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EVPN Multi-Homing Extensions for Split Horizon Filtering
draft-ietf-bess-evpn-mh-split-horizon-10

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (bess WG)
Authors Jorge Rabadan , Kiran Nagaraj , Wen Lin , Ali Sajassi
Last updated 2024-07-10 (Latest revision 2024-07-08)
Replaces draft-nr-bess-evpn-mh-split-horizon
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Intended RFC status Proposed Standard
Formats
Reviews
Additional resources Mailing list discussion
Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication
Document shepherd Zhaohui (Jeffrey) Zhang
Shepherd write-up Show Last changed 2023-12-04
IESG IESG state IESG Evaluation
Action Holder
Consensus boilerplate Yes
Telechat date On agenda of 2024-08-08 IESG telechat
Needs 9 more YES or NO OBJECTION positions to pass.
Responsible AD Gunter Van de Velde
Send notices to slitkows.ietf@gmail.com, mankamis@cisco.com, zzhang@juniper.net, matthew.bocci@nokia.com
IANA IANA review state IANA OK - Actions Needed
draft-ietf-bess-evpn-mh-split-horizon-10
BESS Workgroup                                           J. Rabadan, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                K. Nagaraj
Updates: 8365, 7432 (if approved)                                  Nokia
Intended status: Standards Track                                  W. Lin
Expires: 9 January 2025                                          Juniper
                                                              A. Sajassi
                                                                   Cisco
                                                             8 July 2024

        EVPN Multi-Homing Extensions for Split Horizon Filtering
                draft-ietf-bess-evpn-mh-split-horizon-10

Abstract

   Ethernet Virtual Private Network (EVPN) is commonly used with Network
   Virtualization Overlay (NVO) tunnels, as well as MPLS and Segment
   Routing tunnels.  The multi-homing procedures in EVPN may vary based
   on the type of tunnel used within the EVPN Broadcast Domain.
   Specifically, there are two multi-homing Split Horizon procedures
   designed to prevent looped frames on multi-homed Customer Edge (CE)
   devices: the ESI Label-based procedure and the Local Bias procedure.
   The ESI Label-based Split Horizon is applied to MPLS-based tunnels,
   such as MPLSoUDP, while the Local Bias procedure is used for other
   tunnels, such as VXLAN.

   Current specifications do not allow operators to choose which Split
   Horizon procedure to use for tunnel encapsulations that support both
   methods.  Examples of tunnels that may support both procedures
   include MPLSoGRE, MPLSoUDP, GENEVE, and SRv6.  This document updates
   the EVPN multi-homing procedures described in RFC 8365 and RFC 7432,
   enabling operators to select the appropriate Split Horizon procedure
   for a given tunnel based on their specific requirements.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on 9 January 2025.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2024 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Conventions and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.2.  Split Horizon Filtering and Tunnel Encapsulations . . . .   5
   2.  BGP EVPN Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     2.1.  The Split Horizon Type  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     2.2.  Use of the Split Horizon Type In A-D Per ES Routes  . . .  10
     2.3.  ESI Label Value In A-D Per ES Routes  . . . . . . . . . .  11
     2.4.  Backwards Compatibility With RFC8365 NVEs . . . . . . . .  11
   3.  Procedures for NVEs Supporting Multiple Encapsulations  . . .  12
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   6.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   7.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     7.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     7.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19

1.  Introduction

   Ethernet Virtual Private Networks (EVPN) are commonly used with the
   following tunnel encapsulations:

   *  Network Virtualization Overlay (NVO) tunnels, where the EVPN
      procedures are specified in [RFC8365].  MPLSoGRE [RFC4023],
      MPLSoUDP [RFC7510], GENEVE [RFC8926] or VXLAN [RFC7348] tunnels
      are considered NVO tunnels.

   *  MPLS and Segment Routing with MPLS data plane (SR-MPLS), where the
      relevant EVPN procedures are specified in [RFC7432].  Segment
      Routing with MPLS data plane tunneling is specified in [RFC8660].

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   *  Segment Routing with IPv6 data plane (SRv6), where the relevant
      EVPN procedures are specified in [RFC9252].  SRv6 is specified in
      [RFC8986].

   The EVPN multihoming procedures may vary depending on the type of
   tunnel utilized within the EVPN Broadcast Domain.  Specifically,
   there are two multihoming Split Horizon procedures employed to
   prevent looped frames on multihomed Customer Edge (CE) devices: the
   ESI Label-based procedure and the Local Bias procedure.

