Skip to main content

Advanced Unidirectional Route Assessment (AURA)

The information below is for an old version of the document.
Document Type
This is an older version of an Internet-Draft that was ultimately published as RFC 9198.
Authors José Ignacio Alvarez-Hamelin , Al Morton , Joachim Fabini , Carlos Pignataro
Last updated 2018-01-05
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Additional resources Mailing list discussion
Stream WG state WG Document
Document shepherd (None)
IESG IESG state I-D Exists
Consensus boilerplate Unknown
Telechat date (None)
Responsible AD (None)
Send notices to (None)
Network Working Group                                 J. Alvarez-Hamelin
Internet-Draft                               Universidad de Buenos Aires
Updates: 2330 (if approved)                                    A. Morton
Intended status: Standards Track                               AT&T Labs
Expires: July 9, 2018                                          J. Fabini
                                                                 TU Wien
                                                            C. Pignataro
                                                     Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                         January 5, 2018

            Advanced Unidirectional Route Assessment (AURA)


   This memo introduces an advanced unidirectional route assessment
   (AURA) metric and associated measurement methodology, based on the IP
   Performance Metrics (IPPM) Framework RFC 2330.  This memo updates RFC
   2330 in the areas of path-related terminology and path description,
   primarily to include the possibility of parallel subpaths between a
   given Source and Destination pair, owing to the presence of multi-
   path technologies.

Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on July 9, 2018.

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 1]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   ( in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Issues with Earlier Work to define Route  . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Route Metric Terms and Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.1.  Formal Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     3.2.  Parameters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.3.  Metric Definitions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.4.  Related Round-Trip Delay and Loss Definitions . . . . . .   8
     3.5.  Discussion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.6.  Reporting the Metric  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   4.  Route Assessment Methodologies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.1.  Active Methodologies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.2.  Hybrid Methodologies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.3.  Combining Different Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   5.  Background on Round-Trip Delay Measurement Goals  . . . . . .  13
   6.  Tools to Measure Delays in the Internet . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   7.  RTD Measurements Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   8.  Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   11. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     12.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21

1.  Introduction

   The IETF IP Performance Metrics (IPPM) working group first created a
   framework for metric development in [RFC2330].  This framework has
   stood the test of time and enabled development of many fundamental

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 2]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   metrics.  It has been updated in the area of metric composition
   [RFC5835], and in several areas related to active stream measurement
   of modern networks with reactive properties [RFC7312].

   The [RFC2330] framework motivated the development of "performance and
   reliability metrics for paths through the Internet," and Section 5 of
   [RFC2330] defines terms that support description of a path under
   test.  However, metrics for assessment of path components and related
   performance aspects had not been attempted in IPPM when the [RFC2330]
   framework was written.

   This memo takes-up the route measurement challenge and specifies a
   new route metric, two practical frameworks for methods of measurement
   (using either active or hybrid active-passive methods [RFC7799]), and
   round-trip delay and link information discovery using the results of

1.1.  Issues with Earlier Work to define Route

   Section 7 of [RFC2330] presented a simple example of a "route" metric
   along with several other examples.  The example is reproduced below
   (where the reference is to Section 5 of [RFC2330]):

   "route: The path, as defined in Section 5, from A to B at a given

   This example provides a starting point to develop a more complete
   definition of route.  Areas needing clarification include:

   Time:  In practice, the route will be assessed over a time interval,
      because active path detection methods like [PT] rely on TTL limits
      for their operation and cannot accomplish discovery of all hosts
      using a single packet.

   Type-P:  The legacy route definition lacks the option to cater for
      packet-dependent routing.  In this memo, we assess the route for a
      specific packet of Type-P, and reflect this in the metric
      definition.  The methods of measurement determine the specific
      Type-P used.

   Parallel Paths:  This a reality of Internet paths and a strength of
      advanced route assessment methods, so the metric must acknowledge
      this possibility.  Use of Equal Cost Multi-Path (ECMP) and Unequal
      Cost Multi-Path (UCMP) technologies are common sources of parallel

   Cloud Subpath:  May contain hosts that do not decrement TTL or Hop
      Limit, but may have two or more exchange links connecting

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 3]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

      "discoverable" hosts or routers.  Parallel subpaths contained
      within clouds cannot be discovered.  The assessment methods only
      discover hosts or routers on the path that decrement TTL or Hop
      Count, or cooperate with interrogation protocols.  The presence of
      tunnels and nested tunnels further complicate assessment by hiding

   Hop:  Although the [RFC2330] definition was a link-host pair, only
      hosts are discoverable or have the capability to cooperate with
      interrogation protocols where link information may be exposed.

