Bootstrapping WebSockets with HTTP/2
The information below is for an old version of the document.
This is an older version of an Internet-Draft that was ultimately published as RFC 8441.
|Last updated||2018-05-21 (Latest revision 2018-05-07)|
|RFC stream||Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)|
SECDIR Last Call review by Carl Wallace Has issues
|Additional resources||Mailing list discussion|
|Stream||WG state||Submitted to IESG for Publication|
|Document shepherd||Mark Nottingham|
|Shepherd write-up||Show Last changed 2018-05-07|
|IESG||IESG state||Waiting for Writeup|
|Responsible AD||Alexey Melnikov|
|Send notices to||Mark Nottingham <email@example.com>|
|IANA||IANA review state||IANA OK - Actions Needed|
HTTP P. McManus Internet-Draft Mozilla Updates: 6455 (if approved) May 6, 2018 Intended status: Standards Track Expires: November 7, 2018 Bootstrapping WebSockets with HTTP/2 draft-ietf-httpbis-h2-websockets-05 Abstract This document defines a mechanism for running the WebSocket Protocol (RFC 6455) over a single stream of an HTTP/2 connection. Status of This Memo This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." This Internet-Draft will expire on November 7, 2018. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License. McManus Expires November 7, 2018 [Page 1] Internet-Draft H2 Websockets May 2018 Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. The SETTINGS_ENABLE_CONNECT_PROTOCOL SETTINGS Parameter . . . 3 4. The Extended CONNECT Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 5. Using Extended CONNECT To Bootstrap The WebSocket Protocol . 4 5.1. Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 6. Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 7. About Intermediaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 8. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 9. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 10. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. Introduction The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) provides compatible resource- level semantics across different versions but it does not offer compatibility at the connection management level. Other protocols, such as WebSockets, that rely on connection management details of HTTP must be updated for new versions of HTTP. The WebSocket Protocol [RFC6455] uses the HTTP/1.1 [RFC7230] Upgrade mechanism to transition a TCP connection from HTTP into a WebSocket connection. A different approach must be taken with HTTP/2 [RFC7540]. HTTP/2 does not allow connection-wide headers and status codes such as the Upgrade and Connection request headers or the 101 response code due to its multiplexing nature. These are all required by the [RFC6455] opening handshake. Being able to bootstrap WebSockets from HTTP/2 allows one TCP connection to be shared by both protocols and extends HTTP/2's more efficient use of the network to WebSockets. This document extends the HTTP/2 CONNECT method. The extension allows the substitution of a new protocol name to connect to rather than the external host normally used by CONNECT. The result is a tunnel on a single HTTP/2 stream that can carry data for WebSockets (or any other protocol). The other streams on the connection may carry more extended CONNECT tunnels, traditional HTTP/2 data, or a mixture of both. This tunneled stream will be multiplexed with other regular streams on the connection and enjoys the normal priority, cancellation, and flow control features of HTTP/2. McManus Expires November 7, 2018 [Page 2] Internet-Draft H2 Websockets May 2018 Streams that successfully establish a WebSocket connection using a tunneled stream and the modifications to the opening handshake defined in this document then use the traditional WebSocket Protocol, treating the stream as if were the TCP connection in that specification. 2. Terminology The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all capitals, as shown here. 3. The SETTINGS_ENABLE_CONNECT_PROTOCOL SETTINGS Parameter This document adds a new SETTINGS Parameter to those defined by [RFC7540], Section 6.5.2. The new parameter name is SETTINGS_ENABLE_CONNECT_PROTOCOL. The value of the parameter MUST be 0 or 1. Upon receipt of SETTINGS_ENABLE_CONNECT_PROTOCOL with a value of 1, a client MAY use the Extended CONNECT definition of this document when creating new streams. Receipt of this parameter by a server does not have any impact. A sender MUST NOT send a SETTINGS_ENABLE_CONNECT_PROTOCOL parameter with the value of 0 after previously sending a value of 1. The use of a SETTINGS Parameter to opt-in to an otherwise incompatible protocol change is a use of "Extending HTTP/2" defined by Section 5.5 of [RFC7540]. If a client were to use the provisions of the extended CONNECT method defined in this document without first receiving a SETTINGS_ENABLE_CONNECT_PROTOCOL parameter, a non- supporting peer would detect a malformed request and generate a stream error (Section 220.127.116.11 of [RFC7540]). 4. The Extended CONNECT Method Usage of the CONNECT method in HTTP/2 is defined by Section 8.3 of [RFC7540]. This extension modifies the method in the following ways: o A new pseudo-header :protocol MAY be included on request HEADERS indicating the desired protocol to be spoken on the tunnel created by CONNECT. The pseudo-header is single valued and contains a value from the HTTP Upgrade Token Registry defined by [RFC7230]. McManus Expires November 7, 2018 [Page 3] Internet-Draft H2 Websockets May 2018 o On requests bearing the :protocol pseudo-header, the :scheme and :path pseudo-header fields MUST be included. o On requests bearing the :protocol pseudo-header, the :authority pseudo-header field is interpreted according to Section 18.104.22.168 of [RFC7540] instead of Section 8.3 of [RFC7540]. In particular the server MUST NOT make a new TCP connection to the host and port indicated by the :authority. Upon receiving a CONNECT request bearing the :protocol pseudo-header the server establishes a tunnel to another service of the protocol type indicated by the pseudo-header. This service may or may not be co-located with the server. 