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Echo Request/Reply for Enabled In-situ OAM Capabilities
draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-conf-state-10

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (ippm WG)
Authors Xiao Min , Greg Mirsky , Lei Bo
Last updated 2022-11-28 (Latest revision 2022-11-21)
Replaces draft-xiao-ippm-ioam-conf-state
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
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draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-conf-state-10
IPPM Working Group                                                X. Min
Internet-Draft                                                 ZTE Corp.
Intended status: Standards Track                               G. Mirsky
Expires: 25 May 2023                                            Ericsson
                                                                   L. Bo
                                                           China Telecom
                                                        21 November 2022

        Echo Request/Reply for Enabled In-situ OAM Capabilities
                   draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-conf-state-10

Abstract

   This document describes a generic format for use in echo request/
   reply mechanisms, which can be used within an In situ Operations,
   Administration, and Maintenance (IOAM) domain, allowing the IOAM
   encapsulating node to discover the enabled IOAM capabilities of each
   IOAM transit and IOAM decapsulating node.  The generic format is
   intended to be used with a variety of data planes such as IPv6, MPLS,
   Service Function Chain (SFC) and Bit Index Explicit Replication
   (BIER).

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 25 May 2023.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.

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   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.2.  Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  IOAM Capabilities Formats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  IOAM Capabilities Query Container . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  IOAM Capabilities Response Container  . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.1.  IOAM Pre-allocated Tracing Capabilities Object  . . .   8
       3.2.2.  IOAM Incremental Tracing Capabilities Object  . . . .   9
       3.2.3.  IOAM Proof-of-Transit Capabilities Object . . . . . .  10
       3.2.4.  IOAM Edge-to-Edge Capabilities Object . . . . . . . .  11
       3.2.5.  IOAM DEX Capabilities Object  . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       3.2.6.  IOAM End-of-Domain Object . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   4.  Operational Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   5.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     5.1.  IOAM SoP Capability Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     5.2.  IOAM TSF Capability Registry  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   7.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18

1.  Introduction

   In situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (IOAM) ([RFC9197]
   [RFC9326]) defines data fields that record OAM information within the
   packet while the packet traverses a particular network domain, called
   an IOAM domain.  IOAM can complement or replace other OAM mechanisms,
   such as ICMP or other types of probe packets.

   As specified in [RFC9197], within the IOAM domain, the IOAM data may
   be updated by network nodes that the packet traverses.  The device
   which adds an IOAM header to the packet is called an "IOAM
   encapsulating node".  In contrast, the device which removes an IOAM
   header is referred to as an "IOAM decapsulating node".  Nodes within
   the domain that are aware of IOAM data and read and/or write and/or
   process IOAM data are called "IOAM transit nodes".  IOAM
   encapsulating or decapsulating nodes can also serve as IOAM transit

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   nodes at the same time.  IOAM encapsulating or decapsulating nodes
   are also referred to as IOAM domain edge devices, which can be hosts
   or network devices.  [RFC9197] defines four IOAM option types, and
   [RFC9326] introduces a new IOAM option type called the Direct Export
   (DEX) Option-Type, which is different from the other four IOAM option
   types defined in [RFC9197] on how to collect the operational and
   telemetry information defined in [RFC9197].

   As specified in [RFC9197], IOAM is focused on "limited domains" as
   defined in [RFC8799].  In a limited domain, a control entity that has
   control over every IOAM device may be deployed.  If that's the case,
   the control entity can provision both the explicit transport path and
   the IOAM header applied to data packet at every IOAM encapsulating
   node.

   In a case when a control entity that has control over every IOAM
   device is not deployed in the IOAM domain, the IOAM encapsulating
   node needs to discover the enabled IOAM capabilities at the IOAM
   transit and decapsulating nodes.  For example, what types of IOAM
   tracing data can be added or exported by the transit nodes along the
   transport path of the data packet IOAM is applied to.  The IOAM
   encapsulating node can then add the correct IOAM header to the data
   packet according to the discovered IOAM capabilities.  Specifically,
   the IOAM encapsulating node first identifies the types and lengths of
   IOAM options included in the IOAM data fields according to the
   discovered IOAM capabilities.  Then the IOAM encapsulating node can
   add the IOAM header to the data packet based on the identified types
   and lengths of IOAM options included in the IOAM data fields.  The
   IOAM encapsulating node may use NETCONF/YANG or IGP to discover these
   IOAM capabilities.  However, NETCONF/YANG or IGP has some
   limitations:

