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Registering Self-generated IPv6 Addresses using DHCPv6
draft-ietf-dhc-addr-notification-12

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Document Type
This is an older version of an Internet-Draft whose latest revision state is "Active".
Authors Warren "Ace" Kumari , Suresh Krishnan , Rajiv Asati , Lorenzo Colitti , Jen Linkova , Sheng Jiang
Last updated 2024-05-15 (Latest revision 2024-05-13)
Replaces draft-wkumari-dhc-addr-notification
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
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Feb 2024
WGLC for Registering Self-generated IPv6 Addresses using DHCPv6
Document shepherd Timothy Winters
Shepherd write-up Show Last changed 2024-04-16
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Has enough positions to pass.
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Send notices to tim@qacafe.com
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IANA expert review state Expert Reviews OK
draft-ietf-dhc-addr-notification-12
Dynamic Host Configuration                                     W. Kumari
Internet-Draft                                               Google, LLC
Intended status: Standards Track                             S. Krishnan
Expires: 15 November 2024                            Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                                R. Asati
                                                             Independent
                                                              L. Colitti
                                                              J. Linkova
                                                             Google, LLC
                                                                S. Jiang
                      Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications
                                                             14 May 2024

         Registering Self-generated IPv6 Addresses using DHCPv6
                  draft-ietf-dhc-addr-notification-12

Abstract

   This document defines a method to inform a DHCPv6 server that a
   device has one or more self-generated or statically configured
   addresses.

About This Document

   This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

   The latest revision of this draft can be found at
   https://wkumari.github.io/draft-wkumari-dhc-addr-notification/draft-
   ietf-dhc-addr-notification.html.  Status information for this
   document may be found at https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-ietf-
   dhc-addr-notification/.

   Discussion of this document takes place on the Dynamic Host
   Configuration Working Group mailing list (mailto:dhcwg@ietf.org),
   which is archived at https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/browse/dhcwg/.
   Subscribe at https://www.ietf.org/mailman/listinfo/dhcwg/.

   Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
   https://github.com/wkumari/draft-wkumari-dhc-addr-notification.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 15 November 2024.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2024 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Conventions and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Registration Mechanism Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  DHCPv6 Address Registration Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  DHCPv6 Address Registration Option  . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  DHCPv6 Address Registration Request Message . . . . . . .   6
       4.2.1.  Server message processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.3.  DHCPv6 Address Registration Acknowledgement . . . . . . .   9
     4.4.  Signaling Address Registration Support  . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.5.  Retransmission  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.6.  Registration Expiry and Refresh . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       4.6.1.  SLAAC Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       4.6.2.  Statically Assigned Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       4.6.3.  Transmitting Refreshes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   5.  Host configuration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17

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   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

1.  Introduction

   It is very common operational practice, especially in enterprise
   networks, to use IPv4 DHCP logs for troubleshooting or forensics
   purposes.  Examples of this include a help desk dealing with a ticket
   such as "The CEO's laptop cannot connect to the printer"; if the MAC
   address of the printer is known (for example from an inventory
   system), the printer's IPv4 address can be retrieved from the DHCP
   log or lease table and the printer pinged to determine if it is
   reachable.  Another common example is a Security Operations team
   discovering suspicious events in outbound firewall logs and then
   consulting DHCP logs to determine which employee's laptop had that
   IPv4 address at that time so that they can quarantine it and remove
   the malware.

   This operational practice relies on the DHCP server knowing the IP
   address assignments.  This works quite well for IPv4 addresses, as
   most addresses are either assigned by DHCP [RFC2131] or statically
   configured by the network operator.  For IPv6, however, this practice
   is much harder to implement, as devices often self-configure IPv6
   addresses via SLAAC [RFC4862].

   This document provides a mechanism for a device to inform the DHCPv6
   server that the device has a self-configured IPv6 address (or has a
   statically configured address), and thus provides parity with IPv4,
   by making DHCPv6 infrastructure aware of self-assigned IPv6
   addresses.

