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Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability Statement

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This is an older version of an Internet-Draft that was ultimately published as RFC 7603.
Authors Brad Schoening , Mouli Chandramouli , Bruce Nordman
Last updated 2015-04-23 (Latest revision 2015-02-11)
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Energy Management Working Group                 Brad Schoening     
     Internet Draft                          Independent Consultant 
     Intended status: Standards Track            Mouli Chandramouli      
     Expires: July 11, 2015                      Cisco Systems Inc. 
                                                      Bruce Nordman 
                              Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 
                                                  February 11, 2015      
                Energy Management (EMAN) Applicability Statement 


        The objective of Energy Management (EMAN) is to provide an 
        energy management framework for networked devices.  This 
        document presents the applicability of the EMAN information 
        model in a variety of scenarios with cases and target devices.  
        These use cases are useful for identifying requirements for the 
        framework and MIBs.  Further, we describe the relationship of 
        the EMAN framework to relevant other energy monitoring standards 
        and architectures. 

     Status of This Memo 

        This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance 
        with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.  
        Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet 
        Engineering Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working 
        groups.  Note that other groups may also distribute working 
        documents as Internet-Drafts.  
        Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six 
        months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other 
        documents at any time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-
        Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work 
        in progress." 
        The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at  
        The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at  
        This Internet-Draft will expire on July 11, 2015. 
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     Copyright Notice 

        Copyright (c) 2015 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the 
        document authors. All rights reserved. 
        This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal 
        Provisions Relating to IETF Documents 
        ( in effect on the date of 
        publication of this document.  Please review these documents 
        carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with 
        respect to this document.  Code Components extracted from this 
        document must include Simplified BSD License text as described 
        in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided 
        without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. 

     Table of Contents 

      1. Introduction ............................................ 3 
        1.1. Energy Management Overview .......................... 4 
        1.2. EMAN Document Overview .............................. 4 
        1.3. Energy Measurement .................................. 5 
        1.4. Energy Management ................................... 5 
        1.5. EMAN Framework Application .......................... 6 
      2. Scenarios and Target Devices ............................ 6 
        2.1. Network Infrastructure Energy Objects ............... 6 
        2.2. Devices Powered and Connected by a Network Device ... 7 
        2.3. Devices Connected to a Network ...................... 8 
        2.4. Power Meters ........................................ 9 
        2.5. Mid-level Managers ................................. 10 
        2.6. Non-residential Building System Gateways ........... 11 
        2.7. Home Energy Gateways ............................... 11 
        2.8. Data Center Devices ................................ 12 
        2.9. Energy Storage Devices ............................. 13 
        2.10. Industrial Automation Networks .................... 14 
        2.11. Printers .......................................... 14 
        2.12. Off-Grid Devices .................................. 15 
        2.13. Demand Response ................................... 16 
        2.14. Power Capping ..................................... 16 
      3. Use Case Patterns ...................................... 17 
        3.1. Metering ........................................... 17 
        3.2. Metering and Control ............................... 17 
        3.3. Power Supply, Metering and Control ................. 17 
        3.4. Multiple Power Sources ............................. 17 
      4. Relationship of EMAN to Other Standards ................ 18 
        4.1. Data Model and Reporting ........................... 18 
              4.1.1. IEC - CIM................................... 18 
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              4.1.2. DMTF........................................ 18 
              4.1.3. ODVA........................................ 20 
              4.1.4. Ecma SDC.................................... 20 
              4.1.5. PWG......................................... 21 
              4.1.6. ASHRAE...................................... 21 
              4.1.7. ANSI/CEA.................................... 22 
              4.1.8. ZigBee...................................... 22 
        4.2. Measurement ........................................ 23 
              4.2.1. ANSI C12.................................... 23 
              4.2.2. IEC 62301................................... 23 
        4.3. Other .............................................. 24 
              4.3.1. ISO......................................... 24 
              4.3.2. Energy Star................................. 24 
              4.3.3. Smart Grid.................................. 25 
      5. Limitations ............................................ 26 
      6. Security Considerations ................................ 26 
      7. IANA Considerations .................................... 26 
      8. Acknowledgements ....................................... 26 
      9. References ............................................. 26 
        9.1. Normative References ............................... 26 
        9.2. Informative References ............................. 27 
     1. Introduction 

        The focus of the Energy Management (EMAN) framework is energy 
        monitoring and management of energy objects [RFC7326].  The 
        scope of devices considered are network equipment and their 
        components, and devices connected directly or indirectly to 
        the network.  The EMAN framework enables monitoring of 
        heterogeneous devices to report their energy consumption and, 
        if permissible, control.  There are multiple scenarios where 
        this is desirable, particularly considering the increased 
        importance of limiting consumption of finite energy resources 
        and reducing operational expenses. 
        The EMAN framework [RFC7326] describes how energy information 
        can be retrieved from IP-enabled devices using Simple Network 
        Management Protocol (SNMP), specifically, Management Information 
        Base (MIBs) for SNMP. 
        This document describes typical applications of the EMAN 
        framework, as well as its opportunities and limitations.  It 
        also reviews other standards that are similar in part to EMAN 
        but address different domains, describing how those other 
        standards relate to the EMAN framework. 

