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JWS signed Voucher Artifacts for Bootstrapping Protocols
draft-ietf-anima-jws-voucher-09

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (anima WG)
Authors Thomas Werner , Michael Richardson
Last updated 2023-08-29
Replaces draft-richardson-anima-jose-voucher
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Intended RFC status Proposed Standard
Formats
Additional resources Mailing list discussion
Stream WG state In WG Last Call
Document shepherd Matthias Kovatsch
Shepherd write-up Show Last changed 2023-08-29
IESG IESG state I-D Exists
Consensus boilerplate Yes
Telechat date (None)
Responsible AD (None)
Send notices to ietf@kovatsch.net
draft-ietf-anima-jws-voucher-09
anima Working Group                                            T. Werner
Internet-Draft                                                Siemens AG
Updates: 8366 (if approved)                                M. Richardson
Intended status: Standards Track                Sandelman Software Works
Expires: 1 March 2024                                     29 August 2023

        JWS signed Voucher Artifacts for Bootstrapping Protocols
                    draft-ietf-anima-jws-voucher-09

Abstract

   [TODO: I-D.draft-ietf-anima-rfc8366bis] defines a digital artifact
   called voucher as a YANG-defined JSON document that is signed using a
   Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) structure.  This document
   introduces a variant of the voucher artifact in which CMS is replaced
   by the JSON Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE) mechanism described
   in RFC7515 to support deployments in which JOSE is preferred over
   CMS.

   In addition to explaining how the format is created, the
   "application/voucher-jws+json" media type is registered and examples
   are provided.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 1 March 2024.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2023 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Voucher Artifact with JSON Web Signature  . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.1.  Voucher Representation in General JWS JSON Serialization
           Syntax  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     3.2.  JSON Voucher Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.3.  JWS Protected Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.4.  JWS Signature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   4.  Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     6.1.  Media-Type Registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       6.1.1.  application/voucher-jws+json  . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   7.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   8.  Examples  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     8.1.  Example Pledge Voucher Request - PVR (from Pledge to
           Registrar)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     8.2.  Example Parboiled Registrar Voucher Request - RVR (from
           Registrar to MASA)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     8.3.  Example Voucher Response (from MASA to Pledge, via
           Registrar)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     9.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     9.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1.  Introduction

   "A Voucher Artifact for Bootstrapping Protocols"
   [I-D.draft-ietf-anima-rfc8366bis] defines a YANG-based data structure
   used in "Bootstrapping Remote Secure Key Infrastructure" [BRSKI] and
   "Secure Zero Touch Provisioning" [SZTP] to transfer ownership of a
   device from a manufacturer to a new owner (customer or operational
   domain).  That document provides a serialization of the voucher data
   to JSON [RFC8259] (JSON Voucher Data) with cryptographic signing
   according to the Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) [RFC5652].  The

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   resulting voucher artifact has the media type "application/voucher-
   cms+json".

   [I-D.ietf-anima-constrained-voucher] provides a serialization of the
   voucher data to CBOR [RFC8949] with the signature format of COSE
   [RFC8812] and the media type "application/voucher-cose+cbor".

   This document provides cryptographic signing of the JSON Voucher Data
   in form of JSON Web Signature (JWS) [RFC7515] and the media type
   "application/voucher-jws+json".  The encoding specified in this
   document is used by [I-D.ietf-anima-brski-prm] and may be more handy
   for use cases already using Javascript Object Signing and Encryption
   (JOSE).

   With the availability of different encoded vouchers, it is up to an
   industry specific application statement to indicate/decide which
   voucher signature format is to be used.  There is no provision across
   the different voucher signature formats that a receiver could safely
   recognize which format it uses unless additional context is provided.
   For example, [BRSKI] provides this context via the media type for the
   voucher artifact.  This document utilizes the optional "typ" (Type)
   Header Parameter of JWS [RFC7515] to provide information about the
   signed object.

   This document should be considered an update to
   [I-D.draft-ietf-anima-rfc8366bis] in the category of "See Also" as
   per [I-D.kuehlewind-update-tag].  [TODO: Fix "Updates:" header with
   I-D.draft-ietf-anima-rfc8366bis number.]  It does not extend the YANG
   definition of [I-D.draft-ietf-anima-rfc8366bis].

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   This document uses the following terms:

   JSON Voucher Data:  An unsigned JSON representation of the Voucher
      Data.