2.  Conventions and Definitions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  Registration Mechanism Overview

   The DHCPv6 protocol is used as the address registration protocol when
   a DHCPv6 server performs the role of an address registration server.
   This document introduces a new Address Registration
   (OPTION_ADDR_REG_ENABLE) option which indicates that the server
   supports the registration mechanism.  Before registering any
   addresses, the client MUST determine whether the network supports

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   address registration.  It can do this by including the Address
   Registration option code in the Option Request option (see
   Section 21.7 of [RFC8415]) of the Information-Request, Solicit,
   Request, Renew, or Rebind messages it sends to the server as part of
   the regular stateless or stateful DHCPv6 configuration process.  If
   the server supports address registration, it includes an Address
   Registration option in its Advertise or Reply messages.  To avoid
   undesired multicast traffic, if the DHCPv6 infrastructure does not
   support (or is not willing to receive) any address registration
   information, the client MUST NOT register any addresses.  Otherwise,
   the client registers addresses as described below.

   After successfully assigning a self-generated or statically
   configured IPv6 address on one of its interfaces, a client
   implementing this specification SHOULD multicast an ADDR-REG-INFORM
   message (see Section 4.2) in order to inform the DHCPv6 server that
   this self-generated address is in use.  Each ADDR-REG-INFORM message
   contains a DHCPv6 IA Address option [RFC8415] to specify the address
   being registered.

   The address registration mechanism overview is shown in Fig.1.

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   +------+          +------------------+       +---------------+
   | HOST |          | FIRST-HOP ROUTER |       | DHCPv6 SERVER |
   +---+--+          +---------+--------+       +-------+-------+
       |      SLAAC            |                        |
       |<--------------------> |                        |
       |                       |                        |
       |                                                |
       |  src: link-local address                       |
       | -------------------------------------------->  |
       |    INFORMATION-REQUEST or SOLICIT/...          |
       |       - OPTION REQUEST OPTION                  |
       |          -- OPTION_ADDR_REG_ENABLE             |
       |                                                |
       |    ...                                         |
       |                                                |
       |                                                |
       |<---------------------------------------------  |
       |     REPLY or ADVERTISE MESSAGE                 |
       |       - OPTION_ADDR_REG_ENABLE                 |
       |                                                |
       |                                                |
       |  src: address being registered                 |
       | -------------------------------------------->  |
       |    ADDR-REG-INFORM MESSAGE                     |Register/
       |                                                |log addresses
       |                                                |
       |                                                |
       | <--------------------------------------------  |
       |        ADDR-REG-REPLY MESSAGE                  |
       |                                                |

   Figure 1: Address Registration Procedure Overview

4.  DHCPv6 Address Registration Procedure

4.1.  DHCPv6 Address Registration Option

   The Address Registration option (OPTION_ADDR_REG_ENABLE) indicates
   that the server supports the mechanism described in this document.
   The format of the Address Registration option is described as
   follows:

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     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |          option-code          |           option-len          |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

    option-code           OPTION_ADDR_REG_ENABLE (TBA0)

    option-len            0

   Figure 2: DHCPv6 Address Registration option

   If a client has the address registration mechanism enabled, it SHOULD
   include this option in all Option Request options that it sends.

   A server which is configured to support the address registration
   mechanism MUST include this option in Advertise and Reply messages if
   the client message it is replying to contained this option in the
   Option Request option.

4.2.  DHCPv6 Address Registration Request Message

   The DHCPv6 client sends an ADDR-REG-INFORM message to inform that an
   IPv6 address is assigned to the client's interface.  The format of
   the ADDR-REG-INFORM message is described as follows:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |    msg-type   |               transaction-id                  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    .                            options                            .
    .                           (variable)                          .
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     msg-type             Identifies the DHCPv6 message type;
                          Set to ADDR-REG-INFORM (TBA1).

     transaction-id       The transaction ID for this message exchange.

     options              Options carried in this message.

   Figure 3: DHCPv6 ADDR-REG-INFORM message

   The client MUST generate a transaction ID as described in [RFC8415]
   and insert this value in the "transaction-id" field.

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   The client MUST include the Client Identifier option [RFC8415] in the
   ADDR-REG-INFORM message.