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        The rest of the document is organized as follows.  Section 2 
        contains a list of use cases or network scenarios that EMAN 
        addresses.  Section 3 contains an abstraction of the use case 
        scenarios to distinct patterns.  Section 4 deals with other 
        standards related and applicable to EMAN. 
     1.1. Energy Management Overview 

        EMAN addresses the electrical energy consumed by devices 
        connected to a network.  A first step to increase the energy 
        efficiency in networks and the devices attached to the network 
        is to enable energy objects to report their energy usage over 
        time.  The EMAN framework addresses this problem with an 
        information model for electrical equipment: energy object 
        identification, energy object context, power measurement, and 
        power characteristics.  
        The EMAN framework defines SNMP MIB modules based on the 
        information model.  By implementing these SNMP MIB modules, an 
        energy object can report its energy consumption according to the 
        information model. Based on the information model, the MIB 
        drafts specify SNMP MIB modules, but it is equally possible to 
        use other mechanisms such as YANG module, NETCONF, etc.  
        In that context, it is important to distinguish energy objects 
        that can only report their own energy usage from devices that 
        can also collect and aggregate energy usage of other energy 
     1.2. EMAN Document Overview 

        The EMAN work consists of the following Standard Track and 
        Informational documents in the area of energy management. 
          Applicability Statement (this document)  
          Requirements [EMAN-REQ]: This document presents requirements 
          of energy management and the scope of the devices considered.  
          Framework [RFC7326]: This document defines a framework for 
          providing energy management for devices within or connected to 
          communication networks, and lists the definitions for the 
          common terms used in these documents. 
          Energy-Aware MIB [EMAN-AWARE-MIB]: This document defines a MIB 
          module that characterizes a device's identity, context and 
          relationships to other entities. 
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          Monitoring MIB [EMAN-MONITORING-MIB]: This document defines a 
          MIB module for monitoring the power and energy consumption of 
          a device.  The MIB module contains an optional module for 
          metrics associated with power characteristics.  
          Battery MIB [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB]: This document defines a MIB 
          module for monitoring characteristics of an internal battery.  
     1.3. Energy Measurement 

        It is increasingly common for today's smart devices to measure 
        and report their own energy consumption.  Intelligent power 
        strips and some Power over Ethernet (PoE) switches can meter 
        consumption of connected devices.  However, when managed and 
        reported through proprietary means, this information is 
        difficult to view at the enterprise level. 
        The primary goal of the EMAN information model is to enable 
        reporting and management within a standard framework that is 
        applicable to a wide variety of end devices, meters, and 
        proxies.  This enables a management system to know who's 
        consuming what, when, and how by leveraging existing networks, 
        across various equipment, in a unified and consistent manner.   
        Because energy objects may both consume energy and provide 
        energy to other devices, there are three types of energy 
        measurement: energy input to a device, energy supplied to other 
        devices, and net (resultant) energy consumed (the difference 
        between energy input and supplied).  
     1.4. Energy Management 

        The EMAN framework provides mechanisms for energy control in 
        addition to passive monitoring.  There are many cases where 
        active energy control of devices is desirable, such during low 
        device utilization or peak electrical price periods. 
        Energy control can be as simple as controlling on/off states. In 
        many cases, however, energy control requires understanding the 
        energy object context.  For instance, in commercial building 
        during non-business hours, some phones must remain available in 
        case of emergency and office cooling is not usually turned off 
        completely, but the comfort level is reduced. 

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        Energy object control therefore requires flexibility and support 
        for different polices and mechanisms: from centralized 
        management by an energy management system, to autonomous control 
        by individual devices, and alignment with dynamic demand 
        response mechanisms. 
        The EMAN framework power states can be used in demand response 
        scenarios.  In response to time-of-day fluctuation of energy 
        costs or grid power shortages, network devices can respond and 
        reduce their energy consumption. 
     1.5. EMAN Framework Application 

        A Network Management System (NMS) is an entity that requests 
        information from compatible devices, typically using the SNMP 
        protocol. An NMS may implement many network management 
        functions, such as security or identity management.  An NMS that 
        deals exclusively with energy is called an Energy Management 
        System (EnMS).  It may be limited to monitoring energy use, or 
        it may also implement control functions.  An EnMS collects 
        energy information for devices in the network.  
        Energy management can be implemented by extending existing SNMP 
        support with EMAN specific MIBs.  SNMP provides an industry-
        proven and well-known mechanism to discover, secure, measure, 
        and control SNMP-enabled end devices.  The EMAN framework 
        provides an information and data model to unify access to a 
        large range of devices. 
     2. Scenarios and Target Devices 

        This section presents energy management scenarios that the EMAN 
        framework should solve.  Each scenario lists target devices for 
        which the energy management framework can be applied, how the 
        reported-on devices are powered, and how the reporting or 
        control is accomplished.  While there is some overlap between 
        some of the use cases, the use cases illustrate network 
        scenarios that the EMAN framework supports. 
     2.1. Network Infrastructure Energy Objects 

        This scenario covers the key use case of network devices and 
        their components.  For a device aware of one or more components, 
        our information model supports monitoring and control at the 
        component level.  Typically, the chassis draws power from one or 
        more sources and feeds its internal components.  It is highly 
        desirable to have monitoring available for individual 
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        components, such as line cards, processors, disk drives and 
        peripherals such as USB devices. 
        As an illustrative example, consider a switch with the following 
        grouping of sub-entities for which energy management could be 
          .  Physical view: chassis (or stack), line cards, and service 
             modules of the switch. 
          .  Component view: CPU, ASICs, fans, power supply, ports 
             (single port and port groups), storage, and memory. 
        The ENTITY-MIB [RFC6933] provides a containment model for 
        uniquely identifying the physical sub-components of network 
        devices.  The containment information identifies whether one 
        Energy Object belongs to another Energy Object (e.g. a line-card 
        Energy Object contained in a chassis Energy Object).  The 
        mapping table entPhysicalContainsTable has an index 
        entPhysicalChildIndex and the table entPhysicalTable has a MIB 
        object entPhysicalContainedIn which points to the containing 
        The essential properties of this use case are:  
          . Target devices: network devices such as routers and 
             switches as well as their components. 
          . How powered: typically by a Power Distribution Unit (PDU) 
             on a rack or from a wall outlet.  The components of a 
             device are powered by the device chassis.  
          . Reporting: direct power measurement can be performed at a 
             device level.  Components can report their power 
             consumption directly or the chassis/device can report on 
             behalf of some components. 
     2.2. Devices Powered and Connected by a Network Device 