   The ESI Label-based Split Horizon procedure is used for MPLS or MPLS-
   over-X (MPLSoX) tunnels, such as MPLS-over-UDP, and its procedures
   are detailed in [RFC7432].  Conversely, the Local Bias procedure is
   used for IP-based tunnels, such as VXLAN tunnels, and it is described
   in [RFC8365].

1.1.  Conventions and Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   *  AC: Attachment Circuit.

   *  A-D per ES route: refers to the EVPN Ethernet Auto-Discovery per
      ES route defined in [RFC7432].

   *  Arg.FE2: refers to the ESI filtering argument used for Split
      Horizon as specified in [RFC9252].

   *  Broadcast Domain (BD): an emulated ethernet, such that two systems
      on the same BD will receive each other's link-local broadcasts.
      In this document, BD also refers to the instantiation of a
      Broadcast Domain on an EVPN PE.  An EVPN PE can be attached to one
      or multiple BDs of the same tenant.

   *  BUM: Broadcast, Unknown unicast and Multicast traffic.

   *  Designated Forwarder (DF): as defined in [RFC7432], an ES may be
      multihomed (attached to more than one PE).  An ES may also contain
      multiple BDs, of one or more EVIs.  For each such EVI, one of the
      PEs attached to the segment becomes that EVI's DF for that
      segment.  Since a BD may belong to only one EVI, we can speak
      unambiguously of the BD's DF for a given segment.

   *  ES and ESI: Ethernet Segment and Ethernet Segment Identifier.

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   *  EVI: EVPN Instance

   *  EVI-RT: EVI Route Target.  A group of NVEs attached to the same
      EVI will share the same EVI-RT.

   *  GENEVE: Generic Network Virtualization Encapsulation, [RFC8926].

   *  MPLS and non-MPLS NVO tunnels: refer to Multi-Protocol Label
      Switching (or the absence of it) Network Virtualization Overlay
      tunnels.  Network Virtualization Overlay tunnels use an IP
      encapsulation for overlay frames, where the source IP address
      identifies the ingress NVE and the destination IP address the
      egress NVE.

   *  MPLSoUDP: Multi-Protocol Label Switching over User Datagram
      Protocol, [RFC7510]

   *  MPLSoGRE: Multi-Protocol Label Switching over Generic Network
      Encapsulation, [RFC4023].

   *  MPLSoX: refers to MPLS over any IP encapsulation.  Examples are
      MPLS-over-UDP or MPLS-over-GRE.

   *  NVE: Network Virtualization Edge device.

   *  NVGRE: Network Virtualization Using Generic Routing Encapsulation,
      [RFC7637].

   *  VXLAN: Virtual eXtensible Local Area Network, [RFC7348].

   *  VXLAN-GPE: VXLAN Generic Protocol Extension,
      [I-D.ietf-nvo3-vxlan-gpe].

   *  VNI: Virtual Network Identifier.  A 24-bit identifier used by
      Network Virtualization Overlay (NVO) over IP encapsulations.
      Examples are VXLAN (Virtual Extended Local Area Network) or GENEVE
      (Generic Network Virtualization Encapsulation).

   *  SHT: Split Horizon Type, it refers to the Split Horizon method
      that a PE intends to use and advertises in an A-D per ES route.

   *  SR-MPLS: Segment Routing with an MPLS data plane, [RFC8660].

   *  SRv6: Segment routing with an IPv6 data plane, [RFC8986].

   This document also assumes familiarity with the terminology of
   [RFC7432] and [RFC8365].

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1.2.  Split Horizon Filtering and Tunnel Encapsulations

   EVPN supports two Split Horizon Filtering mechanisms:

   *  ESI Label based Split Horizon filtering [RFC7432]

      When EVPN is employed for MPLS transport tunnels, an MPLS label
      facilitates Split Horizon filtering to support All-Active
      multihoming.  The ingress Network Virtualization Edge (NVE) device
      appends a label corresponding to the source Ethernet Segment
      Identifier (ESI label) during packet encapsulation.  The egress
      NVE verifies the ESI label when attempting to forward a multi-
      destination frame through a local Ethernet Segment (ES) interface.
      If the ESI label matches the site identifier (ESI) associated with
      that ES interface, the packet is not forwarded.  This mechanism
      effectively prevents forwarding loops for Broadcast, Unknown
      Unicast, and Multicast (BUM) traffic.

      The ESI Label Split Horizon filtering should also be utilized with
      Single-Active multihoming to prevent transient loops for in-flight
      packets when the egress NVE assumes the role of Designated
      Forwarder for an ES.

