Generalized UDP Source Port for DHCP Relay
draft-ietf-dhc-relay-port-10

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Replaces draft-shen-dhc-client-port
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Networking Working Group                                         N. Shen
Internet-Draft                                                   E. Chen
Intended status: Standards Track                           Cisco Systems
Expires: June 17, 2018                                 December 14, 2017

               Generalized UDP Source Port for DHCP Relay
                      draft-ietf-dhc-relay-port-10

Abstract

   This document proposes an extension to the DHCP protocols that allows
   a relay agent to use any available source port for upstream
   communications, and to include a DHCP option that can be used to
   statelessly route responses back to the appropriate source port on
   downstream communications.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 17, 2018.

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   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Changes to DHCP Specifications  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.1.  Additions to DHCPv4 in RFC 2131 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     3.2.  Additions to DHCPv6 in RFC 3315 . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Relay Source Port Sub-option and Option . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.1.  Source Port Sub-option for DHCPv4 . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     4.2.  Relay Source Port Option for DHCPv6 . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  Relay Agent and Server Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     5.1.  DHCPv4  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     5.2.  DHCPv6  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.3.  Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.4.  Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   6.  An IPv6 Cascaded Relay Example  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   9.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   10. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9

1.  Introduction

   RFC 2131 [RFC2131] and RFC 3315 [RFC3315] specify the use of UDP as
   the transport protocol for DHCP.  They also define both the server
   side and client side port numbers.  The IPv4 server port is UDP
   number (67) and the client port is UDP number (68); for IPv6 the
   server port is (547) and the client port is (546).

   The fixed UDP port combinations for the DHCP protocol scheme creates
   challenges in certain DHCP relay operations.  For instance, in a
   large scale DHCP relay implementation on a single switch node, the
   DHCP relay functionality may be partitioned among multiple relay
   processes.  All these DHCP relay processes may share the same IP
   address of the switch node.  If the UDP source port has to be a fixed
   number as currently specified, the transport socket operation of DHCP
   packets would need to go through a central entity or process which
   would defeat the purpose of distributing DHCP relay functionality.

   In some large-scale deployment, the decision to split the DHCP
   functionality into multiple processes on a node may not be purely
   based on DHCP relay computational load.  But rather DHCP relay could
   just be one of the functions in a multi-process implementation.

   Although assigning a different IPv4/IPv6 source address for each DHCP
   relay process can be a solution, it would introduce operational and

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   network management complexities, especially given the scarceness of
   the IPv4 addresses.

   This document proposes an extension to relax the fixed UDP source
   port requirement for the DHCP relay agents.  This extension requires
   a DHCP server to remember the inbound packet's UDP port number along
   with the IPv4/IPv6 address.  The DHCP server when sending back
   replies MUST use the UDP port number that the incoming relay agent
   uses instead of the fixed DHCP port number.  In the case of IPv6
   cascaded relay agents [RFC3315], the upstream relay agent needs to
   use the "Relay Source Port Option" to record the downstream source
   port and it MUST use this recorded port number instead of the fixed
   DHCP port number when replaying the reply messages.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

2.  Terminology

   Downstream Device:  In the DHCP relay context, it refers to the next
            relay agent for forwarding Relay-reply Messages.

   Upstream Device:  In the DHCP relay context, it refers to the next
            relay agent or DHCP server for forwarding Relay-forward
            Messages.

   Relay Source Port:  This is the UDP port that a relay agent uses to
            receive Relay-forward Messages from an upstream device.

   Downstream Source Port:  This is the UDP port that the downstream
            device uses when forwarding Relay-forward Messages to this
            relay agent device.  This UDP port is to be used by this
            relay agent device when forwarding the Relay-reply Messages
            to that downstream device.

   Non-DHCP UDP Port:  Any valid and non-zero UDP port other than port
            67 for DHCPv4 and port 547 for DHCPv6.

3.  Changes to DHCP Specifications

3.1.  Additions to DHCPv4 in RFC 2131

   Section 4.1 of RFC 2131 [RFC2131] specifies that:

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      DHCP uses UDP as its transport protocol.  DHCP messages from a
      client to a server are sent to the 'DHCP server' port (67), and
      DHCP messages from a server to a client are sent to the 'DHCP
      client' port (68).

   Relay agents implementing this specification may be configured
   instead to use a source port number other than 67 when relaying
   messages toward servers, and to receive responses toward clients on
   that same port.  This will only work when the DHCP server or relay
   agent to which such a relay agent is forwarding messages is upgraded
   to support this extension.

3.2.  Additions to DHCPv6 in RFC 3315

   Section 5.2 of RFC 3315 [RFC3315] specifies that:

      Clients listen for DHCP messages on UDP port 546.  Servers and
      relay agents listen for DHCP messages on UDP port 547.

   Relay agents implementing this specification may be configured
   instead to use a source port number other than 547 when relaying
   messages toward servers, and to receive responses toward clients on
   that same port.  This will only work when the DHCP server or relay
   agent to which such a relay agent is forwarding messages is upgraded
   to support this extension.