   *  When NETCONF/YANG is used in this scenario, each IOAM
      encapsulating node (including the host when it takes the role of
      an IOAM encapsulating node) needs to implement a NETCONF Client,
      each IOAM transit and IOAM decapsulating node (including the host
      when it takes the role of an IOAM decapsulating node) needs to
      implement a NETCONF Server, the complexity can be an issue.
      Furthermore, each IOAM encapsulating node needs to establish
      NETCONF Connection with each IOAM transit and IOAM decapsulating
      node, the scalability can be an issue.

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   *  When IGP is used in this scenario, the IGP and IOAM domains don't
      always have the same coverage.  For example, when the IOAM
      encapsulating node or the IOAM decapsulating node is a host, the
      availability can be an issue.  Furthermore, it might be too
      challenging to reflect enabled IOAM capabilities at the IOAM
      transit and IOAM decapsulating node if these are controlled by a
      local policy depending on the identity of the IOAM encapsulating
      node.

   This document specifies formats and objects that can be used in the
   extension of echo request/reply mechanisms used in IPv6 (including
   Segment Routing with IPv6 data plane (SRv6)), MPLS (including Segment
   Routing with MPLS data plane (SR-MPLS)), SFC and BIER environments,
   which can be used within the IOAM domain, allowing the IOAM
   encapsulating node to discover the enabled IOAM capabilities of each
   IOAM transit and IOAM decapsulating node.

   The following documents contain references to the echo request/reply
   mechanisms used in IPv6 (including SRv6), MPLS (including SR-MPLS),
   SFC and BIER environments:

   *  [RFC4443] ("Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the
      Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification"), [RFC4620]
      ("IPv6 Node Information Queries"), [RFC4884] ("Extended ICMP to
      Support Multi-Part Messages") and [RFC8335] ("PROBE: A Utility for
      Probing Interfaces")

   *  [RFC8029] ("Detecting Multiprotocol Label Switched (MPLS) Data-
      Plane Failures")

   *  [I-D.ietf-sfc-multi-layer-oam] ("Active OAM for Service Function
      Chaining (SFC)")

   *  [I-D.ietf-bier-ping] ("BIER Ping and Trace")

   It is expected that the specification of the instantiation of each of
   these extensions will be done in the form of an RFC jointly designed
   by the working group that develops or maintains the echo request/
   reply protocol and the IETF IP Performance Measurement (IPPM) Working
   Group.

   Note that in this document the echo request/reply mechanism used in
   IPv6 does not mean ICMPv6 Echo Request/Reply [RFC4443], but means
   IPv6 Node Information Query/Reply [RFC4620].

   Fate sharing is a common requirement for all kinds of active OAM
   packets, echo request is among them, in this document that means echo
   request is required to traverse a path of IOAM data packet.  This

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   requirement can be achieved by, e.g., applying same explicit path or
   ECMP processing to both echo request and IOAM data packet.  Specific
   to apply same ECMP processing to both echo request and IOAM data
   packet, one possible way is to populate the same value(s) of ECMP
   affecting field(s) in the echo request.

2.  Conventions

2.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.2.  Abbreviations

   BIER: Bit Index Explicit Replication

   BGP: Border Gateway Protocol

   DEX: Direct Export

   ECMP: Equal-Cost Multipath

   E2E: Edge to Edge

   ICMP: Internet Control Message Protocol

   IGP: Interior Gateway Protocol

   IOAM: In situ Operations, Administration, and Maintenance

   LSP: Label Switched Path

   MPLS: Multi-Protocol Label Switching

   MTU: Maximum Transmission Unit

   NTP: Network Time Protocol

   OAM: Operations, Administration, and Maintenance

   PCEP: Path Computation Element (PCE) Communication Protocol

   POSIX: Portable Operating System Interface

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   POT: Proof of Transit

   PTP: Precision Time Protocol

   SR-MPLS: Segment Routing with MPLS data plane

   SRv6: Segment Routing with IPv6 data plane

   SFC: Service Function Chain

   TTL: Time to Live, this is also the Hop Limit field in the IPv6
   header

3.  IOAM Capabilities Formats

3.1.  IOAM Capabilities Query Container

   For echo request, IOAM Capabilities Query uses a container which has
   the following format:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     .                                                               .
     .            IOAM Capabilities Query Container Header           .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     .                                                               .
     .                   List of IOAM Namespace-IDs                  .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