   *  Local Bias [RFC8365]

      Since IP tunnels, such as VXLAN or NVGRE, do not support the ESI
      label or any MPLS label, an alternative Split Horizon filtering
      procedure must be implemented for All-Active multihoming.  This
      mechanism, known as Local Bias, relies on the source IP address of
      the tunnel to determine whether to forward Broadcast, Unknown
      Unicast, and Multicast (BUM) traffic to a local Ethernet Segment
      (ES) interface at the egress Network Virtualization Edge (NVE).

      In summary, each NVE tracks the IP address(es) of other NVEs with
      which it shares multihomed ESs.  Upon receiving a BUM frame
      encapsulated in an IP tunnel, the egress NVE inspects the source
      IP address in the tunnel header, which identifies the ingress NVE.
      The egress NVE then filters out the frame on all local interfaces
      connected to ESs that are shared with the ingress NVE.

      Due to this behavior at the egress NVE, the ingress NVE is
      required to perform local replication to all directly attached
      ESs, regardless of the Designated Forwarder election state, for
      all BUM traffic ingressing from the access Attachment Circuits
      (ACs).  This local replication at the ingress NVE is the basis for
      the term Local Bias.

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      Local Bias is not suitable for Single-Active multihoming, as the
      ingress NVE deactivates the ACs for which it is not the Designated
      Forwarder.  Consequently, local replication to non-Designated
      Forwarder ACs cannot occur, leading to transient in-flight BUM
      packets to be looped back to the originating site by newly elected
      Designated Forwarder egress NVEs.

   [RFC8365] specifies that Local Bias is exclusively utilized for IP
   tunnels, while ESI Label-based Split Horizon is employed for IP-based
   MPLS tunnels.  However, IP-based MPLS tunnels, such as MPLS over GRE
   (MPLSoGRE) or MPLS over UDP (MPLSoUDP), are also categorized as IP
   tunnels and have the potential to support both procedures.  These
   tunnels are capable of carrying ESI labels and also utilize a tunnel
   IP header in which the source IP address identifies the ingress
   Network Virtualization Edge (NVE).

   Similarly, certain IP tunnels - that include an identifier for the
   source Ethernet Segment (ES) in the tunnel header - may also
   potentially support either procedure.  Examples of such tunnels
   include GENEVE and SRv6.:

   *  In a GENEVE tunnel, the source IP address identifies the ingress
      NVE therefore local bias is possible.  Also,
      [I-D.ietf-bess-evpn-geneve] defines an Ethernet option TLV (Type
      Length Value) to encode an ESI label value.

   *  In an SRv6 tunnel, the source IP address identifies the ingress
      NVE.  By default, and as outlined in [RFC9252], the ingress PE
      adds specific information to the SRv6 packet to enable the egress
      PE to identify the source ES of the BUM packet.  This information
      is the ESI filtering argument (Arg.FE2) [RFC9252][RFC8986] of the
      service Segment Identifier (SID) received on an A-D per ES route
      from the egress PE.

   Table 1 presents various tunnel encapsulations along with their
   supported and default Split Horizon methods.  For GENEVE, the default
   Split Horizon Type (SHT) is contingent upon the negotiation of the
   Ethernet Option with the Source ID TLV.  In the case of SRv6, the
   default SHT is specified as ESI Label filtering in the table, as its
   behavior is analogous to that of ESI Label filtering.  In this
   document, ESI Label filtering refers to the Split Horizon filtering
   based on the presence of a source Ethernet Segment (ES) identifier in
   the tunnel header.

   This document classifies the tunnel encapsulations used by EVPN into:

   1.  IP-based MPLS tunnels

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   2.  (SR-)MPLS tunnels

   3.  IP tunnels

   4.  SRv6 tunnels

   Any tunnel encapsulation not listed in Table 1) that can be
   categorized into one of the four encapsulation groups mentioned above
   will support Split Horizon filtering based on the following rules:

   *  IP-based MPLS tunnels and SRv6 tunnels are capable of supporting
      both Split Horizon filtering methods.

   *  (SR-)MPLS tunnels only support ESI Label-based Split Horizon
      filtering

   *  IP tunnels support Local Bias Split Horizon filtering and may also
      support ESI Label-based Split Horizon filtering, provided they
      incorporate a mechanism to identify the source ESI in the header.