        This scenario covers Power Sourcing Equipment (PSE) devices.  A 
        PSE device (e.g. a PoE switch) provides power to a Powered 
        Device (PD) (e.g. a desktop phone) over a medium such as USB or 
        Ethernet [RFC3621].  For each port, the PSE can control the 
        power supply (switching it on and off) and usually meter actual 
        power provided.  PDs obtain network connectivity as well as 
        power over a single connection so the PSE can determine which 
        device is associated with each port. 
        PoE ports on a switch are commonly connected to devices such as 
        IP phones, wireless access points, and IP cameras.  The switch 
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        needs power for its internal use and to supply power to PoE 
        ports.  Monitoring the power consumption of the switch 
        (supplying device) and the power consumption of the PoE end-
        points (consuming devices) is a simple use case of this 
        This scenario illustrates the relationships between entities. 
        The PoE IP phone is powered by the switch.  If there are many IP 
        phones connected to the same switch, the power consumption of 
        all the IP phones can be aggregated by the switch. 
        The essential properties of this use case are:  
          . Target devices: Power over Ethernet devices such as IP 
             phones, wireless access points, and IP cameras. 
          . How powered: PoE devices are connected to the switch port 
             which supplies power to those devices.  
          . Reporting: PoE device power consumption is measured and 
             reported by the switch (PSE) which supplies power.  In 
             addition, some edge devices can support the EMAN framework. 
        This use case can be divided into two subcases: 
        a) The end-point device supports the EMAN framework, in which 
           case this device is an EMAN Energy Object by itself, with 
           its own UUID. The device is responsible for its own power 
           reporting and control. See the related scenario "Devices 
           Connected to a Network" below.   
        b) The end-point device does not have EMAN capabilities, and 
           the power measurement may not be able to be performed 
           independently, and is therefore only performed by the 
           supplying device.  This scenario is similar to the "Mid-
           level Manager" below. 
        In subcase (a) note that two power usage reporting mechanisms 
        for the same device are available: one performed by the PD 
        itself and one performed by the PSE.  Device specific 
        implementations will dictate which one to use.  
     2.3. Devices Connected to a Network 

        This use case covers the metering relationship between an energy 
        object and the parent energy object to which it is connected, 
        while receiving power from a different source. 

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        An example is a PC which has a network connection to a switch, 
        but draws power from a wall outlet.  In this case, the PC can 
        report power usage by itself, ideally through the EMAN 
        The wall outlet to which the PC is plugged in can be unmetered 
        or metered, for example, by a Smart PDU. 
        a) If metered, the PC has a powered-by relationship to the Smart   
        PDU, and the Smart PDU acts as a "Mid-Level Manager". 
        b) If unmetered, or operating on batteries, the PC will report 
        its own energy usage as any other Energy Object to the switch, 
        and the switch may possibly provide aggregation.  
        These two cases are not mutually exclusive.  
        In terms of relationships between entities, the PC has a 
        powered-by relationship to the PDU and if the power consumption 
        of the PC is metered by the PDU, then there is a metered-by 
        relation between the PC and the PDU.  
        The essential properties of this use case are:  
          . Target devices: energy objects that have a network 
             connection, but receive power supply from another source.  
          . How powered: end-point devices (e.g. PCs) receive power 
             supply from the wall outlet (unmetered), a PDU (metered), 
             or can be powered autonomously (batteries). 
          . Reporting: devices can either measure and report the power 
             consumption directly via the EMAN framework, communicate it 
             to the network device (switch) and the switch can report 
             the device's power consumption via the EMAN framework, or 
             power can be reported by the PDU.  
     2.4. Power Meters 

        Some electrical devices are not equipped with instrumentation to 
        measure their own power and accumulated energy consumption.  
        External meters can be used to measure the power consumption of 
        such electrical devices as well as collections of devices.   
        Three types of external metering are relevant to EMAN: PDUs, 
        standalone meters, and utility meters.  External meters can 
        measure consumption of a single device or a set of devices. 

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        Power Distribution Units (PDUs) can have built-in meters for 
        each socket and can measure the power supplied to each device in 
        an equipment rack.  PDUs typically have remote management 
        capabilities which can report and possibly control the power 
        supply of each outlet.  
        Standalone meters can be placed anywhere in a power distribution 
        tree and may measure all or part of the total.  Utility meters 
        monitor and report accumulated power consumption of the entire 
        building.  There can be sub-meters to measure the power 
        consumption of a portion of the building.  
        The essential properties of this use case are: 
          . Target devices: PDUs and meters. 
          . How powered: from traditional mains power but supplied 
             through a PDU or meter. 
          . Reporting: PDUs report power consumption of downstream 
             devices, usually a single device per outlet.  Meters may 
             report for one or more devices and may require knowledge of 
             the topology to associate meters with metered devices. 
        Meters have metered-by relationships with devices, and may have 
        aggregation relationship between the meters and the devices for 
        which power consumption is accumulated and reported by the 
     2.5. Mid-level Managers 

        This use case covers aggregation of energy management data at 
        "mid-level managers" that can provide energy management 
        functions for themselves and associated devices. 
        A switch can provide energy management functions for all devices 
        connected to its ports, whether or not these devices are powered 
        by the switch or whether the switch provides immediate network 
        connectivity to the devices.  Such a switch is a mid-level 
        manager, offering aggregation of power consumption data for 
        other devices.  Devices report their EMAN data to the switch and 
        the switch aggregates the data for further reporting.  
        The essential properties of this use case:  
          . Target devices: devices which can perform aggregation; 
             commonly a switch or a proxy. 
          . How powered: mid-level managers are commonly powered by a 
             PDU or from a wall outlet but can be powered by any method. 
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          . Reporting: the mid-level manager aggregates the energy data 
             and reports that data to an EnMS or higher mid-level 
     2.6. Non-residential Building System Gateways 