   The refined definition of Route metrics begins in the sections that

2.  Scope

   The purpose of this memo is to add new route metrics and methods of
   measurement to the existing set of IPPM metrics.

   The scope is to define route metrics that can identify the path taken
   by a packet or a flow traversing the Internet between any two hosts.

   <@@@@ or only hosts communicating at the IP layer?  We would have to
   re-define the Src and Dst Parameters and Host Identity if we
   generalize beyond IP.  Should we include MPLS and the capabilities of
   [RFC8029], with explicit multipath identification (section 6.2.6)? >

   Also, to specify a framework for active methods of measurement which
   use the techniques described in [PT] at a minimum, and a framework
   for hybrid active-passive methods of measurement, such as the Hybrid
   Type I method [RFC7799] described in
   [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data](intended only for single administrative
   domains), which do not rely on ICMP and provide a protocol for
   explicit interrogation of nodes on a path.  Combinations of active
   methods and hybrid active-passive methods are also in-scope.

   Further, this memo provides additional analysis of the round-trip
   delay measurements made possible by the methods, in an effort to
   discover more details about the path, such as the link technology in

   This memo updates Section 5 of [RFC2330] in the areas of path-related
   terminology and path description, primarily to include the
   possibility of parallel subpaths between a given Source and
   Destination address pair (possibly resulting from Equal Cost Multi-
   Path (ECMP) and Unequal Cost Multi-Path (UCMP) technologies).

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 4]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   There are several simple non-goals of this memo.  There is no attempt
   to assess the reverse path from any host on the path to the host
   attempting the path measurement.  The reverse path contribution to
   delay will be that experienced by ICMP packets (in active methods),
   and may be different from UDP or TCP packets.  Also, the round trip
   delay will include an unknown contribution of processing time at the
   host that generates the ICMP response.  Therefore, the ICMP-based
   active methods are not supposed to yield accurate, reproducible
   estimations of the round-trip delay that UDP or TCP packets will

3.  Route Metric Terms and Definitions

   This section sets requirements for the following components to
   support the Route Metric:

   Note: the definitions concentrate on the IP-layer, but can be
   extended to other layers, and follow agreements on the scope.

   Host Identity  For hosts communicating at the IP-layer, the globally
      routable IP address(es) which the host uses when communicating
      with other hosts under normal or error conditions.  The Host
      Identity revealed (and its connection to a Host Name through
      reverse DNS) determines whether interfaces to parallel links can
      be associated with a single host, or appear to be unique hosts.

   Discoverable Host  For hosts communicating at the IP-layer,
      compliance with Section of [RFC1122] when discarding a
      packet due to TTL or Hop Limit Exceeded condition, MUST result in
      sending the corresponding Time Exceeded message (containing a form
      of host identity) to the source.  This requirement is also
      consistent with section 5.3.1 of [RFC1812] for routers.

   Cooperating Host  Hosts MUST respond to direct queries for their host
      identity as part of a previously agreed and established
      interrogation protocol.  Hosts SHOULD also provide information
      such as arrival/departure interface identification, arrival
      timestamp, and any relevant information about the host or specific
      link which delivered the query to the host.

   Hop  A Hop MUST contain a Host Identity, and MAY contain arrival and/
      or departure interface identification.

3.1.  Formal Name

   Type-P-Route-Ensemble-Method-Variant, abbreviated as Route Ensemble.

   Note that Type-P depends heavily on the chosen method and variant.