   +===============+=========================+============+===========+
   | Tunnel        | Default Split Horizon   | Supports   | Supports  |
   | Encapsulation | Type (SHT)              | Local Bias | ESI Label |
   +===============+=========================+============+===========+
   | MPLSoGRE (IP- | ESI Label filtering     | Yes        | Yes       |
   | based MPLS)   |                         |            |           |
   +---------------+-------------------------+------------+-----------+
   | MPLSoUDP (IP- | ESI Label filtering     | Yes        | Yes       |
   | based MPLS)   |                         |            |           |
   +---------------+-------------------------+------------+-----------+
   | (SR-)MPLS     | ESI Label filtering     | No         | Yes       |
   +---------------+-------------------------+------------+-----------+
   | VXLAN (IP     | Local Bias              | Yes        | No        |
   | tunnels)      |                         |            |           |
   +---------------+-------------------------+------------+-----------+
   | NVGRE (IP     | Local Bias              | Yes        | No        |
   | tunnels)      |                         |            |           |
   +---------------+-------------------------+------------+-----------+
   | VXLAN-GPE (IP | Local Bias              | Yes        | No        |
   | tunnels)      |                         |            |           |
   +---------------+-------------------------+------------+-----------+
   | GENEVE (IP    | Local Bias (no ESI Lb), | Yes        | Yes       |
   | tunnels)      | ESI Label (if ESI lb)   |            |           |
   +---------------+-------------------------+------------+-----------+
   | SRv6          | ESI Label filtering     | Yes        | Yes       |
   +---------------+-------------------------+------------+-----------+

          Table 1: Tunnel Encapsulations and Split Horizon Types

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   The ESI Label method is applicable for both All-Active and Single-
   Active configurations, whereas the Local Bias method is suitable only
   for All-Active configurations.  Moreover, the ESI Label method is
   effective across different network domains, while Local Bias is
   constrained to networks where there is no change in the next hop
   between the NVEs attached to the same ES.  Nonetheless, some
   operators favor the Local Bias method due to its simplification of
   the encapsulation process, reduced resource consumption on NVEs, and
   the fact that the ingress NVE always forwards traffic locally to
   other interfaces, thereby decreasing the delay in reaching multihomed
   hosts.

   This document extends the EVPN multihoming procedures to allow
   operators to select the preferred Split Horizon method for a given
   NVO tunnel according to their specific requirements.  The choice
   between Local Bias and ESI Label Split Horizon is now allowed for
   tunnel encapsulations that support both methods, and this selection
   is advertised along with the EVPN A-D per ES route.  IP tunnels that
   do not support both methods, such as VXLAN or NVGRE, will continue to
   adhere to the procedures specified in [RFC8365].

2.  BGP EVPN Extensions

   Extensions to EVPN are required to enable NVEs to advertise their
   preferred Split Horizon method for a given ES.  Figure 1 illustrates
   the ESI Label extended community ([RFC7432] Section 7.5), which is
   consistently advertised alongside the EVPN A-D per ES route.  All
   NVEs connected to an ES advertise an A-D per ES route for that ES,
   including the extended community, which communicates information
   regarding the multihoming mode (either All-Active or Single-Active)
   and, if necessary, specifies the ESI Label to be utilized.

   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Type=0x06     | Sub-Type=0x01 | Flags(1 octet)|  Reserved=0   |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Reserved=0   |          ESI Label                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                   Figure 1: ESI Label extended community

   [RFC7432] defines the low-order bit of the Flags octet (bit 0) as the
   "Single-Active" bit:

   *  A value of 0 means that the multihomed ES is operating in All-
      Active multihoming redundancy mode.

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   *  A value of 1 means that the multihomed ES is operating in Single-
      Active multihoming redundancy mode.

   Section 5 establishes a registry for the Flags octet, designating the
   "Single-Active" bit as the low-order bit of the newly defined
   multihoming redundancy mode field.

2.1.  The Split Horizon Type

   [RFC8365] does not include any explicit indication regarding the
   Split Horizon method in the A-D per Ethernet Segment (ES) route.  In
   this document, the Split Horizon procedure defined in [RFC8365] is
   considered the default behavior, presuming that Local Bias is
   employed exclusively for IP tunnels, while ESI Label-based Split
   Horizon is used for IP-based MPLS tunnels.  This document specifies
   that the two high-order bits in the Flags octet (bits 6 and 7)
   constitute the "Split Horizon Type" (SHT) field, where:

 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|SHT|       |RED|
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
RED = "Multihoming redundancy mode" field

SHT bit 7 6
-----------
        0 0  --> Default SHT. Backwards compatible with [RFC8365] and [RFC7432]
        0 1  --> Local Bias
        1 0  --> ESI Label based filtering
        1 1  --> reserved for future use

   *  SHT = 00 is backwards compatible with [RFC8365] and [RFC7432], and
      indicates that the advertising NVE intends to use the default or
      native SHT.  The default SHT is shown in Table 1 for each
      encapsulation.  An egress NVE that follows the [RFC8365] behavior
      and does not support this specification will ignore the SHT bits
      (which is equivalent to process them as value of 00).

   *  SHT = 01 indicates that the advertising NVE intends to use Local
      Bias procedures in the ES for which the AD per-ES route is
      advertised.