        This use case describes energy management of non-residential 
        buildings.  Building Management Systems (BMS) have been in place 
        for many years using legacy protocols not based on IP.  In these 
        buildings, a gateway can provide a proxy function between IP 
        networks and legacy building automation protocols.  The gateway 
        provides an interface between the EMAN framework and relevant 
        building management protocols.  
        Due to the potential energy savings, energy management of 
        buildings has received significant attention.  There are gateway 
        network elements to manage the multiple components of a building 
        energy management system such as Heating, Ventilation, and Air 
        Conditioning (HVAC), lighting, electrical, fire and emergency 
        systems, elevators, etc.  The gateway device uses legacy 
        building protocols to communicate with those devices, collects 
        their energy usage, and reports the results.  
        The gateway performs protocol conversion and communicates via 
        RS-232/RS-485 interfaces, Ethernet interfaces, and protocols 
        specific to building management such as BACNET [ASHRAE], MODBUS 
        [MODBUS], or ZigBee [ZIGBEE].   
        The essential properties of this use case are: 
          . Target devices: building energy management devices - HVAC 
             systems, lighting, electrical, fire and emergency systems.  
          . How powered: any method.   
          . Reporting: the gateway collects energy consumption of non-
             IP systems and communicates the data via the EMAN 
     2.7. Home Energy Gateways 

        This use case describes the scenario of energy management of a 
        home.  The home energy gateway is another example of a proxy 
        that interfaces with electrical appliances and other devices in 
        a home.  This gateway can monitor and manage electrical 
        equipment (e.g. refrigerator, heating/cooling, or washing 
        machine) using one of the many protocols that are being 
        developed for residential devices. 
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        Beyond simply metering, it's possible to implement energy saving 
        policies based on time of day, occupancy, or energy pricing from 
        the utility grid.  The EMAN information model can be applied to 
        energy management of a home.  
        The essential properties of this use case are:  
          . Target devices: home energy gateway and smart meters in a 
          . How powered: any method. 
          . Reporting: home energy gateway can collect power 
             consumption of device in a home and possibly report the 
             metering reading to the utility.  
        While the common case is of a home drawing all power from the 
        utility, some buildings/homes can produce and consume energy 
        with reduced or net-zero energy from the utility grid.  There 
        are many energy production technologies such as solar panels, 
        wind turbines, or micro generators.  This use case illustrates 
        the concept of self-contained energy generation, consumption, 
        and possibly the aggregation of the energy use of homes. 
       2.8. Data Center Devices 

        This use case describes energy management of a data center.  
        Energy efficiency of data centers has become a fundamental 
        challenge of data center operation, as data centers are big 
        energy consumers and have expensive infrastructure.  The 
        equipment generates heat, and heat needs to be evacuated through 
        an HVAC system. 
        A typical data center network consists of a hierarchy of 
        electrical energy objects.  At the bottom of the network 
        hierarchy are servers mounted on a rack; these are connected to 
        top-of-the-rack switches, which in turn are connected to 
        aggregation switches, and then to core switches.  Power 
        consumption of all network elements, servers, and storage 
        devices in the data center should be measured.  Energy 
        management can be implemented on different aggregation levels, 
        i.e., at the network level, Power Distribution Unit (PDU) level, 
        and/or server level. 
        Beyond the network devices, storage devices, and servers, data 
        centers contain UPSs to provide back-up power for the facility 
        in the event of a power outage.  A UPS can provide backup power 
        for many devices in a data center for a finite period of time.  
        Energy monitoring of energy storage capacity is vital from a 
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        data center network operations point of view.  Presently, the 
        UPS MIB can be useful in monitoring the battery capacity, the 
        input load to the UPS, and the output load from the UPS.  
        Currently, there is no link between the UPS MIB and the ENTITY 
        In addition to monitoring the power consumption of a data 
        center, additional power characteristics should be monitored.  
        Some of these are dynamic variations in the input power supply 
        from the grid referred to as power quality metrics.  It can also 
        be useful to monitor how efficiently the devices utilize power.  
        Nameplate capacity of the data center can be estimated from the 
        nameplate ratings (the worst case possible power draw) of IT 
        equipment at a site. 
        The essential properties of this use case are:  
          . Target devices: IT devices in a data center, such as 
             network equipment, servers, and storage devices, as well as 
             power and cooling infrastructure.  
          . How powered: any method, but commonly by one or more PDUs. 
          . Reporting: devices may report on their own behalf, or for 
             other connected devices as described in other use cases.  
     2.9. Energy Storage Devices 

        Energy storage devices can have two different roles: one type 
        whose primary function is to provide power to another device 
        (e.g. a UPS), and one type with a different primary function, 
        but having energy storage as a component (e.g. a notebook).  
        This use case covers both. 
        The energy storage can be a conventional battery, or any other 
        means to store electricity such as a hydrogen cell. 
        An internal battery can be a back-up or an alternative source of 
        power to mains power.  As batteries have a finite capacity and 
        lifetime, means for reporting the actual charge, age, and state 
        of a battery are required.  An internal battery can be viewed as 
        a component of a device and so be contained within the device 
        from an ENTITY-MIB perspective. 
        Battery systems are often used in remote locations such as 
        mobile telecom towers.  For continuous operation, it is 
        important to monitor the remaining battery life and raise an 
        alarm when this falls below a threshold.  
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        The essential properties of this use case are:  
          . Target devices: devices that have an internal battery or 
             external storage. 
          . How powered: from batteries or other storage devices. 
          . Reporting: the device reports on its power delivered and 
     2.10. Industrial Automation Networks 

        Energy consumption statistics in the industrial sector are 
        staggering.  The industrial sector alone consumes about half of 
        the world's total delivered energy, and is a significant user of 
        electricity.  Thus, the need for optimization of energy usage in 
        this sector is natural.  
        Industrial facilities consume energy in process loads and non-
        process loads.   
        The essential properties of this use case are:  
          . Target devices: devices used in an industrial sector.  
          . How powered: any method. 
          . Reporting: the CIP protocol is commonly used for reporting 
             energy for these devices. 
     2.11. Printers 