   The ADDR-REG-INFORM message MUST NOT contain the Server Identifier
   option and MUST contain exactly one IA Address option containing the
   address being registered.  The valid-lifetime and preferred-lifetime
   fields in the option MUST match the current Valid Lifetime and
   Preferred Lifetime of the address being registered.

   The ADDR-REG-INFORM message is dedicated for clients to initiate an
   address registration request toward an address registration server.
   Consequently, clients MUST NOT put any Option Request Option(s) in
   the ADDR-REG-INFORM message.  Clients MAY include other options, such
   as the Client FQDN Option [RFC4704].

   The client sends the DHCPv6 ADDR-REG-INFORM message to the
   All_DHCP_Relay_Agents_and_Servers multicast address (ff02::1:2).  The
   client MUST send separate messages for each address being registered.

   Unlike other types of messages, which are sent from the link-local
   address of the client, the ADDR-REG-INFORM message MUST be sent from
   the address being registered.  This is primarily for "fate sharing"
   purposes - for example, if the network implements some form of
   layer-2 security to prevent a client from spoofing other clients' MAC
   addresses, this prevents an attacker from spoofing ADDR-REG-INFORM
   messages.

   On clients with multiple interfaces, the client MUST only send the
   packet on the network interface that has the address being
   registered, even if it has multiple interfaces with different
   addresses.  If the same address is configured on multiple interfaces,
   then the client MUST send ADDR-REG-INFORM each time the address is
   configured on an interface that did not previously have it, and
   refresh each registration independently from the others.

   The client MUST only send the ADDR-REG-INFORM message for valid
   ([RFC4862]) addresses of global scope ([RFC4007]).  This includes ULA
   addresses, which are defined in [RFC4193] to have global scope.  This
   also includes statically assigned addresses of global scope (such
   addresses are considered to be valid indefinitely).  The client MUST
   NOT send the ADDR-REG-INFORM message for addresses configured by
   DHCPv6.

   The client SHOULD NOT send the ADDR-REG-INFORM message unless it has
   received a Router Advertisement message with either M or O flags set
   to 1.

   Clients MUST discard any received ADDR-REG-INFORM messages.

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4.2.1.  Server message processing

   Servers MUST discard any ADDR-REG-INFORM messages that meet any of
   the following conditions:

   *  the message does not include a Client Identifier option;

   *  the message includes a Server Identifier option;

   *  the message does not include the IA Address option, or the IP
      address in the IA Address option does not match the source address
      of the original ADDR-REG-INFORM message sent by the client.  The
      source address of the original message is the source IP address of
      the packet if it is not relayed, or the Peer-Address field of the
      innermost Relay-Forward message if it is relayed.

   *  the message includes an Option Request Option.

   If the message is not discarded, the address registration server
   SHOULD verify that the address being registered is "appropriate to
   the link" as defined by [RFC8415] or within a prefix delegated to the
   client via DHCPv6-PD (see Section 6.3 of [RFC8415]).  Otherwise, it
   MUST drop the message, and SHOULD log this fact.  Otherwise, the
   server:

   *  SHOULD register or update a binding between the provided Client
      Identifier and IPv6 address in its database.  The lifetime of the
      binding is equal to the Valid Lifetime of the address reported by
      the client.  If there is already a binding between the registered
      address and another client, the server SHOULD log the fact and
      update the binding.

   *  SHOULD log the address registration information (as is done
      normally for clients to which it has assigned an address), unless
      configured not to do so.  The server SHOULD log the client DUID
      and the link-layer address, if available.  The server MAY log any
      other information.

   *  SHOULD mark the address as unavailable for use and not include it
      in future ADVERTISE messages.

   *  MUST send back an ADDR-REG-REPLY message to ensure the client does
      not retransmit.

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   If a client is multihomed (connected to multiple administrative
   domains, each operating its own DHCPv6 infrastructure), the
   requirement to verify that the registered address is appropriate for
   the link or belongs to a delegated prefix ensures that each DHCPv6
   server only registers bindings for addresses from the given
   administrative domain.

   Although a client "MUST NOT send the ADDR-REG-INFORM message for
   addresses configured by DHCPv6", if a server does receive such a
   message, it should log and discard it.