   *  SHT = 10 indicates that the advertising NVE intends to use the ESI
      Label based Split Horizon method procedures in the ES for which
      the AD per-ES route is advertised.

   *  SHT = 11 is a reserved value, for future use.

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2.2.  Use of the Split Horizon Type In A-D Per ES Routes

   The following behavior is observed:

   *  An SHT value of 01 or 10 MUST NOT be used with encapsulations that
      support only one SHT in Table 1, and MAY be used by encapsulations
      that support the two SHTs in Table 1.

   *  An SHT value different from 00 expresses the intent to use a
      specific Split Horizon method, but does not reflect the actual
      operational SHT used by the advertising NVE, unless all the NVEs
      attached to the ES advertise the same SHT.

   *  In case of inconsistency in the SHT value advertised by the NVEs
      attached to the same ES for a given EVI, all the NVEs MUST revert
      to the [RFC8365] behavior, and use the default SHT in Table 1,
      irrespective of the advertised SHT.

   *  An SHT different from 00 MUST NOT be set if the Single-Active bit
      is set.  A received A-D per ES route where Single-Active and SHT
      bits are different from zero MUST follow the treat-as-withdraw
      behavior [RFC7606].

   *  The SHT MUST have the same value in each Ethernet A-D per ES route
      that an NVE advertises for a given ES and a given encapsulation
      (see Section 3 for NVEs supporting multiple encapsulations).

   As an example, egress NVEs that support IP-based MPLS tunnels, such
   as MPLSoGRE or MPLSoUDP, will advertise A-D per ES routes for the ES
   along with the BGP Encapsulation extended community, as defined in
   [RFC9012].  This extended community indicates the encapsulation type
   (MPLSoGRE or MPLSoUDP) and may use the SHT value of 01 or 10 to
   signify the intent to use Local Bias or ESI Label, respectively.

   An egress NVE MUST NOT use an SHT value other than 00 when
   advertising an A-D per ES route with encapsulation types such as
   VXLAN, NVGRE, MPLS, or no BGP tunnel encapsulation extended
   community, as specified in [RFC9012].  In all these cases, it is
   presumed that there is no choice for the Split Horizon method;
   therefore, the SHT value MUST be set to 00.  If a route with any of
   the mentioned encapsulation options is received and has an SHT value
   different from 00, it SHOULD apply the treat-as-withdraw behavior.

   An egress NVE advertising A-D per ES route(s) for an ES with GENEVE
   encapsulation MAY use an SHT value of 01 or 10.  A value of 01
   indicates the intent to use Local Bias, regardless of the presence of
   an Ethernet option TLV with a non-zero Source-ID, as described in
   [I-D.ietf-bess-evpn-geneve].  A value of 10 indicates the intent to

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   use ESI Label-based Split Horizon, and it is only valid if an
   Ethernet option TLV with non-zero Source-ID is present.  A value of
   00 indicates the default behavior outlined in Table 1, which is to
   use Local Bias if no ESI-Label is present in the Ethernet option TLV,
   or if there is no Ethernet option TLV.  Otherwise, the ESI Label
   Split Horizon method is applied.

   These procedures assume a single encapsulation supported in the
   egress NVE.  Section 3 describes additional procedures for NVEs
   supporting multiple encapsulations.

2.3.  ESI Label Value In A-D Per ES Routes

   This document also updates [RFC8365] regarding the value that is
   advertised in the ESI Label field of the ESI Label extended
   community, as follows:

   *  The A-D per ES route(s) for an ES MAY have an ESI Label value of
      zero if the SHT value is 01.  Section 2.2 specifies the scenarios
      where the SHT can be 01.  An ESI Label value of zero eliminates
      the need to allocate labels in cases where they are not utilized,
      such as in the Local Bias method.

   *  The A-D per ES route(s) for an ES MAY have an ESI Label value of
      zero for VXLAN or NVGRE encapsulations.

2.4.  Backwards Compatibility With RFC8365 NVEs

   As discussed in Section 2.2 this specification is backwards
   compatible with the Split Horizon filtering behavior in [RFC8365] and
   a non-upgraded NVE can be attached to the same ES as other NVEs
   supporting this specification.

   An NVE maintains an administrative SHT value for an Ethernet Segment
   (ES), which is advertised alongside the A-D per ES route, and an
   operational SHT value, which is the one actually used regardless of
   what the NVE has advertised.  The administrative SHT matches the
   operational SHT if all the NVEs attached to the ES have the same
   administrative SHT.