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 5]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

3.2.  Parameters

   This section lists the REQUIRED input factors to specify a Route

   o  Src, the IP address of a host

   o  Dst, the IP address of a host

   o  i, the TTL or Hop Limit of a packet sent from the host at Src to
      the host at Dst.

   o  MaxHops, the maximum value of i used, (i=1,2,3,...MaxHops).

   o  T0, a time (start of measurement interval)

   o  Tf, a time (end of measurement interval)

   o  T, the host time of a packet as measured at MP(Src), meaning
      Measurement Point at the Source.

   o  Ta, the host time of a reply packet's *arrival* as measured at
      MP(Src), assigned to packets that arrive within a "reasonable"
      time (see parameter below).

   o  Tmax, a maximum waiting time for reply packets to return to the
      source, set sufficiently long to disambiguate packets with long
      delays from packets that are discarded (lost), thus the
      distribution of delay is not truncated.

   o  F, the number of different flows simulated by the method and

   o  flow, the stream of packets with the same n-tuple of designated
      header fields that (when held constant) results in identical
      treatment in a multi-path decision (such as that taken in load

   o  Type-P, the complete description of the packets for which this
      assessment applies (including the flow-defining fields).

3.3.  Metric Definitions

   This section defines the REQUIRED measurement components of the Route
   metrics (unless otherwise indicated):

   M, the total number of packets sent between T0 and Tf.

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 6]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   N, the smallest value of i needed for a packet to be received at Dst
   (sent between T0 and Tf).

   Nmax, the largest value of i needed for a packet to be received at
   Dst (sent between T0 and Tf).  Nmax may be equal to N.

   Next, define a *singleton* definition for a Hop on the path, with
   sufficient indexes to identify all Hops identified in a measurement

   A Hop, designated h(i,j), the IP address and/or identity of one of j
   Discoverable Hosts (or Cooperating Hosts) that are i hops away from
   the host with IP address = Src during the measurement interval, T0 to
   Tf.  As defined above, a Hop singleton measurement MUST contain a
   Host Identity, hid(i,j), and MAY contain one or more of the following

   o  a(i,j) Arrival Interface ID

   o  d(i,j) Departure Interface ID

   o  t(i,j) Arrival Timestamp (where t(i,j) is ideally supplied by the
      hop, or approximated from the sending time of the packet that
      revealed the hop)

   o  Measurements of Round Trip Delay (for each packet that reveals the
      same Host Identity and attributes, but not timestamp of course,
      see next section)

   Now that Host Identities and related information can be positioned
   according to their distance from the host with address Src in hops,
   we introduce two forms of Routes:

   A Route Ensemble is defined as the combination of all routes
   traversed by different flows from the host at Src address to the host
   at Dst address.  The route traversed by each flow (with addresses Src
   and Dst, and other fields which constitute flow criteria) is a member
   of the ensemble and called a Member Route.

   Using h(i,j) and components and parameters, further define:

   A Member Route is an ordered graph {h(1,j), ... h(Nj, j)} in the
   context of a single flow, where h(i-1, j) and h(i, j) are by 1 hop
   away from each other and Nj=Dst is the minimum TTL value needed by
   the packet on Member Route j to reach Dst. Member Routes must be
   unique.  This uniqueness requires that any two Member routes j and k
   that are part of the same Route Ensemble differ either in terms of
   minimum hop count Nj and Nk to reach the destination Dst, or, in the

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 7]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   case of identical hop count Nj=Nk, they have at least one distinct
   hop: h(i,j) != h(i, k) for at least one i (i=1..Nj).

   The Route Ensemble from Src to Dst, during the measurement interval
   T0 to Tf, is the aggregate of all m distinct Member Routes discovered
   between the two hosts with Src and Dst addresses.  More formally,
   with the host having address Src omitted:

   Route Ensemble = {
   {h(1,1), h(2,1), h(3,1), ... h(N1,1)=Dst},
   {h(1,2), h(2,2), h(3,2),..., h(N2,2)=Dst},
   {h(1,m), h(2,m), h(3,m), ....h(Nm,m)=Dst}

   where the following conditions apply: i <= Nj <= Nmax (j=1..m)

   Note that some h(i,j) may be empty (null) in the case that systems do
   not reply (not discoverable, or not cooperating).

   h(i-1,j) and h(i,j) are the Hops on the same Member Route one hop
   away from each other.

   Hop h(i,j) may be identical with h(k,l) for i!=k and j!=l ; which
   means there may be portions shared among different Member Routes
   (parts of various routes may overlap).

3.4.  Related Round-Trip Delay and Loss Definitions

   RTD(i,j,T) is defined as a singleton of the [RFC2681] Round-trip
   Delay between the host with IP address = Src and the host at Hop
   h(i,j) at time T.

