Problem Statement of Multi-requirement Extensions for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)
draft-ietf-dhc-problem-statement-of-mredhcpv6-00

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Dynamic Host Configuration (DHC)                                  G. Ren
Internet-Draft                                                     L. He
Intended status: Informational                                    Y. Liu
Expires: November 24, 2019                           Tsinghua University
                                                            May 23, 2019

   Problem Statement of Multi-requirement Extensions for Dynamic Host
                Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)
            draft-ietf-dhc-problem-statement-of-mredhcpv6-00

Abstract

   The manageability, security, privacy protection, and traceability of
   networks can be supported by extending DHCPv6 protocol according to
   requirements.  This document analyzes current extension practices and
   typical DHCP server software on extensions, defines a DHCP general
   model, discusses some extension points, and present extension cases.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on November 24, 2019.

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   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Current Extension Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Standardized and Non-standardized DHCPv6 Extension Cases    3
     3.2.  Current DHCPv6 Server Software Cases  . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.2.1.  Cisco Prime Network Registrar DHCP Server Extension
               APIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
       3.2.2.  Kea DHCP Hook Mechanisms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.1.  DHCP General Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     4.2.  Extension Discussion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       4.2.1.  DHCP Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
       4.2.2.  Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.2.3.  Message Processing Functions  . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.2.4.  Address Generation Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
       4.2.5.  Extension Principles  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   5.  Extension Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   8.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   9.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10

1.  Introduction

   The IP address plays a significant role in the communication of the
   Internet.  IP address generation is also closely related to the
   manageability, security, privacy protection, and traceability of
   networks.  Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)
   [RFC8415] is an important network protocol that can be used to
   dynamically provide IPv6 addresses and other network configuration
   parameters to IPv6 nodes.  Actually, DHCPv6 continues to be extended
   and improved through new options, protocols or message processing
   mechanisms.

   Although DHCPv6 provides more and more comprehensive functionalities
   and DHCPv6 server software also provides extension interfaces to
   allow administrators to alter and customize the way how they handle
   and respond to DHCPv6 messages, there is still a lack of a general
   insight into where and how to conduct extensions in DHCPv6
   effectively.  The extensions to DHCPv6 can be various according to
   multiple requirements.  Therefore, a detailed analysis is required to
   clarify the problems, design principles, and extract and unify the

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   design specifications to help better solve the multi-requirement
   extension problems.

   In summary, multi-requirement extensions for DHCPv6 can be conducted
   to support the administrator's self-defined functionalities.  As
   DHCPv6 is an important and useful protocol related to IPv6 addresses
   generation, it can provide more extended and flexible functionalities
   to meet administrators' requirements.  According to well-designed
   principles, extended interfaces can be defined to support more self-
   defined multi-requirement extensions without sacrificing the
   stability of DHCPv6.

   Some people would suggest administrators modify the open-source DHCP
   servers to solve their problems.  However, a great amount of time
   will be taken to understand the open source DHCP server codes, not to
   say the consuming time debugging the bugs, failures or system crash
   caused by modifying the complicated modules.  Another problem is that
   as the open source software evolves, the source codes of the server
   software may change (new functionalities or fixing bugs).  Users may
   need to re-write their codes once the new version of open-source
   server software comes out [kea_dhcp_hook_developers_guide] . Hence,
   the multi-requirement extensions for DHCPv6 to solve administrators'
   specific problems are very necessary and significant.

   This document describes current extension practices and typical DHCP
   server software on extensions and provides a problem statement by
   defining a DHCP general model, discussing the extension problems, and
   presenting extension cases.

2.  Terminology

   Familiarity with DHCPv6 and its terminology, as defined in [RFC8415],
   is assumed.

3.  Current Extension Practices

3.1.  Standardized and Non-standardized DHCPv6 Extension Cases

   Many documents attempt to extend DHCPv6.  They can be classified into
   three categories.

   Extended options    Most extensions for DHCPv6 are implemented in
                       this way.  New-defined options carry specific
                       parameters in DHCPv6 messages, which helps DHCPv6
                       clients or servers know the detailed situation
                       with each other.

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   Extended messages   Some documents define new protocols that aim to
                       achieve specific goals, e.g., active leasequery
                       [RFC7653], GAGMS [GAGMS].

   Extended entities   Some documents introduce third-party entities
                       into the communications of DHCPv6 to achieve
                       specific goals and provide better services, e.g.,
                       authentication [RFC7037].