        This use case describes the scenario of energy monitoring and 
        management of printers.  Printers in this use case stand in for 
        all imaging equipment, including multi-function devices (MFDs), 
        scanners, fax machines, and mailing machines.   
        Energy use of printers has been a longstanding industry concern 
        and sophisticated power management is common.  Printers often 
        use a variety of low-power modes, particularly for managing 
        energy-intensive thermo-mechanical components.  Printers also 
        have long made extensive use of SNMP for end-user system 
        interaction and for management generally, with cross-vendor 
        management systems able to manage fleets of printers in 
        enterprises.  Power consumption during active modes can vary 
        widely, with high peak usage levels. 
        Printers can expose detailed power state information, distinct 
        from operational state information, with some printers reporting 
        transition states between stable long-term states.  Many also 
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        support active setting of power states and policies such as 
        delay times, when inactivity automatically transitions the 
        device to a lower power mode.  Other features include reporting 
        on components, counters for state transitions, typical power 
        levels by state, scheduling, and events/alarms. 
        Some large printers also have a "Digital Front End," which is a 
        computer that performs functions on behalf of the physical 
        imaging system.  These typically have their own presence on the 
        network and are sometimes separately powered. 
        There are some unique characteristics of printers from the point 
        of view energy management.  While the printer is not in use, 
        there are timer-based low power states, which consume little 
        power.  On the other hand, while the printer is printing or 
        copying, the cylinder is heated so that power consumption is 
        quite high but only for a short period of time.  Given this work 
        load, periodic polling of power levels alone would not suffice.  
        The essential properties of this use case are:  
          . Target devices: all imaging equipment. 
          . How powered: typically AC from a wall outlet. 
          . Reporting: devices report for themselves. 
     2.12. Off-Grid Devices 

        This use case concerns self-contained devices that use energy 
        but are not connected to an infrastructure power delivery grid.  
        These devices typically produce energy from sources such as 
        solar energy, wind power, or fuel cells.  The device generally 
        contains a closely coupled combination of  
          . power generation component(s)  
          . power storage component(s) (e.g., battery)  
          . power consuming component(s)  
        With renewable power, the energy input is often affected by 
        variations in weather.  These devices therefore require energy 
        management both for internal control and remote reporting of 
        their state.   
        In many cases these devices are expected to operate 
        autonomously, as continuous communications for the purposes of 
        remote control is not available.  Non-continuous polling 

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        requires the ability to store and access later the information 
        acquired while off-line. 
        The essential properties of this use case are:  
            . Target devices: remote area devices that produce and 
               consume energy. 
            . How powered: site energy sources. 
            . Reporting: devices report their power usage, but not 
               necessarily continuously.  
     2.13. Demand Response 

        The theme of demand response from a utility grid spans across 
        several use cases.  In some situations, in response to time-of-
        day fluctuation of energy costs or sudden energy shortages due 
        power outages, it may be important to respond and reduce the 
        energy consumption of the network.  
        From the EMAN use case perspective, the demand response scenario 
        can apply to a data center, building or home.  Real-time energy 
        monitoring is usually a prerequisite, so that during a potential 
        energy shortfall the EnMS can provide an active response.  The 
        EnMS could shut down selected devices that are considered lower 
        priority or uniformly reduce the power supplied to a class of 
        devices.  For multi-site data centers it may be possible to 
        formulate policies such as follow-the-sun type of approach, by 
        scheduling the mobility of VMs across data centers in different 
        geographical locations. 
        The essential properties of this use case are:  
            . Target devices: any device. 
            . How powered: traditional mains AC power. 
            . Reporting: real-time. 
            . Control: demand response based upon policy or priority.  
     2.14. Power Capping 

        The purpose of power-capping is to run a server without 
        exceeding a power usage threshold, and thereby, to remain under 
        the critical available power threshold.  This method can be 
        useful for power limited data centers.  Based on workload 
        measurements, a device can choose the optimal power state in 
        terms of performance and power consumption.  When the server 
        operates at less than the power supply capacity, the server can 
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        operate at full speed.  When the power requirements exceed the 
        power supply, the server operates in a reduced power mode so 
        that its power consumption matches the available power budget.  
        The essential properties of this use case are:  
          Target devices: IT devices in a data center. 
          How powered: traditional mains AC power. 
          Reporting: real-time. 
          Control: autonomous power capping by the device.  
     3. Use Case Patterns 

        The use cases presented above can be abstracted to the following 
        broad patterns for energy objects.  
     3.1. Metering 

        - Energy objects which have capability for internal metering  
        - Energy objects which are metered by an external device  
     3.2. Metering and Control 

        - Energy objects that do not supply power, but can perform power 
        metering for other devices 
        - Energy objects that do not supply power, but can perform both 
        metering and control for other devices 
     3.3. Power Supply, Metering and Control 

        - Energy objects that supply power for other devices but do not 
        perform power metering for those devices 
        - Energy objects that supply power for other devices and also 
        perform power metering  
        - Energy objects that supply power for other devices and also 
        perform power metering and control for other devices 
     3.4. Multiple Power Sources 

        - Energy objects that have multiple power sources, with metering 
        and control performed by the same power source  

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        - Energy objects that have multiple power sources supplying 
        power to the device with metering performed by one or more 
        sources and control performed by another source 
     4. Relationship of EMAN to Other Standards 

        The EMAN framework is tied to other standards and efforts that 
        address energy monitoring and control.  EMAN leverages existing 
        standards when possible, and it helps enable adjacent 
        technologies such as Smart Grid. 
        The standards most relevant and applicable to EMAN are listed 
        below with a brief description of their objectives, the current 
        state, and how that standard relates to EMAN. 
     4.1. Data Model and Reporting 

     4.1.1. IEC - CIM 

        The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has 
        developed a broad set of standards for power management.  Among 
        these, the most applicable to EMAN is IEC 61850, a standard for 
        the design of electric utility automation.  The abstract data 
        model defined in 61850 is built upon and extends the Common 
        Information Model (CIM).  The complete 61850 CIM model includes 
        over a hundred object classes and is widely used by utilities 
        This set of standards were originally conceived to automate 
        control of a substation (a facility which transfer electricity 
        from the transmission to the distribution system).  However, the 
        extensive data model has been widely used in other domains, 
        including Energy Management Systems (EnMS). 
        IEC TC57 WG19 is an ongoing working group with the objective to 
        harmonize the CIM data model and 61850 standards. 
        Several concepts from IEC Standards have been reused in the EMAN 
        drafts.  In particular, AC Power Quality measurements have been 
        reused from IEC 61850-7-4.  The concept of Accuracy Classes for 
        measurement of power and energy has been adapted from ANSI 
        C12.20 and IEC standards 62053-21 and 62053-22. 
     4.1.2. DMTF 