   DHCPv6 relay agents and switches that relay address registration
   messages directly from clients MUST include the client's link-layer
   address in the relayed message using the Client Link-Layer Address
   option ([RFC6939]) if they would do so for other DHCPv6 client
   messages such as SOLICIT, REQUEST, and REBIND.

4.3.  DHCPv6 Address Registration Acknowledgement

   The server MUST acknowledge receipt of a valid ADDR-REG-INFORM
   message by sending back an ADDR-REG-REPLY message.  The format of the
   ADDR-REG-REPLY message is described as follows:

     0                   1                   2                   3
     0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |    msg-type   |               transaction-id                  |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    .                            options                            .
    .                           (variable)                          .
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     msg-type             Identifies the DHCPv6 message type;
                          Set to ADDR-REG-REPLY (TBA2).

     transaction-id       The transaction ID for this message exchange.

     options              Options carried in this message.

   Figure 4: DHCPv6 ADDR-REG-REPLY message

   If the ADDR-REG-INFORM message that the server is replying to was not
   relayed, then the IPv6 destination address of the message MUST be the
   address being registered.  If the ADDR-REG-INFORM message was
   relayed, then the server MUST construct the Relay-reply message as
   specified in [RFC8415] section 19.3.

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   The server MUST copy the transaction-id from the ADDR-REG-INFORM
   message to the transaction-id field of the ADDR-REG-REPLY.

   The ADDR-REG-REPLY message MUST contain an IA Address option for the
   address being registered.  The option MUST be identical to the one in
   the ADDR-REG-INFORM message that the server is replying to.

   Servers MUST ignore any received ADDR-REG-REPLY messages.

   Clients MUST discard any ADDR-REG-REPLY messages that meet any of the
   following conditions:

   *  The IPv6 destination address does not match the address being
      registered.

   *  The IA Address option does not match the address being registered.

   *  The address being registered is not assigned to the interface
      receiving the message.

   *  The transaction-id does not match the transaction-id the client
      used in the corresponding ADDR-REG-INFORM message.

   The ADDR-REG-REPLY message only indicates that the ADDR-REG-INFORM
   message has been received and that the client should not retransmit
   it.  The ADDR-REG-REPLY message MUST NOT be considered as any
   indication of the address validity and MUST NOT be required for the
   address to be usable.  DHCPv6 relays, or other devices that snoop
   ADDR-REG-REPLY messages, MUST NOT add or alter any forwarding or
   security state based on the ADDR-REG-REPLY message.

4.4.  Signaling Address Registration Support

   To avoid undesired multicast traffic, the client MUST NOT register
   addresses using this mechanism unless the network's DHCPv6 servers
   support address registration.  The client can discover this using the
   OPTION_ADDR_REG_ENABLE option.  The client SHOULD include this option
   code in all Option Request options that it sends.  If the client
   receives and processes an Advertise or Reply message with the
   OPTION_ADDR_REG_ENABLE option, it concludes that the network supports
   address registration.  When the client detects that the network
   supports address registration, it SHOULD start the registration
   process and immediately register any addresses that are already in
   use.  The client SHOULD NOT stop registering addresses until it
   disconnects from the link, even if subsequent Advertise or Reply
   messages do not contain the OPTION_ADDR_REG_ENABLE option.

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   The client MUST discover whether the network supports address
   registration every time it connects to a network or when it detects
   it has moved to a new link, without utilizing any prior knowledge
   about address registration support by that network or link.  This
   host behavior allows networks to progressively roll out support for
   the address registration option across the DHCPv6 infrastructure
   without causing clients to frequently stop and restart address
   registration if some of the network's DHCPv6 servers support it and
   some of them do not.

   A client with multiple interfaces MUST discover address registration
   support for each interface independently.  The client MUST NOT send
   address registration messsages on a given interface unless the client
   has discovered that the interface is connected to a network which
   supports address registration.

4.5.  Retransmission

   To reduce the effects of packet loss on registration, the client
   SHOULD retransmit the registration message.  Retransmissions SHOULD
   follow the standard retransmission logic specified by section 15 of
   [RFC8415] with the following default parameters:

   *  IRT 1 sec

   *  MRC 3

   The client SHOULD allow these parameters to be configured by the
   administrator.