3.2.  Current DHCPv6 Server Software Cases

   A lot of commercial and open source DHCP servers exist, including
   Cisco Prime Network Registrar [CPNR], Microsoft DHCP
   [Microsoft_DHCP], VitalQIP [VitalQIP], Nominum DHCP [Nominum_DHCP],
   ISC DHCP [ISC_DHCP], Kea DHCP [Kea_DHCP], FreeRADIUS DHCP
   [FreeRADIUS_DHCP], WIDE DHCPv6 [WIDE_DHCPv6], and DHCP Broadband
   [DHCP_Broadband].  Commercial and open source DHCPv6 software often
   considers the extensions of DHCPv6 servers because they cannot always
   meet the requirements that the administrators want.  In this section,
   we introduce two typical DHCPv6 servers: Cisco Prime Network
   Registrar and Kea DHCP.

3.2.1.  Cisco Prime Network Registrar DHCP Server Extension APIs

   Cisco Prime Network Registrar (CPNR) [CPNR] is an appliance which
   provides integrated Domain Name Server, DHCP, and IP Address
   Management services for IPv4 and IPv6.  At the same time, CPNR DHCP
   server provides extension APIs and allows administrators to write
   extensions and functions to alter and customize how it handles and
   responds to DHCP requests.  A network operator usually decides what
   packet process to modify, how to modify, and which extension point to
   attach the extension.  Then the network operator just writes the
   extension and adds the well-written extension to the extension point
   of the DHCP server.  Finally, the network operator reloads the DHCP
   server and debugs whether the server runs as it expects.

3.2.2.  Kea DHCP Hook Mechanisms

   Kea DHCP provides hook mechanisms, a well-designed interface for
   third-party code, to solve the problem that the DHCP server does not
   quite do what a network operator require.  A network operator can use
   several well-defined framework functions to load and initialize a
   library and write specific callout functions to attach to the hook
   points.  After building and configuring the hooks library, the server
   runs as the network operator requires.  Additionally, Kea DHCP allows
   the network operator to use logging in the hooks library.

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4.  Problem Statement

   This section elaborates the problem statement of multi-requirement
   extensions for DHCPv6.  Section 4.1 describes the general model of
   DHCP, while Section 4.2 analyzes the extension points and
   requirements, suggesting possible future work.

4.1.  DHCP General Model

   Figure 1 summarizes the DHCP general model and its possible
   extensions: DHCP messages, options, message processing functions, and
   address generation mechanisms.

   +-------------------+                           +------------------+
   |   DHCPv6 client   |                           |   DHCPv6 relay   |
   | +---------------+ | DHCP messages with options| +--------------+ |
   | |   Message     | |<------------------------->| |   Message    | |
   | |  processing   | |                           | |  relaying    | |
   | |  functions    | |                           | |  functions   | |
   | +---------------+ |                           | +--------------+ |
   +-------------------+                           +------------------+
                                                            ^
                                                            |
                                 DHCP messages with options |
                                                            |
                                                            V
                                                   +------------------+
                                                   |  DHCPv6 server   |
       +------------+                              | +--------------+ |
       |  Address   |                              | |   Message    | |
       | generation |<-----------------------------+-|  processing  | |
       | mechanisms |                              | |  functions   | |
       +------------+                              | +--------------+ |
                                                   +------------------+

         Figure 1: DHCP general model and its possible extensions.

4.2.  Extension Discussion

4.2.1.  DHCP Messages

   In fact, new messages can be designed and added to DHCPv6 protocol,
   e.g., active leasequery [RFC7653].  But currently, people are
   concerned about the security and privacy issues of DHCP protocol.
   [RFC7819] and [RFC7824] describe the privacy issues associated with
   the use of DHCPv4 and DHCPv6, respectively.  DHCPv6 does not provide
   the privacy protection on messages and options.  That is to say,

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   other nodes can see the options transmitted in the DHCPv6 messages
   between DHCPv6 clients and servers.