        Figure 1: IOAM Capabilities Query Container of Echo Request

   When this container is present in the echo request sent by an IOAM
   encapsulating node, that means the IOAM encapsulating node requests
   the receiving node to reply with its enabled IOAM capabilities.  If
   there is no IOAM capability to be reported by the receiving node,
   then this container MUST be ignored by the receiving node, which
   means the receiving node MUST send an echo reply without IOAM
   capabilities or no echo reply, in the light of whether the echo
   request includes other containers than the IOAM Capabilities Query
   Container.  A list of IOAM Namespace-IDs (one or more Namespace-IDs)
   MUST be included in this container in the echo request, and if
   present, the Default-Namespace-ID 0x0000 MUST be placed at the
   beginning of the list of IOAM Namespace-IDs.  The IOAM encapsulating
   node requests only the enabled IOAM capabilities that match one of
   the Namespace-IDs.  Inclusion of the Default-Namespace-ID 0x0000

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   elicits replies only for capabilities that are configured with the
   Default-Namespace-ID 0x0000.The Namespace-ID has the same definition
   as what's specified in Section 4.3 of [RFC9197].

   The IOAM Capabilities Query Container has a container header that is
   used to identify the type and optionally length of the container
   payload, and the container payload (List of IOAM Namespace-IDs) is
   zero-padded to align to a 4-octet boundary.  Since the Default-
   Namespace-ID of 0x0000 is mandated to appear first in the list, any
   other occurrences of 0x0000 MUST be disregarded.

   The length, structure, and definition of the IOAM Capabilities Query
   Container Header depends on the specific deployment environment.

3.2.  IOAM Capabilities Response Container

   For echo reply, IOAM Capabilities Response uses a container which has
   the following format:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     .                                                               .
     .          IOAM Capabilities Response Container Header          .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     .                                                               .
     .               List of IOAM Capabilities Objects               .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

        Figure 2: IOAM Capabilities Response Container of Echo Reply

   When this container is present in the echo reply sent by an IOAM
   transit node or IOAM decapsulating node, that means the IOAM function
   is enabled at this node, and this container contains the enabled IOAM
   capabilities of the sender.  A list of IOAM capabilities objects (one
   or more objects) which contains the enabled IOAM capabilities MUST be
   included in this container of echo reply except the sender encounters
   an error (e.g., no matched Namespace-ID).

   The IOAM Capabilities Response Container has a container header that
   is used to identify the type and optionally length of the container
   payload.  The container header MUST be defined such that it falls on
   a four-octet boundary.

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   The length, structure, and definition of the IOAM Capabilities
   Response Container Header depends on the specific deployment
   environment.

   Based on the IOAM data fields defined in [RFC9197] and [RFC9326], six
   types of objects are defined in this document.  The same type of
   object MAY be present in the IOAM Capabilities Response Container
   more than once, only if with a different Namespace-ID.

   Similar to the container, each object has an object header that is
   used to identify the type and length of the object payload.  The
   object payload MUST be defined such that it falls on a four-octet
   boundary.

   The length, structure, and definition of Object Header depends on the
   specific deployment environment.

3.2.1.  IOAM Pre-allocated Tracing Capabilities Object

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     .                                                               .
     .     IOAM Pre-allocated Tracing Capabilities Object Header     .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               IOAM-Trace-Type                 |  Reserved   |W|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Namespace-ID          |          Ingress_MTU          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Ingress_if_id (short or wide format)         ......          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

          Figure 3: IOAM Pre-allocated Tracing Capabilities Object

   When this Object is present in the IOAM Capabilities Response
   Container, that means the sending node is an IOAM transit node and
   the IOAM pre-allocated tracing function is enabled at this IOAM
   transit node.

   IOAM-Trace-Type field has the same definition as what's specified in
   Section 4.4 of [RFC9197].

   Reserved field is reserved for future use and MUST be set to zero,
   and MUST be ignored when non-zero.