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   This document assumes that an implementation of [RFC7432] or
   [RFC8365] that does not support the specifications in this document
   will ignore the values of all the Flags in the ESI Label extended
   community, except for the Single-Active bit.  Based on this
   assumption, a non-upgraded NVE will disregard any SHT value other
   than 00.  If an upgraded NVE receives at least one A-D per ES route
   for the ES with an SHT value of 00, it MUST revert its operational
   SHT to the default Split Horizon method, as described in Table 1,
   irrespective of its administrative SHT.

   For instance, consider an NVE attached to ES N that receives two A-D
   per ES routes for N from different NVEs, NVE1 and NVE2.  If the route
   from NVE1 has an SHT value of 00 and the one from NVE2 has an SHT
   value of 01, the NVE MUST use the default Split Horizon method
   specified in Table 1 as its operational SHT, regardless of its
   administrative SHT.

   All NVEs attached to an ES with an operational SHT value of 10 MUST
   advertise a valid, non-zero ESI Label.  If the operational SHT value
   is 01, the ESI Label MAY be zero.  If the operational SHT value is
   00, the ESI Label may be zero only if the default encapsulation
   supports Local Bias exclusively, and the NVEs do not require the
   presence of a valid, non-zero ESI Label.

   If an NVE changes its operational SHT value from 01 (Local Bias) to
   00 (Default SHT) due to the presence of a new non-upgraded NVE in the
   ES, and it previously advertised a zero ESI Label, it MUST send an
   update with a valid, non-zero ESI Label, unless all the non-upgraded
   NVEs in the ES support only Local Bias.  For example, consider NVE1
   and NVE2 using MPLSoUDP as encapsulation, attached to the same
   Ethernet Segment ES1, and advertising an SHT value of 01 (Local Bias)
   with a zero ESI Label value.  Suppose NVE3, which does not support
   this specification, joins ES1 and advertises an SHT value of 00
   (default).  Upon receiving NVE3's A-D per ES route, NVE1 and NVE2
   MUST update their A-D per ES routes for ES1 to include a valid, non-
   zero ESI Label value.  The assumption here is that NVE3 only supports
   the default ESI Label-based Split Horizon filtering.

3.  Procedures for NVEs Supporting Multiple Encapsulations

   As specified in [RFC8365], an NVE that supports multiple data plane
   encapsulations (e.g., VXLAN, NVGRE, MPLS, MPLSoUDP, GENEVE) must
   indicate all supported encapsulations using BGP Encapsulation
   extended communities as defined in [RFC9012] for all EVPN routes.
   This section provides clarification on the multihoming Split Horizon
   behavior for NVEs that advertise and receive multiple BGP
   Encapsulation extended communities along with the A-D per ES routes.
   This section uses the notation {x, y} to denote the encapsulations

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   advertised in BGP Encapsulation extended communities, where x and y
   represent different encapsulation values.

   It is important to note that an NVE MAY advertise multiple A-D per ES
   routes for the same ES, rather than a single route, with each route
   conveying a set of Route Targets (RT).  The total set of Route
   Targets associated with a given ES is referred to as the RT-set for
   that ES.  Each of the EVIs represented in the RT-set will have its RT
   included in one, and only one, A-D per ES route for the ES.  When
   multiple A-D per ES routes are advertised for the same ES, each route
   must have a distinct Route Distinguisher.

   As per [RFC8365], an NVE that advertises multiple encapsulations in
   the A-D per ES route(s) for an ES MUST advertise encapsulations that
   use the same Split Horizon filtering method in the same route.  For
   example:

   *  An A-D per ES route for ES-x may be advertised with {VXLAN, NVGRE}
      encapsulations.

   *  An A-D per ES route for ES-y may be advertised with {MPLS,
      MPLSoUDP, MPLSoGRE} encapsulations (or a subset).

   *  But an A-D per ES route for ES-z MUST NOT be advertised with
      {MPLS, VXLAN} encapsulations.

   This document extends the described behavior as follows:

   a.  An A-D per ES route for ES-x may be advertised with multiple
       encapsulations, some of which support a single Split Horizon
       method.  In this case, the Split Horizon Type (SHT) value MUST be
       00.  For instance, encapsulations such as {VXLAN, NVGRE}, {VXLAN,
       GENEVE}, or {MPLS, MPLSoGRE, MPLSoUDP} can be advertised in an
       A-D per ES route.  In all these cases, the SHT value MUST be 00.

   b.  An A-D per ES route for ES-y may be advertised with multiple
       encapsulations that all support both Split Horizon methods.  In
       this case, the SHT value MAY be 01 if the preferred method is
       Local Bias, or 10 if the ESI Label-based method is desired.  For
       example, encapsulations such as {MPLSoGRE, MPLSoUDP, GENEVE} (or
       a subset) MAY be advertised in an A-D per ES route with an SHT
       value of 01.  The ESI Label value in this case MAY be zero.