4.2.2.  Options

   DHCPv6 allows defining options for common requirements, e.g., DNS and
   NTP.  In other cases, network operators may require DHCP messages to
   transmit some self-defined options between clients and servers.
   Currently, vendor-specific information option allows clients and
   servers to exchange vendor-specific information.  Therefore,
   administrative domains can define and use sub-options of vendor-
   specific option to serve their private purposes.  The content of the
   self-defined options may come from two sources: devices and users.
   If the content of self-defined options comes from users, two methods
   can be used to solve the problem.  The first one is that the clients
   provide related interfaces to receive such information, which is
   currently merely supported.  The second one is that DHCPv6 relays
   obtain such information and add it into the clients' requests.  But
   this always depends on other protocols to allow DHCPv6 relays to get
   the information first.

4.2.3.  Message Processing Functions

   Although current commercial or open-source DHCP server software
   provides comprehensive functionalities, they still cannot meet all
   customers' requirements of processing DHCP requests.  Therefore, they
   will provide interfaces that customers can use to write their
   specific extensions to affect the way how DHCP servers handle and
   respond to DHCP requests.  For example, not all networks prefer to
   use DHCPv6 servers to assign the privacy-preserving random-form
   addresses generated by some fixed address generation mechanism to
   DHCPv6 clients.  Several address generation mechanisms for SLAAC
   [RFC4862] (e.g., IEEE 64-bit EUI-64 [RFC2464], Constant, semantically
   opaque [Microsoft], Temporary [RFC4941], and Stable, semantically
   opaque [RFC7217]) proposed for different requirements can be utilized
   in DHCPv6 protocol as well.  The many types of IPv6 address
   generation mechanisms available have brought about flexibility and
   diversity.  Thus, network operators may alter their DHCPv6 servers
   through the given extensions to use their own preferred address
   generation mechanisms to assign addresses to DHCPv6 clients.
   However, not all DHCP software considers this extension.

4.2.4.  Address Generation Mechanisms

   Currently, the DHCPv6 servers assign addresses, prefixes and other
   configuration options according to their configured policies.
   Generally, different networks may prefer different address generation

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   mechanisms.  Corresponding interfaces could be open and defined to
   allow other address generation mechanisms to be configured.

4.2.5.  Extension Principles

   The principles used to conduct multi-requirement extensions for
   DHCPv6 are summarized as follows:

      1) Do not change the current DHCP general model.

      2) Use simpler interfaces to define and support more extensions.

5.  Extension Cases

   Administrative domains may enforce local policies according to their
   requirements, e.g., authentication, accountability.  Several kinds of
   multi-requirement extensions are presented in this section, including
   configurations in current DHCP software, option definition and server
   modification, and message definition between DHCP entities and third-
   party entities.

   Currently, many DHCP servers provide administrative mechanisms, e.g.,
   host reservation and client classification.  Host reservation is
   often used to assign certain parameters (e.g., IP addresses) to
   specific devices.  Client classification is often used to
   differentiate between different types of clients and treat them
   accordingly in certain cases.

   To meet specific requirements, more complicated extensions of DHCPv6
   are needed.  For example, considering such a requirement that DHCP
   servers assign IP addresses generated by user identifiers to the
   clients in a network to hold users accountable, two extensions should
   be fulfilled to meet this requirement.  The first one is that clients
   send their user identifiers to servers.  This can be achieved by
   defining and using sub-options of vendor specific information option.
   The second one is that servers use user identifiers to generate IP
   addresses.  To achieve this goal, extension mechanisms provided by
   the server software such as extension points in CPNR [CPNR] and hook
   mechanisms in Kea DHCP [Kea_DHCP] can be used.

   Some extensions for DHCPv6 may need the support of third-party
   entities.  For example, [RFC7037] introduces RADIUS entities into the
   message exchanges between DHCPv6 entities for better service
   provision.  In fact, the authentication in [RFC7037] can be also used
   to meet the accountability requirement mentioned above because it is
   important to authenticate users first before assigning IP addresses
   generated from user identifiers.  Usually, this kind of extension

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   requires the definition of messages communicated between DHCP
   entities and third-party entities, e.g., active leasequery [RFC7653].

   IPv6 addresses are related to manageability, security, traceability,
   and accountability of networks.  As DHCPv6 assigns IPv6 addresses to
   IPv6 nodes, it is important that DHCPv6 provides interfaces to allow
   administrative domains to conduct extensions to meet their multi-
   requirements.

6.  Security Considerations

   Security issues related with DHCPv6 are described in Section 22 of
   [RFC8415].

7.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not include an IANA request.

