responses.

   *  Clarifications on handling default values for group parameters.

   *  New configuration parameters to support OSCORE deterministic
      requests.

   *  IANA considerations - Use RFC8126 terminology.

   *  Author's change of address.

   *  Editorial improvements.

B.4.  Version -02 to -03

   *  Aligned new and old parameters to core-groupcomm-oscore and ace-
      key-groupcomm-oscore.

   *  Removed 'cs_key_params' and 'ecdh_key_params' to avoid redundant
      COSE capabilities of key types, consistently with draft-ietf-ace-
      key-groupcomm-oscore.

   *  Revised examples and side effects due to parameter changes.

   *  New error type "Group currently active".

B.5.  Version -01 to -02

   *  Admit multiple Administrators and limited access to admin
      resources.

   *  Early design considerations for defining the format of scope.

   *  Additional error handling, using also error types.

   *  Selective update of group-configuration resources with PATCH/
      iPATCH.

   *  Editorial improvements.

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B.6.  Version -00 to -01

   *  Names of application groups as status parameter.

   *  Parameters related to the pairwise mode of Group OSCORE.

   *  Defined FETCH for group-configuration resources.

   *  Policies on registration of links to the Resource Directory.

   *  Added resource type for group-configuration resources.

   *  Fixes, clarifications and editorial improvements.

Acknowledgments

   Klaus Hartke provided substantial contribution in defining the
   resource model based on group collection and group configurations, as
   well as the interactions with the Group Manager using CoRAL.

   The authors sincerely thank Christian Amsüss, Carsten Bormann and Jim
   Schaad for their comments and feedback.

   The work on this document has been partly supported by VINNOVA and
   the Celtic-Next project CRITISEC; and by the H2020 project SIFIS-Home
   (Grant agreement 952652).

Authors' Addresses

   Marco Tiloca
   RISE AB
   Isafjordsgatan 22
   SE-16440 Stockholm Kista
   Sweden
   Email: marco.tiloca@ri.se

   Rikard Höglund
   RISE AB
   Isafjordsgatan 22
   SE-16440 Stockholm Kista
   Sweden
   Email: rikard.hoglund@ri.se

   Peter van der Stok
   Consultant
   Phone: +31-492474673 (Netherlands), +33-966015248 (France)

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   Email: stokcons@bbhmail.nl

   Francesca Palombini
   Ericsson AB
   Torshamnsgatan 23
   SE-16440 Stockholm Kista
   Sweden
   Email: francesca.palombini@ericsson.com

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