   JWS Voucher:  A JWS structure signing the JSON Voucher Data.

   Voucher:  A short form for Voucher Artifact and refers to the signed

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      statement from the MASA service that indicates to a pledge the
      cryptographic identity of the domain it should trust, per
      [I-D.draft-ietf-anima-rfc8366bis].

   Voucher Data:  The raw (serialized) representation of the ietf-
      voucher YANG module without any enclosing signature, per
      [I-D.draft-ietf-anima-rfc8366bis].

   This document uses the following encoding notations:

   BASE64URL(OCTETS):  Denotes the base64url encoding of OCTETS, per
      Section 2 of [RFC7515].

   UTF8(STRING):  Denotes the octets of the UTF-8 [RFC3629]
      representation of STRING, per Section 1 of [RFC7515].

3.  Voucher Artifact with JSON Web Signature

   [RFC7515] defines the following serializations for JWS:

   1.  "JWS Compact Serialization" in Section 7.1 of [RFC7515]

   2.  "JWS JSON Serialization" in Section 7.2 of [RFC7515]

       *  "General JWS JSON Serialization Syntax" in Section 7.2.1 of
          [RFC7515]

       *  "Flattened JWS JSON Serialization Syntax" in Section 7.2.2 of
          [RFC7515]

   A "JWS JSON Serialization Overview" is given in Section 3.2 of
   [RFC7515] and more details on the JWS serializations in Section 7 of
   [RFC7515].  This document makes use of the "General JWS JSON
   Serialization Syntax" of [RFC7515] to support multiple signatures, as
   already supported by [RFC8366] for CMS-signed vouchers.

3.1.  Voucher Representation in General JWS JSON Serialization Syntax

   JWS Voucher artifacts MUST use the "General JWS JSON Serialization
   Syntax" defined in Section 7.2.1 of [RFC7515].  The following figure
   summarizes the serialization of JWS Voucher artifacts:

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       {
         "payload": BASE64URL(UTF8(JSON Voucher Data)),
         "signatures": [
           {
             "protected": BASE64URL(UTF8(JWS Protected Header)),
             "signature": BASE64URL(JWS Signature)
           }
         ]
       }

            Figure 1: Voucher Representation in General JWS JSON
                     Serialization Syntax (JWS Voucher)

   The JSON Voucher Data MUST be UTF-8 encoded to become the octet-based
   JWS Payload defined in [RFC7515].  The JWS Payload is further
   base64url-encoded to become the string value of the "payload" member
   as described in Section 3.2 of [RFC7515].  The octets of the UTF-8
   representation of the JWS Protected Header are base64url-encoded to
   become the string value of the "protected" member.  The generated JWS
   Signature is base64url-encoded to become the string value of the
   "signature" member.

3.2.  JSON Voucher Data

   The JSON Voucher Data is an unsigned JSON document [RFC8259] that
   conforms with the data model described by the ietf-voucher YANG
   module [RFC7950] defined in Section 5.3 of
   [I-D.draft-ietf-anima-rfc8366bis] and is encoded using the rules
   defined in [RFC7951].  The following figure provides an example of
   JSON Voucher Data:

       {
         "ietf-voucher:voucher": {
           "assertion": "logged",
           "serial-number": "0123456789",
           "nonce": "5742698422680472",
           "created-on": "2022-07-08T03:01:24.618Z",
           "pinned-domain-cert": "base64encodedvalue=="
         }
       }

                    Figure 2: JSON Voucher Data Example

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3.3.  JWS Protected Header

   The JWS Protected Header defined in [RFC7515] uses the standard
   header parameters "alg", "typ", and "x5c".  The "alg" parameter MUST
   contain the algorithm type used to create the signature, e.g.,
   "ES256" as defined in Section 4.1.1 of [RFC7515].  If present, the
   "typ" parameter SHOULD contain the value "[TODO: voucher-jws+json]"
   as defined in Section 4.1.9 of [RFC7515].  If X.509 (PKIX)
   certificates [RFC5280] are used, the "x5c" parameter SHOULD contain
   the base64-encoded (not base64url-encoded) X.509 v3 (DER) certificate
   and chain as defined in Section 4.1.6 of [RFC7515].

   Implementation Note: base64-encoded values opposed to base64url-
   encoded values may contain slashes ('/').  JSON [RFC8259] optionally
   allows to escape these with backslashes ('').  Hence, depending on
   the JSON parser/serializer implementation used, they may or may not
   be included.  JWS Voucher parsers must be prepared accordingly to
   extract certificates correctly.