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   W flag indicates whether Ingress_if_id is in short or wide format.
   The W-bit is set if the Ingress_if_id is in wide format.  The W-bit
   is clear if the Ingress_if_id is in short format.

   Namespace-ID field has the same definition as what's specified in
   Section 4.3 of [RFC9197], it MUST be one of the Namespace-IDs listed
   in the IOAM Capabilities Query Object of the echo request.

   Ingress_MTU field has 16 bits and specifies the MTU (in octets) of
   the ingress interface from which the sending node received echo
   request.

   Ingress_if_id field has 16 bits (in short format) or 32 bits (in wide
   format) and specifies the identifier of the ingress interface from
   which the sending node received echo request.  If the W-bit is
   cleared that indicates Ingress_if_id field has 16 bits, then the 16
   bits following the Ingress_if_id field are reserved for future use
   and MUST be set to zero, and MUST be ignored when non-zero.

3.2.2.  IOAM Incremental Tracing Capabilities Object

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     .                                                               .
     .      IOAM Incremental Tracing Capabilities Object Header      .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               IOAM-Trace-Type                 |  Reserved   |W|
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Namespace-ID          |          Ingress_MTU          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |  Ingress_if_id (short or wide format)         ......          |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

           Figure 4: IOAM Incremental Tracing Capabilities Object

   When this Object is present in the IOAM Capabilities Response
   Container, that means the sending node is an IOAM transit node and
   the IOAM incremental tracing function is enabled at this IOAM transit
   node.

   IOAM-Trace-Type field has the same definition as what's specified in
   Section 4.4 of [RFC9197].

   Reserved field is reserved for future use and MUST be set to zero,
   and MUST be ignored when non-zero.

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   W flag indicates whether Ingress_if_id is in short or wide format.
   The W-bit is set if the Ingress_if_id is in wide format.  The W-bit
   is clear if the Ingress_if_id is in short format.

   Namespace-ID field has the same definition as what's specified in
   Section 4.3 of [RFC9197], it MUST be one of the Namespace-IDs listed
   in the IOAM Capabilities Query Object of the echo request.

   Ingress_MTU field has 16 bits and specifies the MTU (in octets) of
   the ingress interface from which the sending node received echo
   request.

   Ingress_if_id field has 16 bits (in short format) or 32 bits (in wide
   format) and specifies the identifier of the ingress interface from
   which the sending node received echo request.  If the W-bit is
   cleared that indicates Ingress_if_id field has 16 bits, then the 16
   bits following the Ingress_if_id field are reserved for future use
   and MUST be set to zero, and MUST be ignored when non-zero.

3.2.3.  IOAM Proof-of-Transit Capabilities Object

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     .                                                               .
     .       IOAM Proof-of-Transit Capabilities Object Header        .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Namespace-ID          | IOAM-POT-Type |SoP| Reserved  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

            Figure 5: IOAM Proof-of-Transit Capabilities Object

   When this Object is present in the IOAM Capabilities Response
   Container, that means the sending node is an IOAM transit node and
   the IOAM Proof of Transit function is enabled at this IOAM transit
   node.

   Namespace-ID field has the same definition as what's specified in
   Section 4.3 of [RFC9197], it MUST be one of the Namespace-IDs listed
   in the IOAM Capabilities Query Object of the echo request.

   IOAM-POT-Type field has the same definition as what's specified in
   Section 4.5 of [RFC9197].

   SoP (Size of POT) field has two bits, which means the size of "PktID"
   and "Cumulative" data that are specified in Section 4.5 of [RFC9197].
   This document defines SoP as follows:

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      0b00 means 64-bit "PktID" and 64-bit "Cumulative" data.

      0b01~0b11: Reserved for future standardization

   Reserved field is reserved for future use and MUST be set to zero,
   and MUST be ignored when non-zero.

3.2.4.  IOAM Edge-to-Edge Capabilities Object

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     .                                                               .
     .          IOAM Edge-to-Edge Capabilities Object Header         .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Namespace-ID          |         IOAM-E2E-Type         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |TSF|         Reserved          |           Reserved            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

              Figure 6: IOAM Edge-to-Edge Capabilities Object

   When this Object is present in the IOAM Capabilities Response
   Container, that means the sending node is an IOAM decapsulating node
   and IOAM edge-to-edge function is enabled at this IOAM decapsulating
   node.