   To comply with section 16.1 of [RFC8415], the client MUST leave the
   transaction ID unchanged in retransmissions of an ADDR-REG-INFORM
   message.  When the client retransmits the registration message, the
   lifetimes in the packet MUST be updated so that they match the
   current lifetimes of the address.

   If an ADDR-REG-REPLY message is received for the address being
   registered, the client MUST stop retransmission.

4.6.  Registration Expiry and Refresh

   The client MUST refresh registrations to ensure that the server is
   always aware of which addresses are still valid.  The client SHOULD
   perform refreshes as described below.

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4.6.1.  SLAAC Addresses

   For an address configured using SLAAC, a function
   AddrRegRefreshInterval(address) is defined as 80% of the address's
   current Valid Lifetime.  When calculating this value, the client
   applies a multiplier of AddrRegDesyncMultiplier to avoid
   synchronization causing a large number of registration messages from
   different clients at the same time.  AddrRegDesyncMultiplier is a
   random value uniformly distributed between 0.9 and 1.1 (inclusive)
   and is chosen by the client when it starts the registration process,
   to ensure that refreshes for addresses with the same lifetime are
   coalesced (see below).

   Whenever the client registers or refreshes an address, it calculates
   a NextAddrRegRefreshTime for that address as AddrRegRefreshInterval
   seconds in the future but does not schedule any refreshes.

   Whenever the network changes the Valid Lifetime of an existing
   address by more than 1%, for example, by sending a Prefix Information
   option (PIO, [RFC4861]) with a new Valid Lifetime, the client
   calculates a new AddrRegRefreshInterval.  The client schedules a
   refresh for min(now + AddrRegRefreshInterval,
   NextAddrRegRefreshTime).  If the refresh would be scheduled in the
   past, then the refresh occurs immediately.

   Justification: this algorithm ensures that refreshes are not sent too
   frequently, while ensuring that the server never believes that the
   address has expired when it has not.  Specifically, after every
   registration:

   *  If the network never changes the lifetime of an address (e.g., if
      no further PIOs are received, or if all PIO lifetimes decrease in
      step with the passage of time), then no refreshes occur.
      Refreshes are not necessary, because the address expires at the
      time the server expects it to expire.

   *  Any time the network changes the lifetime of an address (i.e.,
      changes the time at which the address will expire) the client
      ensures that a refresh is scheduled, so that server will be
      informed of the new expiry.

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   *  Because AddrRegDesyncMultiplier is at most 1.1, the refresh never
      occurs later than a point 88% between the time when the address
      was registered and the time when the address will expire.  This
      allows the client to retransmit the registration for up to 12% of
      the original interval before it expires.  This may not be possible
      if the network sends a Router Advertisement (RA, [RFC4861]) very
      close to the time when the address would have expired.  In this
      case, the client refreshes immediately, which is the best it can
      do.

   *  The 1% tolerance ensures that the client will not refresh or
      reschedule refreshes if the Valid Lifetime experiences minor
      changes due to transmission delays or clock skew between the
      client and the router(s) sending the Router Advertisement.

   *  AddrRegRefreshCoalesce allows battery-powered hosts to wake up
      less often.  In particular, it allows the client to coalesce
      refreshes for multiple addresses formed from the same prefix, such
      as the stable and privacy addresses.  Higher values will result in
      fewer wakeups, but may result in more network traffic, because if
      a refresh is sent early, then the next RA received will cause the
      client to immediately send a refresh message.

   *  In typical networks, the lifetimes in periodic Router
      Advertisements either contain constant values, or values that
      decrease over time to match another lifetime, such as the lifetime
      of a prefix delegated to the network.  In both these cases, this
      algorithm will refresh on the order of once per address lifetime,
      which is similar to the number of refreshes that are necessary
      using stateful DHCPv6.

   *  Because refreshes occur at least once per address lifetime, the
      network administrator can control the address refresh frequency by
      appropriately setting the Valid Lifetime in the Prefix Information
      Option.