   Vouchers will often need all certificates in the chain, including
   what would be considered the trust anchor certificate, because
   intermediate devices (such as the Registrar) may need to audit the
   artifact, or end systems may need to pin a trust anchor for future
   operations.  Note, a trust anchor SHOULD be provided differently to
   be trusted.  This is consistent with Section 5.5.2 of [BRSKI].

   The following figure gives an example of a JWS Protected Header:

       {
         "alg": "ES256",
         "typ": "[TODO: voucher-jws+json]",
         "x5c": [
           "base64encodedvalue1==",
           "base64encodedvalue2=="
         ]
       }

                   Figure 3: JWS Protected Header Example

3.4.  JWS Signature

   The JWS Signature is generated over the JWS Protected Header and the
   JWS Payload (= UTF-8 encoded JSON Voucher Data) as described in
   Section 5.1 of [RFC7515].

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4.  Privacy Considerations

   The Voucher Request reveals the IDevID of the component (Pledge) that
   is in the process of bootstrapping.

   This request occurs via HTTP-over-TLS, however, for the Pledge-to-
   Registrar TLS connection, the Pledge is provisionally accepting the
   Registrar server certificate.  Hence it is subject to disclosure by a
   Dolev-Yao attacker (a "malicious messenger") [ON-PATH], as explained
   in Section 10.2 of [BRSKI].

   The use of a JWS header brings no new privacy considerations.

5.  Security Considerations

   The issues of how [I-D.draft-ietf-anima-rfc8366bis] vouchers are used
   in a [BRSKI] system is addressed in Section 11 of [BRSKI].  This
   document does not change any of those issues, it just changes the
   signature technology used for voucher request and response artifacts.

   Section 9 of [SZTP] deals with voucher use in Secure Zero Touch
   Provisioning, for which this document also makes no changes to
   security.

6.  IANA Considerations

6.1.  Media-Type Registry

   This section registers the "application/voucher-jws+json" in the
   "Media Types" registry.

6.1.1.  application/voucher-jws+json

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   Type name:  application
   Subtype name:  voucher-jws+json
   Required parameters:  none
   Optional parameters:  none
   Encoding considerations:  JWS+JSON vouchers are JOSE objects
                             signed with one or multiple signers.
   Security considerations:  See section [Security Considerations]
   Interoperability considerations:  The format is designed to be
     broadly interoperable.
   Published specification:  [THIS RFC].
   Applications that use this media type:  ANIMA, 6tisch, and other
     zero-touch bootstrapping/provisioning solutions
   Additional information:
     Magic number(s):  None
     File extension(s):  .vjj
     Macintosh file type code(s):  none
   Person & email address to contact for further information:  IETF
     ANIMA WG
   Intended usage:  LIMITED
   Restrictions on usage:  NONE
   Author:  ANIMA WG
   Change controller:  IETF
   Provisional registration? (standards tree only):  NO

7.  Acknowledgments

   We would like to thank the various reviewers for their input, in
   particular Steffen Fries, Ingo Wenda, Esko Dijk and Toerless Eckert.
   Thanks for the supporting PoC implementations to Hong Rui Li and He
   Peng Jia.

8.  Examples

   These examples are folded according to [RFC8792] Single Backslash
   rule.

8.1.  Example Pledge Voucher Request - PVR (from Pledge to Registrar)

   The following is an example request sent from a Pledge to the
   Registrar, in "General JWS JSON Serialization".

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   =============== NOTE: '\' line wrapping per RFC 8792 ================

   {
     "payload": "eyJpZXRmLXZvdWNoZXItcmVxdWVzdDp2b3VjaGVyIjp7InNlcmlhbC\
   1udW1iZXIiOiIwMTIzNDU2Nzg5Iiwibm9uY2UiOiI2R3RuK1pRS04ySHFERlZrQkV4Wk\
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   JoNHhJWGsxIn19",
     "signatures": [{
       "protected": "eyJ4NWMiOlsiTUlJQitUQ0NBYUNnQXdJQkFnSUdBWG5WanNVNU\
   1Bb0dDQ3FHU000OUJBTUNNRDB4Q3pBSkJnTlZCQVlUQWtGUk1SVXdFd1lEVlFRS0RBeE\
   thVzVuU21sdVowTnZjbkF4RnpBVkJnTlZCQU1NRGtwcGJtZEthVzVuVkdWemRFTkJNQ0\
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   I6InZvdWNoZXItandzK2pzb24iLCJhbGciOiJFUzI1NiJ9",
       "signature": "abVg4TDGzSTjVHkQlNeIW3ABu5ZXdMl1cEqwcIAlHFW4BrlGbO\
   -DRTKfyCOGxSW49-ktJcrVlYgKqC4xmZoy0Q"
     }]
   }