   Namespace-ID field has the same definition as what's specified in
   Section 4.3 of [RFC9197], it MUST be one of the Namespace-IDs listed
   in the IOAM Capabilities Query Object of the echo request.

   IOAM-E2E-Type field has the same definition as what's specified in
   Section 4.6 of [RFC9197].

   TSF field specifies the timestamp format used by the sending node.
   Aligned with three possible timestamp formats specified in Section 5
   of [RFC9197], this document defines TSF as follows:

      0b00: PTP truncated timestamp format

      0b01: NTP 64-bit timestamp format

      0b10: POSIX-based timestamp format

      0b11: Reserved for future standardization

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   Reserved field is reserved for future use and MUST be set to zero,
   and MUST be ignored when non-zero.

3.2.5.  IOAM DEX Capabilities Object

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     .                                                               .
     .              IOAM DEX Capabilities Object Header              .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |               IOAM-Trace-Type                 |    Reserved   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Namespace-ID          |           Reserved            |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                   Figure 7: IOAM DEX Capabilities Object

   When this Object is present in the IOAM Capabilities Response
   Container, that means the sending node is an IOAM transit node and
   the IOAM direct exporting function is enabled at this IOAM transit
   node.

   IOAM-Trace-Type field has the same definition as what's specified in
   Section 3.2 of [RFC9326].

   Namespace-ID field has the same definition as what's specified in
   Section 4.3 of [RFC9197], it MUST be one of the Namespace-IDs listed
   in the IOAM Capabilities Query Object of the echo request.

   Reserved field is reserved for future use and MUST be set to zero,
   and MUST be ignored when non-zero.

3.2.6.  IOAM End-of-Domain Object

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     .                                                               .
     .               IOAM End-of-Domain Object Header                .
     .                                                               .
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |         Namespace-ID          |          Must Be Zero         |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 8: IOAM End-of-Domain Object

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   When this Object is present in the IOAM Capabilities Response
   Container, that means the sending node is an IOAM decapsulating node.
   Unless the IOAM Edge-to-Edge Capabilities Object is present, which
   also indicates that the sending node is an IOAM decapsulating node,
   the End-of-Domain Object MUST be present in the IOAM Capabilities
   Response Container sent by an IOAM decapsulating node.  When the IOAM
   edge-to-edge function is enabled at the IOAM decapsulating node, it's
   RECOMMENDED to include only the IOAM Edge-to-Edge Capabilities Object
   but not the IOAM End-of-Domain Object.

   Namespace-ID field has the same definition as what's specified in
   Section 4.3 of [RFC9197], it MUST be one of the Namespace-IDs listed
   in the IOAM Capabilities Query Container.

4.  Operational Guide

   Once the IOAM encapsulating node is triggered to discover the enabled
   IOAM capabilities of each IOAM transit and IOAM decapsulating node,
   the IOAM encapsulating node will send echo requests that include the
   IOAM Capabilities Query Container.  First, with TTL equal to 1 to
   reach the closest node, which may be an IOAM transit node or not.
   Then with TTL equal to 2 to reach the second-nearest node, which also
   may be an IOAM transit node or not.  And further, increasing by 1 the
   TTL every time the IOAM encapsulating node sends a new echo request,
   until the IOAM encapsulating node receives an echo reply sent by the
   IOAM decapsulating node, which contains the IOAM Capabilities
   Response Container including the IOAM Edge-to-Edge Capabilities
   Object or the IOAM End-of-Domain Object.  As a result, the echo
   requests sent by the IOAM encapsulating node will reach all nodes one
   by one along the transport path of IOAM data packet.  Alternatively,
   if the IOAM encapsulating node knows precisely all the IOAM transit
   and IOAM decapsulating nodes beforehand, once the IOAM encapsulating
   node is triggered to discover the enabled IOAM capabilities, it can
   send an echo request to each IOAM transit and IOAM decapsulating node
   directly, without TTL expiration.

   The IOAM encapsulating node may be triggered by the device
   administrator, the network management system, the network controller,
   or data traffic.  The specific triggering mechanisms are outside the
   scope of this document.