   RTL(i,j,T) is defined as a singleton of the [RFC6673] Round-trip Loss
   between the host with IP address = Src and the host at Hop h(i,j) at
   time T.

3.5.  Discussion

   Depending on the way that Host Identity is revealed, it may be
   difficult to determine parallel subpaths between the same pair of
   hosts (i.e. multiple parallel links).  It is easier to detect
   parallel subpaths involving different hosts.

   o  If a pair of discovered hosts identify two different IP addresses,
      then they will appear to be different hosts.

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 8]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   o  If a pair of discovered hosts identify two different IP addresses,
      and the IP addresses resolve to the same host name (in the DNS),
      then they will appear to be the same hosts.

   o  If a discovered host always replies using the same IP address,
      regardless of the interface a packet arrives on, then multiple
      parallel links cannot be detected at the IP layer.

   o  If parallel links between routers are aggregated below the IP
      layer, In other words, all links share the same pair of IP
      addresses, then the existence of these parallel links can't be
      detected at IP layer.

   Section 9.2 of [RFC2330] describes Temporal Composition of metrics,
   and introduces the possibility of a relationship between earlier
   measurement results and the results for measurement at the current
   time (for a given metric).  If this topic is investigated further,
   there may be some value in establishing a Temporal Composition
   relationship for Route Metrics.  However, this relationship does not
   represent a forecast of future route conditions in any way.

   When a route assessment employs packets at the IP layer (for
   example), the reality of flow assignment to parallel subpaths
   involves layers above IP.  Thus, the measured Route Ensemble is
   applicable to IP and higher layers (as described in the methodology's
   packet of Type-P and flow parameters).

   @@@@ Editor's Note: There is an opportunity to investigate and
   discuss the RFC 2330 notion of equal treatment for a class of
   packets, "...very useful to know if a given Internet component treats
   equally a class C of different types of packets", as it applies to
   Route measurements.  Knowledge of "class C" parameters on a path
   potentially reduces the number of flows required for a given method.

3.6.  Reporting the Metric

   @@@@ to be provided

4.  Route Assessment Methodologies

   There are two classes of methods described in this section, active
   methods relying on the reaction to TTL or Hop Limit Exceeded
   condition to discover hosts on a path, and Hybrid active-passive
   methods that involve direct interrogation of cooperating hosts
   (usually within a single domain).  Description of these methods

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                  [Page 9]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   @@@@ Editor's Note: We need to incorporate description of Type-P
   packets (with the flow parameters) used in each method below.

4.1.  Active Methodologies

   We have chosen to describe the method based on that employed in
   current open source tools, thereby providing a practical framework
   for further advanced techniques to be included as method variants.
   This method is applicable to use across multiple administrative

   Paris-traceroute [PT] provides some measure of protection from path
   variation generated by ECMP load balancing, and it ensures traceroute
   packets will follow the same path in 98% of cases according to
   [SCAMPER].  If it is necessary to find every path possible between
   two hosts, Paris-traceroute provides "exhaustive" mode while scamper
   provides "tracelb" (stands for traceroute load balance).

   The Type-P of packets used could be ICMP (as ones in the original
   traceroute), UDP and TCP.  The later are used when a particular
   characteristic is needed to verify, such as filtering or traffic
   shaping on specific ports (i.e., services).

   The advanced route assessment methods used in Paris-traceroute [PT]
   keep the critical fields constant for every packet to maintain the
   appearance of the same flow.  Since route assessment can be conducted
   using TCP, UDP or ICMP packets, this method REQUIRES the Diffserv
   field, the protocol number, IP source and destination addresses, and
   the port settings for TCP or UDP kept constant.  For ICMP probes, the
   method additionally REQUIRES the type, code, and ICMP checksum
   constant; which take the same position in the header of an IP packet,
   e.g., bytes 20 to 23 when the header IP has no options.

   Maintaining a constant checksum in ICMP is most challenging because
   the ICMP Sequence Number is part of the calculation.  The advanced
   traceroute method requires calculations using the IP Sequence Number
   Field and the Identifier Field, yielding a constant ICMP checksum in
   successive packets.  For an example of calculations to maintain a
   constant checksum, see Appendix A of [RFC7820], where revision of a
   timestamp field is complemented by modifying the 2 octet checksum
   complement field (these fields take the roles of the ICMP Sequence
   Number Identifier Fields, respectively).