               Figure 4: Example Pledge Voucher Request - PVR

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8.2.  Example Parboiled Registrar Voucher Request - RVR (from Registrar
      to MASA)

   The term parboiled refers to food which is partially cooked.  In
   [BRSKI], the term refers to a Pledge voucher-request (PVR) which has
   been received by the Registrar, and then has been processed by the
   Registrar ("cooked"), and is now being forwarded to the MASA.

   The following is an example Registrar voucher-request (RVR) sent from
   the Registrar to the MASA, in "General JWS JSON Serialization".  Note
   that the previous PVR can be seen in the payload as "prior-signed-
   voucher-request".

   =============== NOTE: '\' line wrapping per RFC 8792 ================

   {
     "payload": "eyJpZXRmLXZvdWNoZXItcmVxdWVzdDp2b3VjaGVyIjp7InNlcmlhbC\
   1udW1iZXIiOiIwMTIzNDU2Nzg5IiwiaWRldmlkLWlzc3VlciI6IkJCZ3dGb0FVVkF1TT\
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   9uIjoiMjAyMi0wNy0wOFQwODo0MDo0Mi44NDhaIn19",
     "signatures": [{
       "protected": "eyJ4NWMiOlsiTUlJQm96Q0NBVXFnQXdJQkFnSUdBVzBlTHVJRk\
   1Bb0dDQ3FHU000OUJBTUNNRFV4RXpBUkJnTlZCQW9NQ2sxNVFuVnphVzVsYzNNeERUQU\
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   xSbGMzUkRRVEJaTUJNR0J5cUdTTTQ5QWdFR0NDcUdTTTQ5QXdFSEEwSUFCT2t2a1RIdT\
   hRbFQzRkhKMVVhSTcrV3NIT2IwVVMzU0FMdEc1d3VLUURqaWV4MDZcL1NjWTVQSmlidm\
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       "signature": "0fzuqVdyhemWsu_HQeF-CmQwJeLp9IStNf-bWZwz6SojrEOR4a\
   Dq6VStyG8eWXjGHNZiRyyLJo7RP1rKatuS2w"
     }]
   }

        Figure 5: Example Parboiled Registrar Voucher Request - RVR

8.3.  Example Voucher Response (from MASA to Pledge, via Registrar)

   The following is an example voucher response from MASA to Pledge via
   Registrar, in "General JWS JSON Serialization".

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   =============== NOTE: '\' line wrapping per RFC 8792 ================

   {
     "payload": "eyJpZXRmLXZvdWNoZXI6dm91Y2hlciI6eyJhc3NlcnRpb24iOiJsb2\
   dnZWQiLCJzZXJpYWwtbnVtYmVyIjoiMDEyMzQ1Njc4OSIsIm5vbmNlIjoiZGRoSGQ4Ml\
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   EzeWhCNThUWE1VYnpIOCtPbGhXVXZPbFJEM1ZFcURkY1F3PT0ifX0",
     "signatures": [{
       "protected": "eyJ4NWMiOlsiTUlJQmt6Q0NBVGlnQXdJQkFnSUdBV0ZCakNrWU\
   1Bb0dDQ3FHU000OUJBTUNNRDB4Q3pBSkJnTlZCQVlUQWtGUk1SVXdFd1lEVlFRS0RBeE\
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   pqMEVBd0lEU1FBd1JnSWhBSTRQWWJ4dHNzSFAyVkh4XC90elVvUVwvU3N5ZEwzMERRSU\
   5FdGNOOW1DVFhQQWlFQXZJYjNvK0ZPM0JUbmNMRnNhSlpSQWtkN3pPdXNuXC9cL1pLT2\
   FFS2JzVkRpVT0iXSwidHlwIjoidm91Y2hlci1qd3MranNvbiIsImFsZyI6IkVTMjU2In\
   0",
       "signature": "y1HLYBFlwouf42XWSKUWjeYQHnG2Q6A4bjA7hvTkB3z1dPwTUl\
   jPHtuN2Qex6gDxTfaSiKeoXGsOD4JWOgQJPg"
     }]
   }

                     Figure 6: Example Voucher Response

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [BRSKI]    Pritikin, M., Richardson, M., Eckert, T., Behringer, M.,
              and K. Watsen, "Bootstrapping Remote Secure Key
              Infrastructure (BRSKI)", RFC 8995, DOI 10.17487/RFC8995,
              May 2021, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8995>.