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Bernie Volz, Tomek Mrugalski, Sheng
   Jiang, and Jinmei Tatuya for their comments and suggestions that
   improved the [draft-ren-dhc-mredhcpv6].  Some ideas and thoughts of
   [draft-ren-dhc-mredhcpv6] are contained in this document.

9.  Normative References

   [CPNR]     Cisco, "Cisco Prime Network Registrar", 2018,
              <https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/cloud-systems-
              management/prime-network-registrar/index.html>.

   [DHCP_Broadband]
              Weird Solutions, "DHCP Broadband", 2018,
              <https://www.weird-solutions.com/carrier-solutions/
              dhcp-broadband>.

   [draft-ren-dhc-mredhcpv6]
              Ren, G., He, L., and Y. Liu, "Multi-requirement Extensions
              for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6
              (DHCPv6)", March 2017.

   [FreeRADIUS_DHCP]
              FreeRADIUS, "FreeRADIUS DHCP", 2017,
              <https://wiki.freeradius.org/features/DHCP>.

   [GAGMS]    Liu, Y., He, L., and G. Ren, "GAGMS: A Requirement-Driven
              General Address Generation and Management System",
              November 2017.

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   [ISC_DHCP]
              Internet System Consortium, "ISC DHCP", 2018,
              <http://www.isc.org/downloads/dhcp/>.

   [Kea_DHCP]
              Internet System Consortium, "Kea DHCP", 2018,
              <https://www.isc.org/kea/>.

   [kea_dhcp_hook_developers_guide]
              Internet Systems Consortium, "Hook Developer's Guide",
              2018, <https://jenkins.isc.org/job/Kea_doc/doxygen/df/d46/
              hooksdgDevelopersGuide.html>.

   [Microsoft]
              Microsoft, "IPv6 interface identifiers", 2013, <https://ww
              w.microsoft.com/resources/documentation/windows/xp/all/
              proddocs/en-us/sag_ip_v6_imp_addr7.mspx?mfr=true>.

   [Microsoft_DHCP]
              Microsoft, "Microsoft DHCP", 2008,
              <https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
              cc896553(v=ws.10).aspx>.

   [Nominum_DHCP]
              Nominum, "Nominum DHCP", 2012,
              <https://www.nominum.com/press_item/nominum-releases-new-
              version-of-carrier-grade-dhcp-software-for-telecom-
              providers/>.

   [RFC2464]  Crawford, M., "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over Ethernet
              Networks", RFC 2464, DOI 10.17487/RFC2464, December 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2464>.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4862, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4862>.

   [RFC4941]  Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
              Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
              IPv6", RFC 4941, DOI 10.17487/RFC4941, September 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4941>.

   [RFC7037]  Yeh, L. and M. Boucadair, "RADIUS Option for the DHCPv6
              Relay Agent", RFC 7037, DOI 10.17487/RFC7037, October
              2013, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7037>.

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   [RFC7217]  Gont, F., "A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque
              Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address
              Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)", RFC 7217,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7217, April 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7217>.

   [RFC7653]  Raghuvanshi, D., Kinnear, K., and D. Kukrety, "DHCPv6
              Active Leasequery", RFC 7653, DOI 10.17487/RFC7653,
              October 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7653>.

   [RFC7819]  Jiang, S., Krishnan, S., and T. Mrugalski, "Privacy
              Considerations for DHCP", RFC 7819, DOI 10.17487/RFC7819,
              April 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7819>.

   [RFC7824]  Krishnan, S., Mrugalski, T., and S. Jiang, "Privacy
              Considerations for DHCPv6", RFC 7824,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7824, May 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7824>.

   [RFC8415]  Mrugalski, T., Siodelski, M., Volz, B., Yourtchenko, A.,
              Richardson, M., Jiang, S., Lemon, T., and T. Winters,
              "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6)",
              RFC 8415, DOI 10.17487/RFC8415, November 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8415>.

   [VitalQIP]
              Nokia, "Nokia VitalQIP", 2017,
              <https://networks.nokia.com/products/
              vitalqip-ip-address-management>.

   [WIDE_DHCPv6]
              KAME project, "WIDE DHCPv6", 2008,
              <http://ipv6int.net/software/wide_dhcpv6.html>.

Authors' Addresses

   Gang Ren
   Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86-010 6260 3227
   Email: rengang@cernet.edu.cn

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   Lin He
   Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   P.R.China

   Email: he-l14@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn

   Ying Liu
   Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   P.R.China

   Email: liuying@cernet.edu.cn

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