4.6.2.  Statically Assigned Addresses

   A statically assigned address has an infinite valid lifetime which is
   not affected by Router Advertisements.  Therefore whenever the client
   registers or refreshes a statically assigned address, the next
   refresh is scheduled for StaticAddrRegRefreshInterval seconds in the
   future.  The default value of StaticAddrRegRefreshInterval is 4
   hours.  This ensures static addresses are still refreshed
   periodically, but refreshes for static addresses do not cause
   excessive multicast traffic.  The StaticAddrRegRefreshInterval
   interval SHOULD be configurable.

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4.6.3.  Transmitting Refreshes

   When a refresh is performed, the client MAY refresh all addresses
   assigned to the interface that are scheduled to be refreshed within
   the next AddrRegRefreshCoalesce seconds.  The value of
   AddrRegRefreshCoalesce is implementation-dependent, and a suggested
   default is 60 seconds.

   Registration refresh packets SHOULD be retransmitted using the same
   logic as described in the 'Retransmission' section above.

   The client MUST generate a new transaction ID when refreshing the
   registration.

   When the Client-Identifier-to-IPv6-address binding has expired, the
   server SHOULD remove it and consider the address as available for
   use.

   The client MAY choose to notify the server when an address is no
   longer being used (e.g., if the client is disconnecting from the
   network, the address lifetime expired, or the address is being
   removed from the interface).  To indicate that the address is not
   being used anymore the client MUST set the preferred-lifetime and
   valid-lifetime fields of the IA Address option in the ADDR-REG-INFORM
   message to zero.  If the server receives a message with a valid-
   lifetime of zero, it SHOULD act as if the address has expired.

5.  Host configuration

   DHCP clients SHOULD allow the administrator to disable sending ADDR-
   REG-INFORM messages.  This could be used, for example, to reduce
   network traffic on networks where the servers are known not to
   support the message type.  Sending the messages SHOULD be enabled by
   default.

6.  Security Considerations

   An attacker may attempt to register a large number of addresses in
   quick succession in order to overwhelm the address registration
   server and / or fill up log files.  Similar attack vectors exist
   today, e.g., an attacker can DoS the server with messages containing
   spoofed DHCP Unique Identifiers (DUIDs) [RFC8415].

   If a network is using FCFS SAVI [RFC6620], then the DHCPv6 server can
   trust that the ADDR-REG-INFORM message was sent by the legitimate
   holder of the address.  This prevents a host from registering an
   address configured on another host.

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   If the network doesn't have MLD snooping enabled, then IPv6 link-
   local multicast traffic is effectively transmitted as broadcast.  In
   such networks, an on-link attacker listening to DHCPv6 messages might
   obtain information about IPv6 addresses assigned to the host.
   However, hiding information about the specific IPv6 address should
   not be considered a security measure, as such information is usually
   disclosed via Duplicate Address Detection [RFC4862] to all nodes
   anyway, if MLD snooping is not enabled.

   If MLD snooping is enabled, an attacker might be able to join the
   All_DHCP_Relay_Agents_and_Servers multicast address (ff02::1:2) group
   to listen for address registration messages.  However, the same
   result can be achieved by joining the All Routers Address (ff02::2)
   group and listen to Gratuitous Neighbor Advertisement messages
   [RFC9131].  It should be noted that this particular scenario shares
   the fate with DHCPv6 address assignment: if an attacker can join the
   All_DHCP_Relay_Agents_and_Servers multicast group, they would be able
   to monitor all DHCPv6 messages sent from the client to DHCPv6 servers
   and relays, and therefore obtain the information about addresses
   being assigned via DHCPv6.  Layer 2 isolation allows mitigating this
   threat by blocking onlink peer-to-peer communication between hosts.

   One of the use cases for the mechanism described in this document is
   to identify sources of malicious traffic after the fact.  Note,
   however, that as the device itself is responsible for informing the
   DHCPv6 server that it is using an address, a malicious or compromised
   device can simply not send the ADDR-REG-INFORM message.  This is an
   informational, optional mechanism, and is designed to aid in
   troubleshooting and forensics.  On its own, it is not intended to be
   a strong security access mechanism.  In particular, the ADDR-REG-
   INFORM message MUST NOT be used for authentication and authorization
   purposes, because in addition to the reasons above, the packets
   containing the message may be dropped.