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   [I-D.draft-ietf-anima-rfc8366bis]
              Watsen, K., Richardson, M., Pritikin, M., Eckert, T. T.,
              and Q. Ma, "A Voucher Artifact for Bootstrapping
              Protocols", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              anima-rfc8366bis-10, 22 August 2023,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-anima-
              rfc8366bis-10>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119>.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5280>.

   [RFC7515]  Jones, M., Bradley, J., and N. Sakimura, "JSON Web
              Signature (JWS)", RFC 7515, DOI 10.17487/RFC7515, May
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7515>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8259]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", STD 90, RFC 8259,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8259, December 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8259>.

9.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-anima-brski-prm]
              Fries, S., Werner, T., Lear, E., and M. Richardson, "BRSKI
              with Pledge in Responder Mode (BRSKI-PRM)", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-anima-brski-prm-09,
              10 July 2023, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/
              draft-ietf-anima-brski-prm-09>.

   [I-D.ietf-anima-constrained-voucher]
              Richardson, M., Van der Stok, P., Kampanakis, P., and E.
              Dijk, "Constrained Bootstrapping Remote Secure Key
              Infrastructure (BRSKI)", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-anima-constrained-voucher-21, 7 July 2023,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-anima-
              constrained-voucher-21>.

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   [I-D.kuehlewind-update-tag]
              K├╝hlewind, M. and S. Krishnan, "Definition of new tags for
              relations between RFCs", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-kuehlewind-update-tag-04, 12 July 2021,
              <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-kuehlewind-
              update-tag-04>.

   [ON-PATH]  "can an on-path attacker drop traffic?", n.d.,
              <https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/msg/saag/
              m1r9uo4xYznOcf85Eyk0Rhut598/>.

   [RFC3629]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO
              10646", STD 63, RFC 3629, DOI 10.17487/RFC3629, November
              2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3629>.

   [RFC5652]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", STD 70,
              RFC 5652, DOI 10.17487/RFC5652, September 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5652>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7950>.

   [RFC7951]  Lhotka, L., "JSON Encoding of Data Modeled with YANG",
              RFC 7951, DOI 10.17487/RFC7951, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7951>.

   [RFC8366]  Watsen, K., Richardson, M., Pritikin, M., and T. Eckert,
              "A Voucher Artifact for Bootstrapping Protocols",
              RFC 8366, DOI 10.17487/RFC8366, May 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8366>.

   [RFC8792]  Watsen, K., Auerswald, E., Farrel, A., and Q. Wu,
              "Handling Long Lines in Content of Internet-Drafts and
              RFCs", RFC 8792, DOI 10.17487/RFC8792, June 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8792>.

   [RFC8812]  Jones, M., "CBOR Object Signing and Encryption (COSE) and
              JSON Object Signing and Encryption (JOSE) Registrations
              for Web Authentication (WebAuthn) Algorithms", RFC 8812,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8812, August 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8812>.

   [RFC8949]  Bormann, C. and P. Hoffman, "Concise Binary Object
              Representation (CBOR)", STD 94, RFC 8949,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8949, December 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8949>.

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   [SZTP]     Watsen, K., Farrer, I., and M. Abrahamsson, "Secure Zero
              Touch Provisioning (SZTP)", RFC 8572,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8572, April 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8572>.

Contributors

   Toerless Eckert
   Futurewei Technologies Inc.
   Email: tte+ietf@cs.fau.de

   Esko Dijk
   Email: esko.dijk@iotconsultancy.nl

   Steffen Fries
   Siemens AG
   Email: steffen.fries@siemens.com

Authors' Addresses

   Thomas Werner
   Siemens AG
   Email: thomas-werner@siemens.com

   Michael Richardson
   Sandelman Software Works
   Email: mcr+ietf@sandelman.ca

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