   For TCP and UDP packets, the checksum must also be kept constant.
   Therefore, the first four bytes of UDP (or TCP) data field are
   modified to compensate for fields that change from packet to packet.

   Note: other variants of advanced traceroute are planned be described.

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 10]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   Finally, the return path is also important to check.  Taking into
   account that it is an ICMP time exceeded (during transit) packet, the
   source and destination IP are constant for every reply.  Then, we
   should consider the fields in the first 32 bits of the protocol on
   the top of IP: the type and code of ICMP packet, and its checksum.
   Again, to maintain the ICMP checksum constant for the returning
   packets, we need to consider the whole ICMP message.  It contains the
   IP header of the discarded packet plus the first 8 bytes of the IP
   payload; that is some of the fields of TCP header, the UDP header
   plus four data bytes, the ICMP header plus four bytes.  Therefore,
   for UDP case the data field is used to maintain the ICMP checksum
   constant in the returning packet.  For the ICMP case, the identifier
   and sequence fields of the sent ICMP probe are manipulated to be
   constant.  The TCP case presents no problem because its first eight
   bytes will be the same for every packet probe.

   Formally, to maintain the same flow in the measurements to a certain
   hop, the Type-P-Route-Ensemble-Method-Variant packets should be[PT]:

   o  TCP case: Fields Src, Dst, port-Src, port_Dst, and Diffserv Field
      should be the same.

   o  UDP case: Fields Src, Dst, port-Src, port-Dst, and Diffserv Field
      should be the same, the UDP-checksum should change to maintain
      constant the IP checksum of the ICMP time exceeded reply.  Then,
      the data length should be fixed, and the data field is used to
      fixing it (consider that ICMP checksum uses its data field, which
      contains the original IP header plus 8 bytes of UDP, where TTL, IP
      identification, IP checksum, and UDP checksum changes).

   o  ICMP case: The Data field should compensate variations on TTL, IP
      identification, and IP checksum for every packet.

   Then, the way to identify different hops and attempts of the same
   flow is:

   o  TCP case: The IP identification field.

   o  UDP case: The IP identification field.

   o  ICMP case: The IP identification field, and ICMP Sequence number.

4.2.  Hybrid Methodologies

   The Hybrid Type I methods provide an alternative method for Route
   Member assessment.  As mentioned in the Scope section,
   [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data] provides a possible set of data fields that
   would support route identification.

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 11]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   In general, nodes in the measured domain would be equipped with
   specific abilities:

   1.  The ingress node adds one or more fields to the measurement
       packets, and identifies to other nodes in the domain that a route
       assessment will be conducted using one or more specific packets.
       The packets typically originate from a host outside the domain,
       and constitute normal traffic on the domain.

   2.  Each node visited by the specific packet within in the domain
       identifies itself in a data field of the packet (the field has
       been added for this purpose).

   3.  When a measurement packet reaches the edge node of the domain,
       the edge node adds its identity to the list, removes all the
       identities from the packet, forwards the packet onward, and
       communicates the ordered list of node identities to the intended

   In addition to node identity, nodes may also identify the ingress and
   egress interfaces utilized by the tracing packet, the time of day
   when the packet was processed, and other generic data (as described
   in section 4 of [I-D.ietf-ippm-ioam-data]).

4.3.  Combining Different Methods

   In principle, there are advantages if the entity conducting Route
   measurements can utilize both forms of advanced methods (active and
   hybrid), and combine the results.  For example, if there are hosts
   involved in the path that qualify as Cooperating Hosts, but not as
   Discoverable Hosts, then a more complete view of hops on the path is
   possible when a hybrid method (or interrogation protocol) is applied
   and the results are combined with the active method results collected
   across all other domains.

   In order to combine the results of active and hybrid/interrogation
   methods, the network hosts that are part of a domain supporting an
   interrogation protocol have the following attributes:

   1.  Hosts at the ingress to the domain SHOULD be both Discoverable
       and Cooperating, and SHOULD reveal the same Host Identity in
       response to both active and hybrid methods.

   2.  Any Hosts within the domain that are both Discoverable and
       Cooperating SHOULD reveal the same Host Identity in response to
       both active and hybrid methods.