   Each IOAM transit and IOAM decapsulating node that receives an echo
   request containing the IOAM Capabilities Query Container will send an
   echo reply to the IOAM encapsulating node.  For the echo reply, there
   is an IOAM Capabilities Response Container containing one or more
   Objects.  The IOAM Capabilities Query Container of the echo request
   would be ignored by the receiving node unaware of IOAM.

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   Note that the mechanism defined in this document applies to all kinds
   of IOAM option types, whether the four types of IOAM option defined
   in [RFC9197] or the DEX type of IOAM option defined in [RFC9326],
   specifically, when applied to the IOAM DEX option, it allows the IOAM
   encapsulating node to discover which nodes along the transport path
   support IOAM direct exporting and which trace data types are
   supported to be directly exported at these nodes.

5.  IANA Considerations

   This document requests the following IANA Actions.

   IANA is requested to create a registry group named "In-Situ OAM
   (IOAM) Capabilities Parameters".

   This group will include the following registries:

   *  IOAM SoP Capability

   *  IOAM TSF Capability

   New registries in this group can be created via RFC Required process
   as per [RFC8126].

   The subsequent subsections detail the registries herein contained.

   Considering the Containers/Objects defined in this document would be
   carried in different types of Echo Request/Reply messages, such as
   ICMPv6 or LSP Ping, it is intended that the registries for Container/
   Object Type would be requested in subsequent documents.

5.1.  IOAM SoP Capability Registry

   This registry defines 4 code points for the IOAM SoP Capability field
   for identifying the size of "PktID" and "Cumulative" data as
   explained in Section 4.5 of [RFC9197].

   A new entry in this registry requires the following fields:

   *  SoP: size of POT; a two-bit binary field as defined in
      Section 3.2.3

   *  Description: a terse description of the meaning of this SoP value

   The registry initially contains the following value:

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      SoP        Description
      ----       -----------
      0b00       64-bit "PktID" and 64-bit "Cumulative" data

   0b01 - 0b11 are available for assignment via IETF Review process as
   per [RFC8126].

5.2.  IOAM TSF Capability Registry

   This registry defines 4 code points for the IOAM TSF Capability field
   for identifying the timestamp format as explained in Section 5 of
   [RFC9197].

   A new entry in this registry requires the following fields:

   *  TSF: timestamp format; a two-bit binary field as defined in
      Section 3.2.4

   *  Description: a terse description of the meaning of this TSF value

   The registry initially contains the following values:

      TSF        Description
      ----       -----------
      0b00       PTP Truncated Timestamp Format
      0b01       NTP 64-bit Timestamp Format
      0b10       POSIX-based Timestamp Format

   0b11 is available for assignment via IETF Review process as per
   [RFC8126].

6.  Security Considerations

   Overall, the security needs for IOAM capabilities query mechanisms
   used in different environments are similar.

   To avoid potential Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, it is RECOMMENDED
   that implementations apply rate-limiting to incoming echo requests
   and replies.

   To protect against unauthorized sources using echo request messages
   to obtain IOAM Capabilities information, implementations MUST provide
   a means of checking the source addresses of echo request messages
   against an access list before accepting the message.

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   A deployment MUST ensure that border filtering drops inbound echo
   requests with an IOAM Capabilities Container Header from outside of
   the domain, and drops outbound echo request/replies with IOAM
   Capabilities Headers leaving the domain.

   A deployment MUST support the configuration option to enable/disable
   the IOAM Capabilities Discovery feature defined in this document.  By
   default, the IOAM Capabilities Discovery feature MUST be disabled.

   The integrity protection on IOAM Capabilities information carried in
   echo reply messages can be achieved by the underlying transport.  For
   example, if the environment is an IPv6 network, the IP Authentication
   Header [RFC4302] or IP Encapsulating Security Payload Header
   [RFC4303] can be used.

   The collected IOAM Capabilities information by queries may be
   considered confidential.  An implementation can use secure underlying
   transport of echo request/reply to provide privacy protection.  For
   example, if the environment is an IPv6 network, confidentiality can
   be achieved by using the IP Encapsulating Security Payload Header
   [RFC4303].

   An implementation can also directly secure the data carried in echo
   requests and replies if needed, the specific mechanism on how to
   secure the data is beyond the scope of this document.