        The Distributed Management Task Force (DMTF) has defined a Power 
        State Management profile [DMTF DSP1027] for managing computer 
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        systems using the DMTF's Common Information Model (CIM).  These 
        specifications provide physical, logical, and virtual system 
        management requirements for power-state control services.  The 
        DMTF standard does not include energy monitoring.  
        The Power State Management profile is used to describe and 
        manage the Power State of computer systems.  This includes 
        controlling the Power State of an entity for entering sleep 
        mode, awakening, and rebooting.  The EMAN framework references 
        the DMTF Power Profile and Power State Set. 
      Common Information Model Profiles 

        The DMTF uses CIM-based (Common Information Model) 'Profiles' to 
        represent and manage power utilization and configuration of 
        managed elements (note that this is not the 61850 CIM).  Key 
        profiles for energy management are 'Power Supply' (DSP 1015), 
        'Power State' (DSP 1027), and 'Power Utilization Management' 
        (DSP 1085).  These profiles define many features for the 
        monitoring and configuration of a Power Managed Element's static 
        and dynamic power saving modes, power allocation limits, and 
        power states.   
        Reduced power modes can be established as static or dynamic.  
        Static modes are fixed policies that limit power use or 
        utilization.  Dynamic power saving modes rely upon internal 
        feedback to control power consumption. 
        Power states are eight named operational and non operational 
        levels.  These are On, Sleep-Light, Sleep-Deep, Hibernate, Off-
        Soft, and Off-Hard.  Power change capabilities provide 
        immediate, timed interval, and graceful transitions between on, 
        off, and reset power states.  Table 3 of the Power State Profile 
        defines the correspondence between the Advanced Configuration 
        and Power Interface [ACPI] and DMTF power state models, although 
        it is not necessary for a managed element to support ACPI.  
        Optionally, a TransitioningToPowerState property can represent 
        power state transitions in progress. 

        DMTF DASH [DASH] (Desktop And Mobile Architecture for System 
        Hardware) addresses managing heterogeneous desktop and mobile 
        systems (including power) via in-band and out-of-band 
        communications.  DASH uses the DMTF's WS-Management web services 
        and CIM data model to manage and control resources such as 
        power, CPU, etc. 
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        Both in-service and out-of-service systems can be managed with 
        the DASH specification in a fully secured remote environment.  
        Full power lifecycle management is possible using out-of-band 
     4.1.3. ODVA 

        The Open DeviceNet Vendors Association (ODVA) is an association 
        for industrial automation companies that defines the Common 
        Industrial Protocol (CIP).  Within ODVA, there is a special 
        interest group focused on energy and standardization and inter-
        operability of energy-aware devices. 
        The ODVA is developing an energy management framework for the 
        industrial sector.  There are synergies and similar concepts 
        between the ODVA and EMAN approaches to energy monitoring and 
        ODVA defines a three-part approach towards energy management: 
        awareness of energy usage, energy efficiently, and the exchange 
        of energy with a utility or others.  Energy monitoring and 
        management promote efficient consumption and enable automating 
        actions that reduce energy consumption. 
        The foundation of the approach is the information and 
        communication model for entities.  An entity is a network-
        connected, energy-aware device that has the ability to either 
        measure or derive its energy usage based on its native 
        consumption or generation of energy, or report a nominal or 
        static energy value. 
     4.1.4. Ecma SDC 

        The Ecma International standard on Smart Data Centre [Ecma-SDC] 
        defines semantics for management of entities in a data center 
        such as servers, storage, and network equipment.  It covers 
        energy as one of many functional resources or attributes of 
        systems for monitoring and control.  It only defines messages 
        and properties, and does not reference any specific protocol.  
        Its goal is to enable interoperability of such protocols as 
        SNMP, BACNET, and HTTP by ensuring a common semantic model 
        across them.  Four power states are defined, Off, Sleep, Idle, 
        and Active.  The standard does not include actual energy or 
        power measurements. 

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        When used with EMAN, the SDC standard will provide a thin 
        abstraction on top of the more detailed data model available in 
     4.1.5. PWG 

        The IEEE-ISTO Printer Working Group (PWG) defines open standards 
        for printer related protocols, for the benefit of printer 
        manufacturers and related software vendors.  The Printer WG 
        covers power monitoring and management of network printers and 
        imaging systems in the PWG Power Management Model for Imaging 
        Systems [PWG5106.4].  Clearly, these devices are within the 
        scope of energy management since they receive power and are 
        attached to the network.  In addition, there is ample scope of 
        power management since printers and imaging systems are not used 
        that often.   
        The IEEE-ISTO Printer Working Group (PWG) defines SNMP MIB 
        modules for printer management and in particular a "PWG Power 
        Management Model for Imaging Systems v1.0" [PWG5106.4] and a 
        companion SNMP binding in the "PWG Imaging System Power MIB 
        v1.0" [PWG5106.5].  This PWG model and MIB are harmonized with 
        the DMTF CIM Infrastructure [DMTF DSP0004] and DMTF CIM Power 
        State Management Profile [DMTF DSP1027] for power states and 
        These MIB modules can be useful for monitoring the power and 
        Power State of printers.  The EMAN framework takes into account 
        the standards defined in the Printer Working Group.  The PWG may 
        harmonize its MIBs with those from EMAN.  The PWG covers many 
        topics in greater detail than EMAN, including those specific to 
        imaging equipment.  The PWG also provides for vendor-specific 
        extension states (beyond the standard DMTF CIM states). 
        The IETF Printer MIB RFC3805 [RFC3805] has been standardized, 
        but, this MIB module does not address power management. 
     4.1.6. ASHRAE 