   c.  If ES-z with RT-set composed of (RT1, RT2, RT3.. RTn) supports
       multiple encapsulations requiring different Split Horizon
       methods, a distinct A-D per ES route (or group of routes) per
       Split Horizon method MUST be advertised.  For example, consider
       an ES-z with n Route Targets (RTs) where:

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       *  the EVIs corresponding to (RT1..RTi) support VXLAN,

       *  the ones for (RTi+1..RTm) (with i<m) support MPLSoUDP with
          Local Bias,

       *  and the ones for (RTm+1..RTn) (with m<n) support GENEVE with
          ESI Label based Split Horizon.

       In this scenario, three groups of A-D per ES routes MUST be
       advertised for ES-z:

       *  A-D per ES route group 1, including (RT1..RTi), with
          encapsulation {VXLAN}, and an SHT value of 00.  The ESI Label
          MAY be zero.

       *  A-D per ES route group 2, including (RTi+1..RTm), with
          encapsulation {MPLSoUDP}, and an SHT value of 01.  The ESI
          Label MAY be zero.

       *  A-D per ES route group 3, including (RTm+1..RTn), with
          encapsulation {GENEVE}, and an SHT value of 10.  The ESI Label
          MUST have a valid, non-zero value, and the Ethernet option as
          defined in [RFC8926] MUST be advertised.

   As per [RFC8365], it is the responsibility of the operator of a given
   EVI to ensure that all of the NVEs within that EVI support a common
   encapsulation.  Failure to meet this condition may result in service
   disruption or failure.

4.  Security Considerations

   All the security considerations described in [RFC7432] are applicable
   to this document.

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   Additionally, this document modifies the procedures for Split Horizon
   filtering as outlined in [RFC8365], offering operators a choice
   between Local Bias and ESI Label-based filtering for tunnels that
   support both methods.  Misconfiguration of the desired Split Horizon
   Type (SHT) could lead to forwarding behaviors that differ from the
   intended configuration.  Apart from this risk, this document
   describes procedures to ensure that all Provider Edge (PE) devices or
   Network Virtualization Edges (NVEs) connected to the same Ethernet
   Segment (ES) agree on a common SHT method, with a fallback to a
   default behavior in case of a mismatch in the SHT bits being
   advertised by any two PEs or NVEs in the Ethernet Segment.
   Consequently, unauthorized changes to the SHT configuration by an
   attacker on a single PE or NVE of the Ethernet Segment should not
   cause traffic disruption (as long as the SHT value is valid as per
   this document) but may result in alterations to forwarding behavior.

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document creates a registry called "EVPN ESI Label Extended
   Community Flags" for the 1-octet Flags field in the ESI Label
   Extended Community [RFC7432].  Initial registrations are made for the
   "Multihoming redundancy mode" field in bits 0 and 1, and the "Split
   Horizon Type" field in bits 6 and 7, as follows:

      +==============+=============================+===============+
      | Bit Position | Name                        | Reference     |
      +==============+=============================+===============+
      | 0-1          | Multihoming redundancy mode | [RFC7432]     |
      +--------------+-----------------------------+---------------+
      | 2-5          | Unused                      |               |
      +--------------+-----------------------------+---------------+
      | 6-7          | Split Horizon Type          | This Document |
      +--------------+-----------------------------+---------------+

                                 Table 2

   In addition, the "Multihoming redundancy mode" field is initialized
   as follows:

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                  +=======+=============================+
                  | Value | Multihoming redundancy mode |
                  +=======+=============================+
                  | 00    | All-Active mode             |
                  +-------+-----------------------------+
                  | 01    | Single-Active mode          |
                  +-------+-----------------------------+
                  | 10    | Unused                      |
                  +-------+-----------------------------+
                  | 11    | Unused                      |
                  +-------+-----------------------------+

                                  Table 3

   And the field "Split Horizon Type" is initialized as follows:

                   +=======+===========================+
                   | Value | Split Horizon Type value  |
                   +=======+===========================+
                   | 00    | Default SHT               |
                   +-------+---------------------------+
                   | 01    | Local Bias                |
                   +-------+---------------------------+
                   | 10    | ESI Label based filtering |
                   +-------+---------------------------+
                   | 11    | Unused                    |
                   +-------+---------------------------+

                                  Table 4

   New registrations in the "EVPN ESI Label Extended Community Flags"
   registry will be made through the "IETF Review" procedure defined in
   [RFC8126].  This registry is located in the "Border Gateway Protocol
   (BGP) Extended Communities" registry.