4.  Relay Source Port Sub-option and Option

   Relay agents do not maintain state.  To return a message to its
   source, the relay agent must include all the required information in
   the Relay-Forward message.  When a relay in a sequence of cascaded
   relays does not use the standard source port, that source port must
   be included along with the source address.  This option allows the
   relay agent to do so.

4.1.  Source Port Sub-option for DHCPv4

   The Relay Agent "Source Port Sub-option" is a new option, and it is
   part of the relay-agent-information option for DHCPv4 [RFC3046].

   The format of the "Source Port Sub-option" is shown below:

            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
            | SubOpt Code   |      Len      |
            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Where:

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      SubOpt Code:  SUBOPT_RELAY_PORT. 8 bit value, to be assigned by
               IANA.

      Len:     8 bit value to be set to 0.

4.2.  Relay Source Port Option for DHCPv6

   The "Relay Source Port Option" is a new DHCPv6 option.  It MUST be
   used either by a DHCPv6 relay agent that uses a non-DHCP UDP port
   (not 547) communicating with the IPv6 server and the upstream relay
   agent, or by a IPv6 relay agent that detects the use of a non-DHCP
   UDP port (not 547) by a downstream relay agent.

   The format of the "Relay Source Port Option" is shown below:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |    OPTION_RELAY_RELAY_PORT    |         Option-Len            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |    Downstream Source Port     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Where:

      Option-Code:  OPTION_RELAY_RELAY_PORT. 16 bit value, to be
               assigned by IANA.

      Option-Len:  16 bit value to be set to 2.

      Downstream Source Port:  16 bit value.  To be set by the IPv6
               relay either to the downstream relay agent's UDP source
               port used for the UDP packet, or to zero if only the
               local relay agent uses the non-DHCP UDP port (not 547).

5.  Relay Agent and Server Behavior

5.1.  DHCPv4

   When a relay agent uses a non-DHCP UDP port (not 67) communicating
   with the DHCP server, it MUST include the "Source Port Sub-option" in
   Relay-forward messages to indicate that.

   When an IPv4 server receives a message from a relay agent with the
   "Source Port Sub-option", it MUST remember the UDP source port of the

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   message and use that port number as the UDP destination port when
   sending the reply message to the same relay agent.

5.2.  DHCPv6

   The IPv6 relay agent MUST include the "Relay Source Port Option" when
   it uses a non-DHCP UDP port (not 547) to communicate to a DHCPv6
   server or an upstream IPv6 relay agent.  Also when an IPv6 relay
   agent detects that a downstream relay agent uses a non-DHCP UDP port
   in the packet, it MUST record the port number in the "Downstream
   Source Port" field of this option.  If this option is included to
   indicate only the local non-DHCP UDP port usage and there is no
   downstream relay agent's non-DHCP UDP port usage, the field
   Downstream Source Port field MUST be set to zero.

   The IPv6 relay agent MUST include this option in the following three
   cases:

      1) The local relay agent uses a non-DHCP UDP port (not 547).

      2) the downstream relay agent uses a non-DHCP UDP port (not 547).

      3) the local relay agent and the downstream relay agent both use
      non-DHCP UDP ports (not 547).

   In the first case, the value of the "Downstream Source Port" field is
   set to zero.  In the other two cases, the value of the field is set
   to the UDP port number that the downstream relay agent uses.

   When an IPv6 server receives a Relay-forward message with the "Relay
   Source Port Option", it MUST copy the option when constructing the
   Relay-reply chain in response to the Relay-forward message.  This
   option MUST NOT appear in any message other than a Relay-forward or
   Relay-reply message.  Additionally, the IPv6 server MUST check and
   use the UDP source port from the UDP packet of the Relay-forward
   message in replying to the relay agent.

   When a relay agent receives a Relay-reply message with the "Relay
   Source Port Option" from a server or from an upstream relay agent, if
   the "Downstream Source Port" field in the option is non-zero, it MUST
   use this UDP port number to forward the Relay-reply message to the
   downstream relay agent.

5.3.  Compatibility

   Sites that need for relay agents to specify a source port will need
   to install new DHCP server and DHCP relay agent software with this
   feature.  If a site installs only DHCP relay agent software with this

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   feature, there is no possibility that the DHCP server will be able to
   communicate to the relay agent.

5.4.  Deployment Considerations

   During deployment, it is advisable the operator and/or user of the
   new DHCP relay port implementation upgrade the DHCP server first when
   possible, before the relay implementations are deployed.  This would
   ensure that the erroneous case noted in Section 5.3 is not
   encountered.  If the upstream relay agent or server does not support
   this extension, this DHCP relay port feature needs to be disabled.

   When the DHCP relay port implementation is deployed, the default
   relay agent behavior should use the DHCP UDP port, it is recommended
   that the configuration is setup to allow for the mode of operation
   where a non-DHCP port can be used for the DHCP relay agents.

   Although if the network uses firewall to block or allow DHCP packets
   with both static UDP source and destination port numbers, this may no
   longer match the packets from new DHCP relay agent and server
   software with this extension.  The firewall rules need to be modified
   only to match the DHCP server side of the UDP port number, and if
   necessary, IP addresses and other attributes.