        In the U.S., there is an extensive effort to coordinate and 
        develop standards related to the "Smart Grid".  The Smart Grid 
        Interoperability Panel, coordinated by the government's National 
        Institute of Standards and Technology, identified the need for a 
        building side information model (as a counterpart to utility 
        models) and specified this in Priority Action Plan (PAP) 17.  
        This was designated to be a joint effort by the American Society 
        of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers 
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        (ASHRAE) and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association 
        (NEMA), both ANSI approved SDO's.  The result is to be an 
        information model, not a protocol.  
        The ASHRAE effort addresses data used only within a building as 
        well as data that may be shared with the grid, particularly as 
        it relates to coordinating future demand levels with the needs 
        of the grid.  The model is intended to be applied to any 
        building type, both residential and commercial.  It is expected 
        that existing protocols will be adapted to comply with the new 
        information model, as would new protocols. 
        There are four basic types of entities in the model: generators, 
        loads, meters, and energy managers.  The metering part of the 
        model overlaps to a large degree with the EMAN framework, though 
        there are features unique to each.  The load part speaks to 
        control capabilities well beyond what EMAN covers.  Details of 
        generation and of the energy management function are outside of 
        EMAN scope. 
        A public review draft of the ASHRAE standard was released in 
        July, 2012.  There are no apparent major conflicts between the 
        two approaches, but there are areas where some harmonization is 
     4.1.7. ANSI/CEA 

        The Consumer Electronics Association (CEA) has approved 
        ANSI/CEA-2047 [ANSICEA] as a standard data model for Energy 
        Usage Information.  The primary purpose is to enable home 
        appliances and electronics to communicate energy usage 
        information over a wide range of technologies with pluggable 
        modules that contain the physical layer electronics.  The 
        standard can be used by devices operating on any home network 
        including Wi-Fi, Ethernet, ZigBee, Z-Wave, and Bluetooth.  The 
        Introduction to ANSI/CEA-2047 states that "this standard 
        provides an information model for other groups to develop 
        implementations specific to their network, protocol and 
        needs".  It covers device identification, current power level, 
        cumulative energy consumption, and provides for reporting time-
        series data. 
     4.1.8. ZigBee 

        The ZigBee Smart Energy Profile 2.0 (SEP) effort [ZIGBEE] 
        focuses on IP-based wireless communication to appliances and 
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        lighting.  It is intended to enable internal building energy 
        management and provide for bi-directional communication with the 
        power grid.  
        ZigBee protocols are intended for use in embedded applications 
        with low data rates and low power consumption.  ZigBee defines a 
        general-purpose, inexpensive, self-organizing mesh network that 
        can be used for industrial control, embedded sensing, medical 
        data collection, smoke and intruder warning, building 
        automation, home automation, etc.  
        ZigBee is currently not an ANSI recognized SDO. 
        The EMAN framework addresses the needs of IP-enabled networks 
        through the usage of SNMP, while ZigBee provides for completely 
        integrated and inexpensive mesh solutions. 
     4.2. Measurement 

     4.2.1. ANSI C12 

        The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has defined a 
        collection of power meter standards under ANSI C12.  The primary 
        standards include communication protocols (C12.18, 21 and 22), 
        data and schema definitions (C12.19), and measurement accuracy 
        (C12.20). European equivalent standards are provided by IEC 
        These very specific standards are oriented to the meter itself,  
        and are used by electricity distributors and producers. 
        The EMAN standard references ANSI C12.20 accuracy classes. 

     4.2.2. IEC 62301 

        IEC 62301, "Household electrical appliances Measurement of 
        standby power", [IEC62301] specifies a power level measurement 
        procedure.  While nominally for appliances and low-power modes, 
        its concepts apply to other device types and modes and it is 
        commonly referenced in test procedures for energy using 

        While the standard is intended for laboratory measurements of 
        devices in controlled conditions, aspects of it are informative 
        to those implementing measurement in products that ultimately 
        report via EMAN. 
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     4.3. Other 

     4.3.1. ISO 

        The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) [ISO] 
        is developing an energy management standard, ISO 50001, to 
        complement ISO 9001 for quality management, and ISO 14001 for 
        environmental management.  The intent is to facilitate the 
        creation of energy management programs for industrial, 
        commercial, and other entities.  The standard defines a process 
        for energy management at an organizational level.  It does not 
        define the way in which devices report energy and consume 
        ISO 50001 is based on the common elements found in all of ISO's 
        management system standards, assuring a high level of 
        compatibility with ISO 9001 and ISO 14001.  ISO 50001 benefits 
       o Integrating energy efficiency into management practices and 
          throughout the supply chain. 
       o Energy management best practices and good energy management 
       o Benchmarking, measuring, documenting, and reporting energy 
          intensity improvements and their projected impact on 
          reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 
       o Evaluating and prioritizing the implementation of new energy-
          efficient technologies. 
        ISO 50001 has been developed by ISO project committee ISO PC 
        242, Energy management.  EMAN is complementary to ISO 9001.  
     4.3.2. Energy Star 

        The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. 
        Department of Energy (DOE) jointly sponsor the Energy Star 
        program [ESTAR].  The program promotes the development of energy 
        efficient products and practices.   
        To qualify as Energy Star, products must meet specific energy 
        efficiency targets.  The Energy Star program also provides 
        planning tools and technical documentation to encourage more 
        energy efficient building design.  Energy Star is a program; it 
        is not a protocol or standard.  
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        For businesses and data centers, Energy Star offers technical 
        support to help companies establish energy conservation 
        practices.  Energy Star provides best practices for measuring 
        current energy performance, goal setting, and tracking 
        improvement.  The Energy Star tools offered include a rating 
        system for building performance and comparative benchmarks. 
        There is no immediate link between EMAN and Energy Star, one 
        being a protocol and the other a set of recommendations to 
        develop energy efficient products.  However, Energy Star could 
        include EMAN standards in specifications for future products, 
        either as required or rewarded with some benefit. 
     4.3.3. Smart Grid 