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 12]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   3.  Hosts at the egress to the domain SHOULD be both Discoverable and
       Cooperating, and SHOULD reveal the same Host Identity in response
       to both active and hybrid methods.

   When Hosts follow these requirements, it becomes a simple matter to
   match single domain measurements with the overlapping results from a
   multidomain measurement.

   In practice, Internet users do not typically have the ability to
   utilize the OAM capabilities of networks that their packets traverse,
   so the results from a remote domain supporting an interrogation
   protocol would not normally be accessible.  However, a network
   operator could combine interrogation results from their access domain
   with other measurements revealing the path outside their domain.

5.  Background on Round-Trip Delay Measurement Goals

   The aim of this method is to use packet probes to unveil the paths
   between any two end-hosts of the network.  Moreover, information
   derived from RTD measurements might be meaningful to identify:

   1.  Intercontinental submarine links

   2.  Satellite communications

   3.  Congestion

   4.  Inter-domain paths

   This categorization is widely accepted in the literature and among
   operators alike, and it can be trusted with empirical data and
   several sources as ground of truth (e.g., [RTTSub] [bdrmap][IDCong]).

   The first two categories correspond to the physical distance
   dependency on Round Trip Delay (RTD) while the last one binds RTD
   with queueing delay on routers.  Due to the significant contribution
   of propagation delay in long distance hops, RTD will be at least
   100ms on transatlantic hops, depending on the geolocation of the
   vantage points.  Moreover, RTD is typically greater than 480ms when
   two hops are connected using geostationary satellite technology
   (i.e., their orbit is at 36000km).  Detecting congestion with latency
   implies deeper mathematical understanding since network traffic load
   is not stationary.  Nonetheless, as the first approach, a link seems
   to be congested if after sending several traceroute probes, it is
   possible to detect congestion observing different statistics
   parameters (e.g., see [IDCong]).

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 13]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

6.  Tools to Measure Delays in the Internet

   Internet routing is complex because it depends on the policies of
   thousands Autonomous Systems (AS).  While most of the routers perform
   load balancing on flows using Equal Cost Multiple Path (ECMP), a few
   still divide the workload through packet-based techniques.  The
   former scenario is defined according to [RFC2991] while the latter
   generates a round-robin scheme to deliver every new outgoing packet.
   ECMP keeps flow state in the router to ensure every packet of a flow
   is delivered by the same path, and this avoids increasing the packet
   delay variation and possibly producing overwhelming packet reordering
   in TCP flows.

   Taking into account that Internet protocol was designed under the
   "end-to-end" principle, the IP payload and its header do not provide
   any information about the routes or path necessary to reach some
   destination.  For this reason, the well-known tool traceroute was
   developed to gather the IP addresses of each hop along a path using
   the ICMP protocol [RFC0792].  Besides, traceroute adds the measured
   RTD from each hop.  However, the growing complexity of the Internet
   makes it more challenging to develop accurate traceroute
   implementation.  For instance, the early traceroute tools would be
   inaccurate in the current network, mainly because they were not
   designed to retain flow state.  However, evolved traceroute tools,
   such as Paris-traceroute [PT] [MLB] and Scamper [SCAMPER], expect to
   encounter ECMP and achieve more accurate results when they do.

   Paris-traceroute-like tools operate in the following way: every
   packet should follow the same path because the sensitive fields of
   the header are controlled to appear as the same flow.  This means
   that source and destination IP addresses, source and destination port
   numbers are the same in every packet.  Additionally, Differentiated
   Services Code Point (DSCP), checksum and ICMP code should remain
   constant since they may affect the path selection.

   Today's traceroute tools can send either UDP, TCP or ICMP packet
   probes.  Since ICMP header does not include transport layer
   information, there are no fields for source and destination port
   numbers.  For this reason, these tools keep constant ICMP type, code,
   and checksum fields to generate a kind of flow.  However, the
   checksum may vary in every packet, therefore when probes use ICMP
   packets, ICMP Identifier and Sequence Number are manipulated to
   maintain constant checksum in every packet.  On the other hand, when
   UDP probes are generated, the expected variation in the checksum of
   each packet is again compensated by manipulating the payload.