6.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Anoop Ghanwani, Gyan Mishra and
   Jeffrey Zhang for their review and useful comments.  Thanks to Gunter
   van de Velde as well, for his thorough review.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

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   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

   [RFC7432]  Sajassi, A., Ed., Aggarwal, R., Bitar, N., Isaac, A.,
              Uttaro, J., Drake, J., and W. Henderickx, "BGP MPLS-Based
              Ethernet VPN", RFC 7432, DOI 10.17487/RFC7432, February
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7432>.

   [RFC8365]  Sajassi, A., Ed., Drake, J., Ed., Bitar, N., Shekhar, R.,
              Uttaro, J., and W. Henderickx, "A Network Virtualization
              Overlay Solution Using Ethernet VPN (EVPN)", RFC 8365,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8365, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8365>.

   [RFC9252]  Dawra, G., Ed., Talaulikar, K., Ed., Raszuk, R., Decraene,
              B., Zhuang, S., and J. Rabadan, "BGP Overlay Services
              Based on Segment Routing over IPv6 (SRv6)", RFC 9252,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC9252, July 2022,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9252>.

7.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-bess-evpn-geneve]
              Boutros, S., Sajassi, A., Drake, J., Rabadan, J., and S.
              Aldrin, "EVPN control plane for Geneve", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-bess-evpn-geneve-08, 5 July
              2024, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-
              bess-evpn-geneve-08>.

   [RFC7348]  Mahalingam, M., Dutt, D., Duda, K., Agarwal, P., Kreeger,
              L., Sridhar, T., Bursell, M., and C. Wright, "Virtual
              eXtensible Local Area Network (VXLAN): A Framework for
              Overlaying Virtualized Layer 2 Networks over Layer 3
              Networks", RFC 7348, DOI 10.17487/RFC7348, August 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7348>.

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   [RFC4023]  Worster, T., Rekhter, Y., and E. Rosen, Ed.,
              "Encapsulating MPLS in IP or Generic Routing Encapsulation
              (GRE)", RFC 4023, DOI 10.17487/RFC4023, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4023>.

   [RFC7637]  Garg, P., Ed. and Y. Wang, Ed., "NVGRE: Network
              Virtualization Using Generic Routing Encapsulation",
              RFC 7637, DOI 10.17487/RFC7637, September 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7637>.

   [RFC7510]  Xu, X., Sheth, N., Yong, L., Callon, R., and D. Black,
              "Encapsulating MPLS in UDP", RFC 7510,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7510, April 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7510>.

   [RFC8926]  Gross, J., Ed., Ganga, I., Ed., and T. Sridhar, Ed.,
              "Geneve: Generic Network Virtualization Encapsulation",
              RFC 8926, DOI 10.17487/RFC8926, November 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8926>.

   [RFC9012]  Patel, K., Van de Velde, G., Sangli, S., and J. Scudder,
              "The BGP Tunnel Encapsulation Attribute", RFC 9012,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC9012, April 2021,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9012>.

   [RFC7606]  Chen, E., Ed., Scudder, J., Ed., Mohapatra, P., and K.
              Patel, "Revised Error Handling for BGP UPDATE Messages",
              RFC 7606, DOI 10.17487/RFC7606, August 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7606>.

   [RFC8660]  Bashandy, A., Ed., Filsfils, C., Ed., Previdi, S.,
              Decraene, B., Litkowski, S., and R. Shakir, "Segment
              Routing with the MPLS Data Plane", RFC 8660,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8660, December 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8660>.

   [RFC8986]  Filsfils, C., Ed., Camarillo, P., Ed., Leddy, J., Voyer,
              D., Matsushima, S., and Z. Li, "Segment Routing over IPv6
              (SRv6) Network Programming", RFC 8986,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8986, February 2021,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8986>.

   [I-D.ietf-nvo3-vxlan-gpe]
              Maino, F., Kreeger, L., and U. Elzur, "Generic Protocol
              Extension for VXLAN (VXLAN-GPE)", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-nvo3-vxlan-gpe-13, 4 November
              2023, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-
              nvo3-vxlan-gpe-13>.

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Authors' Addresses

   Jorge Rabadan (editor)
   Nokia
   520 Almanor Avenue
   Sunnyvale, CA 94085
   United States of America
   Email: jorge.rabadan@nokia.com

   Kiran Nagaraj
   Nokia
   520 Almanor Avenue
   Sunnyvale, CA 94085
   United States of America
   Email: kiran.nagaraj@nokia.com

   Wen Lin
   Juniper Networks
   Email: wlin@juniper.net

   Ali Sajassi
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Email: sajassi@cisco.com

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