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document introduces the following new entities which require an
   allocation out of the DHCPv6 registries defined at
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/dhcpv6-parameters/:

   *  one new DHCPv6 option, described in Section 4.1 which requires an
      allocation out of the registry of DHCPv6 Option Codes:

      -  Value: TBA0

      -  Description: OPTION_ADDR_REG_ENABLE

      -  Client ORO: Yes

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      -  Singleton Option: Yes

   *  two new DHCPv6 messages which require an allocation out of the
      registry of Message Types:

      -  ADDR-REG-INFORM message (TBA1) described in Section 4.2

      -  ADDR-REG-REPLY (TBA2) described in Section 4.3.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2131]  Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol",
              RFC 2131, DOI 10.17487/RFC2131, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2131>.

   [RFC4007]  Deering, S., Haberman, B., Jinmei, T., Nordmark, E., and
              B. Zill, "IPv6 Scoped Address Architecture", RFC 4007,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4007, March 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc4007>.

   [RFC4193]  Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
              Addresses", RFC 4193, DOI 10.17487/RFC4193, October 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc4193>.

   [RFC4704]  Volz, B., "The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6) Client Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN)
              Option", RFC 4704, DOI 10.17487/RFC4704, October 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc4704>.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4862, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc4862>.

   [RFC6939]  Halwasia, G., Bhandari, S., and W. Dec, "Client Link-Layer
              Address Option in DHCPv6", RFC 6939, DOI 10.17487/RFC6939,
              May 2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6939>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8174>.

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   [RFC8415]  Mrugalski, T., Siodelski, M., Volz, B., Yourtchenko, A.,
              Richardson, M., Jiang, S., Lemon, T., and T. Winters,
              "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)",
              RFC 8415, DOI 10.17487/RFC8415, November 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8415>.

   [RFC9131]  Linkova, J., "Gratuitous Neighbor Discovery: Creating
              Neighbor Cache Entries on First-Hop Routers", RFC 9131,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC9131, October 2021,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc9131>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc4861>.

   [RFC6620]  Nordmark, E., Bagnulo, M., and E. Levy-Abegnoli, "FCFS
              SAVI: First-Come, First-Served Source Address Validation
              Improvement for Locally Assigned IPv6 Addresses",
              RFC 6620, DOI 10.17487/RFC6620, May 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6620>.

Acknowledgments

   Many thanks to Bernie Volz for significant review and feedback, as
   well as Hermin Anggawijaya, Brian Carpenter, Stuart Cheshire, Alan
   DeKok, James Guichard, James Guichard, Erik Kline, Mallory Knodel,
   David Lamparter, Ted Lemon, Eric Levy-Abegnoli, Aditi Patange, Jim
   Reid, Michael Richardson, Patrick Rohr, Mark Smith, Gunter Van de
   Velde, Eric Vyncke, Timothy Winters, Peter Yee for their feedback,
   comments and guidance.  We apologize if we inadvertently forgot to
   acknowledge anyone's contributions.

   This document borrows heavily from a previous document, draft-ietf-
   dhc-addr-registration, which defined "a mechanism to register self-
   generated and statically configured addresses in DNS through a DHCPv6
   server".  That document was written Sheng Jiang, Gang Chen, Suresh
   Krishnan, and Rajiv Asati.

Contributors

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   Gang Chen
   China Mobile
   53A, Xibianmennei Ave.
   Xuanwu District
   Beijing
   P.R. China
   Email: phdgang@gmail.com

Authors' Addresses

   Warren Kumari
   Google, LLC
   Email: warren@kumari.net

   Suresh Krishnan
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Email: suresh.krishnan@gmail.com

   Rajiv Asati
   Independent
   Email: rajiv.asati@gmail.com

   Lorenzo Colitti
   Google, LLC
   Shibuya 3-21-3,
   Japan
   Email: lorenzo@google.com

   Jen Linkova
   Google, LLC
   1 Darling Island Rd
   Pyrmont  2009
   Australia
   Email: furry13@gmail.com

   Sheng Jiang
   Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications
   No. 10 Xitucheng Road
   Beijing
   Haidian District, 100083
   China
   Email: shengjiang@bupt.edu.cn

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