        The Smart Grid standards efforts underway in the United States 
        are overseen by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and 
        Technology [NIST].  NIST is responsible for coordinating a 
        public-private partnership with key energy and consumer 
        stakeholders in order to facilitate the development of Smart 
        Grid standards. These activities are monitored and facilitated 
        by the SGIP (Smart Grid Interoperability Panel).  This group has 
        working groups for specific topics including homes, commercial 
        buildings, and industrial facilities as they relate to the grid.  
        A stated goal of the group is to harmonize any new standard with 
        the IEC CIM and IEC 61850. 
        When a working group detects a standard or technology gap, the 
        team seeks approval from the SGIP for the creation of a Priority 
        Action Plan (PAP), a private-public partnership to close the 
        gap.  PAP 17 is discussed in section 4.1.6. 
        PAP 10 addresses "Standard Energy Usage Information".  Smart 
        Grid standards will provide distributed intelligence in the 
        network and allow enhanced load shedding.  For example, pricing 
        signals will enable selective shutdown of non-critical 
        activities during peak price periods.  Actions can be effected 
        through both centralized and distributed management controls.   
        There is an obvious functional link between Smart Grid and EMAN 
        in the form of demand response, even though the EMAN framework 
        itself does not address any coordination with the grid.  As EMAN 
        enables control, it can be used by an EnMS to accomplish demand 
        response through translation of a signal from an outside entity. 

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     5. Limitations 

        EMAN addresses the needs of energy monitoring in terms of 
        measurement and considers limited control capabilities of energy 
        monitoring of networks. 
        EMAN does not create a new protocol stack, but rather defines a 
        data and information model useful for measuring and reporting 
        energy and other metrics over SNMP. 
        EMAN does not address questions regarding Smart Grid, 
        electricity producers, and distributors. 
     6. Security Considerations 

        EMAN uses the SNMP protocol and thus has the functionality of 
        SNMP's security capabilities.  SNMPv3 [RFC3411] provides 
        important security features such as confidentiality, integrity, 
        and authentication. 
     7. IANA Considerations 

        This memo includes no request to IANA. 

     8. Acknowledgements 

        Firstly, the authors thank Emmanuel Tychon for taking the lead 
        for the initial draft and his substantial contributions to it.   
        The authors also thank Jeff Wheeler, Benoit Claise, Juergen 
        Quittek, Chris Verges, John Parello, and Matt Laherty for their 
        valuable contributions.  The authors thank Georgios Karagiannis 
        for use case involving energy neutral homes, Elwyn Davies for 
        off-grid electricity systems, and Kerry Lynn for demand 
     9. References 

     9.1. Normative References 

        [RFC3411] An Architecture for Describing Simple Network 
                Management Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks, RFC 
                3411, December 2002. 
        [RFC3621] Power Ethernet MIB, RFC 3621, December 2003. 
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     9.2. Informative References 

        [ACPI] "Advanced Configuration and Power Interface 
        [DASH] "Desktop and mobile Architecture for System Hardware", 
        [DMTF DSP0004] DMTF Common Information Model (CIM) 
                Infrastructure, DSP0004, May 2009. 
        [DMTF DSP1027] DMTF Power State Management Profile, DSP1027, 
                December 2009. 
        [Ecma-SDC] Ecma-400, "Smart Data Centre Resource Monitoring and 
                Control (2  Edition)", June 2013. 
        [EMAN-REQ] Quittek, J., Chandramouli, M. Winter, R., Dietz, T., 
                Claise, B., and Chandramouli, M. "Requirements for 
                Energy Management ", RFC 6988, September 2013. 
        [EMAN-MONITORING-MIB] Chandramouli, M., Schoening, B., Dietz, 
                T., Quittek, J. and Claise, B. "Energy and Power 
                Monitoring MIB ", draft-ietf-eman-monitoring-mib-13, 
                May 2015.  
        [EMAN-AWARE-MIB] Parello, J., Claise, B. and Chandramouli, M. 
                "draft-ietf-eman-energy-aware-mib-16", work in 
                progress, July 2014. 
        [RFC7326] Claise, B., Parello, J., Schoening, B., Quittek, J. 
                "Energy Management Framework", RFC7326, September 2014.  
        [EMAN-BATTERY-MIB] Quittek, J., Winter, R., and T. Dietz, 
                "Definition of Managed Objects for Battery Monitoring" 
                draft-ietf-eman-battery-mib-17.txt, December  2014. 
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        [ANSICEA] ANSI/CEA-2047, Consumer Electronics - Energy Usage 
                Information (CE-EUI), 2013. 
        [PWG5106.4]IEEE-ISTO PWG Power Management Model for Imaging 
                Systems v1.0, PWG Candidate Standard 5106.4-2011, 
                February 2011.
        [PWG5106.5] IEEE-ISTO PWG Imaging System Power MIB v1.0, PWG 
                Candidate Standard 5106.5-2011, February 2011. 
        [IEC62301] International Electrotechnical Commission, "IEC 62301 
                Household electrical appliances  Measurement of standby 
                power", Edition 2.0, 2011. 
        [MODBUS] Modbus-IDA, "MODBUS Application Protocol Specification 
                V1.1b", December 2006. 
        [RFC3805]  Bergman, R., Lewis, H., and McDonald, I. "Printer MIB 
                v2",  RFC 3805, June 2004. 
        [RFC6933]  Bierman, A., Romascanu, D., Quittek, J., and  
                Chandramouli, M., "Entity MIB v4", RFC 6933, May 2013. 

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     Authors' Addresses 

        Brad Schoening 
        44 Rivers Edge Drive 
        Little Silver, NJ 07739 
        Phone: +1 917 304 7190  
        Mouli Chandramouli 
        Cisco Systems, Inc. 
        Sarjapur Outer Ring Road 
        Bangalore 560103 
        Phone: +91 80 4429 2409 
        Bruce Nordman 
        Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 
        1 Cyclotron Road, 90-4000 
        Berkeley  94720-8136 
        Phone: +1 510 486 7089 

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