Skip to main content

Window Sizing for Zstandard Content Encoding
draft-ietf-httpbis-zstd-window-size-01

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (httpbis WG)
Authors Nidhi Jaju , W. Felix P. Handte
Last updated 2024-07-23 (Latest revision 2024-07-21)
Replaces draft-jaju-httpbis-zstd-window-size
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Intended RFC status Informational
Formats
Reviews
Additional resources Mailing list discussion
Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication
Doc Shepherd Follow-up Underway
Document shepherd Mark Nottingham
Shepherd write-up Show Last changed 2024-07-19
IESG IESG state In Last Call (ends 2024-08-06)
Action Holder
Consensus boilerplate Unknown
Telechat date (None)
Responsible AD Francesca Palombini
Send notices to mnot@mnot.net
IANA IANA review state IANA - Review Needed
draft-ietf-httpbis-zstd-window-size-01
HTTPBIS                                                     N. Jaju, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                    Google
Updates: 8878 (if approved)                               F. Handte, Ed.
Intended status: Informational                      Meta Platforms, Inc.
Expires: 23 January 2025                                    22 July 2024

              Window Sizing for Zstandard Content Encoding
                 draft-ietf-httpbis-zstd-window-size-01

Abstract

   Deployments of Zstandard, or "zstd", can use different window sizes
   to limit memory usage during compression and decompression.  Some
   browsers and user agents limit window sizes to mitigate memory usage
   concerns, causing interoperability issues.  This document updates the
   window size limit in RFC8878 from a recommendation to a requirement
   in HTTP contexts.

About This Document

   This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

   The latest revision of this draft can be found at https://httpwg.org/
   http-extensions/draft-ietf-httpbis-zstd-window-size.html.  Status
   information for this document may be found at
   https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-ietf-httpbis-zstd-window-
   size/.

   Discussion of this document takes place on the HTTP Working Group
   mailing list (mailto:ietf-http-wg@w3.org), which is archived at
   https://lists.w3.org/Archives/Public/ietf-http-wg/.

   Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
   https://github.com/httpwg/http-extensions/labels/zstd-window-size.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

Jaju & Handte            Expires 23 January 2025                [Page 1]
Internet-Draft              Zstd Window Size                   July 2024

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 23 January 2025.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2024 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Window Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     5.1.  Content Encoding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   6.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4

1.  Introduction

   Zstandard, or "zstd", specified in [RFC8878], is a lossless data
   compression mechanism similar to gzip.  When used with HTTP, the
   "zstd" content coding token signals to the decoder that the content
   is Zstandard-compressed.

   An important property of Zstandard-compressed content is its
   Window_Size ([RFC8878], Section 3.1.1.1.2), which describes the
   maximum distance for back-references and therefore how much of the
   content must be kept in memory during decompression.

Jaju & Handte            Expires 23 January 2025                [Page 2]
Internet-Draft              Zstd Window Size                   July 2024

   The minimum Window_Size is 1 KB.  The maximum Window_Size is (1<<41)
   + 7*(1<<38) bytes, which is 3.75 TB.  Larger Window_Size values tend
   to improve the compression ratio, but at the cost of increased memory
   usage.

   To protect against unreasonable memory usage, some browsers and user
   agents limit the maximum Window_Size they will handle.  This causes
   failures to decode responses when the content is compressed with a
   larger Window_Size than the recipient allows, leading to decreased
   interoperability.

   [RFC8878], Section 3.1.1.1.2 recommends that decoders support a
   Window_Size of up to 8 MB, and that encoders not generate frames
   using a Window_Size larger than 8 MB.  However, it imposes no
   requirements.

   This document updates [RFC8878] to enforce Window_Size limits on the
   encoder and decoder for the "zstd" HTTP content coding.

2.  Conventions and Definitions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

3.  Window Size

   To ensure interoperability, when using the "zstd" content coding,
   decoders MUST support a Window_Size of up to and including 8 MB, and
   encoders MUST NOT generate frames requiring a Window_Size larger than
   8 MB (see Section 5.1).

4.  Security Considerations

   This document introduces no new security considerations beyond those
   discussed in [RFC8878].

5.  IANA Considerations

5.1.  Content Encoding

   This document updates the entry added in [RFC8878] to the "HTTP
   Content Coding Registry" within the "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
   (HTTP) Parameters" registry:

   Name:  zstd

Jaju & Handte            Expires 23 January 2025                [Page 3]
Internet-Draft              Zstd Window Size                   July 2024

   Description:  A stream of bytes compressed using the Zstandard
      protocol with a Window_Size of not more than 8 MB.

   Reference:  This document

6.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8878]  Collet, Y. and M. Kucherawy, Ed., "Zstandard Compression
              and the 'application/zstd' Media Type", RFC 8878,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8878, February 2021,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8878>.

Acknowledgments

   Zstandard was developed by Yann Collet.

   The authors would like to thank Yann Collet, Klaus Post, Adam Rice,
   and members of the Web Performance Working Group in the W3C for
   collaborating on the window size issue and helping to formulate a
   solution.  Also, thank you to Nick Terrell for providing feedback
   that went into RFC 8478 and RFC 8878.

Authors' Addresses

   Nidhi Jaju (editor)
   Google
   Shibuya Stream, 3 Chome-21-3 Shibuya, Shibuya City, Tokyo
   150-0002
   Japan
   Email: nidhijaju@google.com

   W. Felix P. Handte (editor)
   Meta Platforms, Inc.
   380 W 33rd St
   New York, NY 10001
   United States of America
   Email: felixh@meta.com

Jaju & Handte            Expires 23 January 2025                [Page 4]