5. Using Extended CONNECT To Bootstrap The WebSocket Protocol The pseudo-header :protocol MUST be included in the CONNECT request and it MUST have a value of "websocket" to initiate a WebSocket connection on an HTTP/2 stream. Other HTTP request and response headers, such as those for manipulating cookies, may be included in the HEADERS with the CONNECT method as usual. This request replaces the GET-based request in [RFC6455] and is used to process the WebSockets opening handshake. The scheme of the Target URI [RFC7230] MUST be "https" for "wss" schemed WebSockets and "http" for "ws" schemed WebSockets. The websocket URI is still used for proxy autoconfiguration. [RFC6455] requires the use of Connection and Upgrade headers that are not part of HTTP/2. They MUST NOT be included in the CONNECT request defined here. [RFC6455] requires the use of a Host header which is also not part of HTTP/2. The Host information is conveyed as part of the :authority pseudo-header which is required on every HTTP/2 transaction. Implementations using this extended CONNECT to bootstrap WebSockets do not do the processing of the [RFC6455] Sec-WebSocket-Key and Sec- WebSocket-Accept headers as that functionality has been superseded by the :protocol pseudo-header. The Sec-WebSocket-Version, Origin [RFC6454], Sec-WebSocket-Protocol, and Sec-WebSocket-Extensions headers are used on the CONNECT request and response headers in the same way as defined in [RFC6455]. Note that HTTP/1 header names were case-insensitive and HTTP/2 requires they be encoded as lower case. McManus Expires November 7, 2018 [Page 4] Internet-Draft H2 Websockets May 2018 After successfully processing the opening handshake, the peers should proceed with The WebSocket Protocol [RFC6455] using the HTTP/2 stream from the CONNECT transaction as if it were the TCP connection referred to in [RFC6455]. The state of the WebSocket connection at this point is OPEN as defined by [RFC6455], Section 4.1. The HTTP/2 stream closure is also analogous to the TCP connection of [RFC6455]. Orderly TCP level closures are represented as END_STREAM ([RFC7540], Section 6.1) flags and RST exceptions are represented with the RST_STREAM ([RFC7540], Section 6.4) frame with the CANCEL ([RFC7540], Section 7) error code. 5.1. Example [[ From Client ]] [[ From Server ]] SETTINGS SETTINGS_ENABLE_CONNECT_[..] = 1 HEADERS + END_HEADERS :method = CONNECT :protocol = websocket :scheme = https :path = /chat :authority = server.example.com sec-websocket-protocol = chat, superchat sec-websocket-extensions = permessage-deflate sec-websocket-version = 13 origin = http://www.example.com HEADERS + END_HEADERS :status = 200 sec-websocket-protocol = chat DATA WebSocket Data DATA + END_STREAM WebSocket Data DATA + END_STREAM WebSocket Data 6. Design Considerations A more native integration with HTTP/2 is certainly possible with larger additions to HTTP/2. This design was selected to minimize the McManus Expires November 7, 2018 [Page 5] Internet-Draft H2 Websockets May 2018 solution complexity while still addressing the primary concern of running HTTP/2 and WebSockets concurrently. 7. About Intermediaries This document does not change how WebSockets interacts with HTTP forward proxies. If a client wishing to speak WebSockets connects via HTTP/2 to an HTTP proxy it should continue to use a traditional (i.e. not with a :protocol pseudo-header) CONNECT to tunnel through that proxy to the WebSocket server via HTTP. The resulting version of HTTP on that tunnel determines whether WebSockets is initiated directly or via a modified CONNECT request described in this document. 8. Security Considerations [RFC6455] ensures that non-WebSockets clients, especially XMLHttpRequest based clients, cannot make a WebSocket connection. Its primary mechanism for doing that is the use of Sec- prefixed request headers that cannot be created by XMLHttpRequest-based clients. This specification addresses that concern in two ways: o The CONNECT method is prohibited from being used by XMLHttpRequest o The use of a pseudo-header is something that is connection specific and HTTP/2 does not ever allow to be created outside of the protocol stack. 9. IANA Considerations This document establishes an entry for the HTTP/2 Settings Registry that was established by Section 11.3 of [RFC7540]. Name: SETTINGS_ENABLE_CONNECT_PROTOCOL Code: 0x8 Initial Value: 0 Specification: This document 10. Normative References [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>. McManus Expires November 7, 2018 [Page 6] Internet-Draft H2 Websockets May 2018 [RFC6454] Barth, A., "The Web Origin Concept", RFC 6454, DOI 10.17487/RFC6454, December 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6454>. [RFC6455] Fette, I. and A. Melnikov, "The WebSocket Protocol", RFC 6455, DOI 10.17487/RFC6455, December 2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6455>. [RFC7230] Fielding, R., Ed. and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing", RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>. [RFC7540] Belshe, M., Peon, R., and M. Thomson, Ed., "Hypertext Transfer Protocol Version 2 (HTTP/2)", RFC 7540, DOI 10.17487/RFC7540, May 2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7540>. [RFC8174] Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC 2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174, May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>. Acknowledgments The 2017 HTTP Workshop had a very productive discussion that helped determine the key problem and acceptable level of solution complexity. Author's Address Patrick McManus Mozilla Email: firstname.lastname@example.org McManus Expires November 7, 2018 [Page 7]