6.  An IPv6 Cascaded Relay Example

   An example of IPv6 cascaded relay agents with the "Relay Source Port
   Option" is shown below.

              (forward)          (forward)          (forward)
      Relay1 ----------> Relay2 ----------> Relay3 ----------> Server
          (1000)              (547)              (547)
               (reply)            (reply)            (reply)
             <----------        <----------        <----------

   In the above diagram, all the IPv6 devices support this generalized
   UDP source port extension except for Relay3.  Relay1 is the only
   relay agent device uses a non-DHCP UDP port (not 547).  Relay2 is the
   upstream device of Relay1.

   Both Relay1 and Relay2 include the "Relay Source Port Option" in
   Relay-forward message.  Relay1 sets the "Downstream Source Port"
   field in the option to zero.  Relay2 notices the "Relay Source Port
   Option" is included in the message from Relay1, and it determines

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   that the UDP source port used by Relay1 is 1000.  Relay2 will include
   the "Relay Source Port Option" and it sets the "Downstream Source
   Port" field in the option to 1000.  The IPv6 server copies the "Relay
   Source Port Option" when replying with the Relay-reply message.

   When Relay2 receives the Relay-reply message with the "Relay Source
   Port Option", it finds the "Downstream Source Port" field has the
   value of 1000.  Relay2 then uses this port number in the UDP packet
   when sending the Relay-reply message to Relay1.

   When Relay1 receives the Relay-reply message with the "Relay Source
   Port Option", it finds that the "Downstream Source Port" field has
   the value of zero.  Relay1 then uses the normal IPv6 port 547 in the
   packet sending the Relay-reply message to its downstream relay agent
   or uses UDP port 546 to an IPv6 client.

   This DHCP extension works with any combination of IPv6 cascaded relay
   agents, as long as the relay agent which uses a non-DHCP UDP port
   (not 547) and its upstream relay device support this generalized UDP
   source port extension.

   Similar to the above example, now assume that Relay2 uses the UDP
   source port of 2000 instead of 547 as in the diagram.  The Relay3
   device needs to support this DHCP extension and it will set 2000 in
   its "Downstream Source Port" field of the option in the Relay-forward
   message.  When DHCP server sends the DHCP Relay-reply to Relay3,
   Relay3 finds its own relay option has this "Downstream Source Port"
   with the value of 2000.  Relay3 will use this UDP port when sending
   the Relay-reply message to Relay2.  Relay2 finds its own relay option
   also has this "Downstream Source Port" with the value of 1000.
   Relay2 will use this UDP port when sending the Relay-reply message to
   Relay1.

7.  IANA Considerations

   A new sub-option, DHCPv4 Relay Source Port Sub-Option, is defined in
   this document within the IPv4 Relay Agent Information Option.  It
   needs to be assigned by IANA in the "DHCP Relay Agent Sub-Option
   Codes" registry, http://www.iana.org/assignments/bootp-dhcp-
   parameters as specified in [RFC3046].

   A new option, DHCPv6 Relay Source Port, is defined in this document
   for DHCPv6 and it needs to be assigned by IANA for the DHCPv6 option
   code, in the "Option Codes" registry for DHCPv6,
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/dhcpv6-parameters as specified in
   [RFC3315].

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8.  Security Considerations

   [RFC3118] and [RFC3315] described many of the threats in using DHCP.
   This extension does not raise addition security issues.

9.  Acknowledgments

   The authors would like to thank Peter Arberg, Luyuan Fang, Bhanu
   Gopalasetty, Scott Kelly, Andre Kostur, Victor Kuarsingh, Ted Lemon,
   Adam Roach, Kishore Seshadri and Jackelyn Shen for their review and
   comments of this document.

   The authors would like to thank Bernie Volz for discussions that led
   to the definition of The Relay Source Port sub-option and DHCPv6
   Relay Source Port Option.

   The RFC text was produced using Marshall Rose's xml2rfc tool.

10.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <https://www.rfc-
              editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2131]  Droms, R., "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol",
              RFC 2131, DOI 10.17487/RFC2131, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2131>.

   [RFC3046]  Patrick, M., "DHCP Relay Agent Information Option",
              RFC 3046, DOI 10.17487/RFC3046, January 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3046>.

   [RFC3118]  Droms, R., Ed. and W. Arbaugh, Ed., "Authentication for
              DHCP Messages", RFC 3118, DOI 10.17487/RFC3118, June 2001,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3118>.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Ed., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins,
              C., and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
              for IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, DOI 10.17487/RFC3315, July
              2003, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3315>.

Authors' Addresses

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   Naiming Shen
   Cisco Systems
   560 McCarthy Blvd.
   Milpitas, CA  95035
   US

   Email: naiming@cisco.com

   Enke Chen
   Cisco Systems
   560 McCarthy Blvd.
   Milpitas, CA  95035
   US

   Email: enkechen@cisco.com

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