   An implementation can also check whether the fields in received echo
   requests and replies strictly conform to the specifications, e.g.,
   whether the list of IOAM Namespace-IDs includes duplicate entries,
   whether the received Namespace-ID is an operator-assigned or IANA-
   assigned one, once a check fails, an exception event indicating the
   checked field should be reported to the management.

   Except for what's described above, the security issues discussed in
   [RFC9197] provide a good guidance on implementation of this
   specification.

7.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to acknowledge Tianran Zhou, Dhruv Dhody,
   Frank Brockners, Cheng Li, Gyan Mishra, Marcus Ihlar, Martin Duke,
   Chris Lonvick, Eric Vyncke, Alvaro Retana, Paul Wouters, Roman
   Danyliw, Lars Eggert, Warren Kumari, John Scudder, Robert Wilton,
   Erik Kline, Zaheduzzaman Sarker and Murray Kucherawy for their
   careful review and helpful comments.

   The authors appreciate the f2f discussion with Frank Brockners on
   this document.

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   The authors would like to acknowledge Tommy Pauly and Ian Swett for
   their good suggestion and guidance.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC9197]  Brockners, F., Ed., Bhandari, S., Ed., and T. Mizrahi,
              Ed., "Data Fields for In Situ Operations, Administration,
              and Maintenance (IOAM)", RFC 9197, DOI 10.17487/RFC9197,
              May 2022, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9197>.

   [RFC9326]  Song, H., Gafni, B., Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., and T.
              Mizrahi, "In Situ Operations, Administration, and
              Maintenance (IOAM) Direct Exporting", RFC 9326,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC9326, November 2022,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc9326>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.ietf-bier-ping]
              Kumar, N., Pignataro, C., Akiya, N., Zheng, L., Chen, M.,
              and G. Mirsky, "BIER Ping and Trace", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-bier-ping-07, 11 May 2020,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-bier-ping-
              07.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-sfc-multi-layer-oam]
              Mirsky, G., Meng, W., Ao, T., Khasnabish, B., Leung, K.,
              and G. Mishra, "Active OAM for Service Function Chaining
              (SFC)", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-sfc-
              multi-layer-oam-22, 25 July 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-sfc-multi-
              layer-oam-22.txt>.

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   [RFC4302]  Kent, S., "IP Authentication Header", RFC 4302,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4302, December 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4302>.

   [RFC4303]  Kent, S., "IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)",
              RFC 4303, DOI 10.17487/RFC4303, December 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4303>.

   [RFC4443]  Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, Ed., "Internet
              Control Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet
              Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", STD 89,
              RFC 4443, DOI 10.17487/RFC4443, March 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4443>.

   [RFC4620]  Crawford, M. and B. Haberman, Ed., "IPv6 Node Information
              Queries", RFC 4620, DOI 10.17487/RFC4620, August 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4620>.

   [RFC4884]  Bonica, R., Gan, D., Tappan, D., and C. Pignataro,
              "Extended ICMP to Support Multi-Part Messages", RFC 4884,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4884, April 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4884>.

   [RFC8029]  Kompella, K., Swallow, G., Pignataro, C., Ed., Kumar, N.,
              Aldrin, S., Chen, M., and RFC Publisher, "Detecting
              Multiprotocol Label Switched (MPLS) Data-Plane Failures",
              RFC 8029, DOI 10.17487/RFC8029, March 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8029>.

   [RFC8335]  Bonica, R., Thomas, R., Linkova, J., Lenart, C., and M.
              Boucadair, "PROBE: A Utility for Probing Interfaces",
              RFC 8335, DOI 10.17487/RFC8335, February 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8335>.

   [RFC8799]  Carpenter, B. and B. Liu, "Limited Domains and Internet
              Protocols", RFC 8799, DOI 10.17487/RFC8799, July 2020,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8799>.

Authors' Addresses

   Xiao Min
   ZTE Corp.
   Nanjing
   China
   Phone: +86 25 88013062
   Email: xiao.min2@zte.com.cn

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   Greg Mirsky
   Ericsson
   United States of America
   Email: gregimirsky@gmail.com

   Lei Bo
   China Telecom
   Beijing
   China
   Phone: +86 10 50902903
   Email: leibo@chinatelecom.cn

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