   Paris-traceroute allows its users to measure RTD in every hop of the
   path for a particular flow.  Furthermore, either Paris-traceroute or

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 14]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   Scamper is capable of unveiling the many available paths between a
   source and destination (which are visible to this method).  This task
   is accomplished by repeating complete traceroute measurements with
   different flow parameters for each measurement.  The Framework for IP
   Performance Metrics (IPPM) ([RFC2330] updated by[RFC7312]) has the
   flexibility to require that the round-trip delay measurement
   [RFC2681] uses packets with the constraints to assure that all
   packets in a single measurement appear as the same flow.  This
   flexibility covers ICMP, UDP, and TCP.  The accompanying methodology
   of [RFC2681] needs to be expanded to report the sequential hop
   identifiers along with RTD measurements, but no new metric definition
   is needed.

7.  RTD Measurements Statistics

   Several articles have shown that network traffic presents a self-
   similar nature [SSNT] [MLRM] which is accountable for filling the
   queues of the routers.  Moreover, router queues are designed to
   handle traffic bursts, which is one of the most remarkable features
   of self-similarity.  Naturally, while queue length increases, the
   delay to traverse the queue increases as well and leads to an
   increase on RTD.  Due to traffic bursts generate short-term overflow
   on buffers (spiky patterns), every RTD only depicts the queueing
   status on the instant when that packet probe was in transit.  For
   this reason, several RTD measurements during a time window could
   begin to describe the random behavior of latency.  Loss must also be
   accounted for in the methodology.

   To understand the ongoing process, examining the quartiles provides a
   non-parametric way of analysis.  Quartiles are defined by five
   values: minimum RTD (m), RTD value of the 25% of the Empirical
   Cumulative Distribution Function (ECDF) (Q1), the median value (Q2),
   the RTD value of the 75% of the ECDF (Q3) and the maximum RTD (M).
   Congestion can be inferred when RTD measurements are spread apart,
   and consequently, the Inter-Quartile Range (IQR), the distance
   between Q3 and Q1, increases its value.

   This procedure requires to compute quartile values "on the fly" using
   the algorithm presented in [P2].

   This procedure allow us to update the quartiles value whenever a new
   measurement arrives, which is radically different from classic
   methods of computing quartiles because they need to use the whole
   dataset to compute the values.  This way of calculus provides savings
   in memory and computing time.

   To sum up, the proposed measurement procedure consists in performing
   traceroutes several times to obtain samples of the RTD in every hop

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 15]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   from a path, during a time window (W) and compute the quantiles for
   every hop.  This could be done for a single path flow or for every
   detected path flow.

   Even though a particular hop may be understood as the amount of hops
   away from the source, a more detailed classification could be used.
   For example, a possible classification may be identify ICMP Time
   Exceeded packets coming from the same routers to those who have the
   same hop distance, IP address of the router which is replying and TTL
   value of the received ICMP packet.

   Thus, the proposed methodology is based on this algorithm:

  1  input:   W (window time of the measurement)
  2           i_t (time between two measurements)
  3           E (True: exhaustive, False: a single path)
  4           Dst (destination IP address)
  5  output:  Qs (quartiles for every hop and alt in the path(s) to Dst)
  6  T <? start_timer(W)
  7  while T is not finished do:
  8  |       start_timer(i_t)
  9  |       RTD(hop,alt) = advanced-traceroute(Dst,E)
 10  |       for each hop and alt in RTD do:
 11  |       |     Qs[Dst,hop,alt] <? ComputeQs(RTD(hop,alt))
 12  |       done
 13  |       wait until i_t timer is expired
 14  done
 15  return (Qs)

   In line 9 the advance-traceroute could be either Paris-traceroute or
   Scamper, which will use "exhaustive" mode or "tracelb" option if E is
   set True, respectively.  The procedure returns a list of tuples
   (m,Q1,Q2,Q3,M) for each intermediate hop in the path towards the Dst.
   Additionally, it could also return path variations using "alt"

8.  Conclusions

   Combining the method proposed in Section 4 and statistics in
   Section 7, we can measure the performance of paths interconnecting
   two endpoints in Internet, and attempt the categorization of link
   types and congestion presence based on RTD.

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 16]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

9.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations that apply to any active measurement of
   live paths are relevant here as well.  See [RFC4656] and [RFC5357].

   The active measurement process of "changing several fields to keep
   the checksum of different packets identical" does not require special
   security considerations because it is part of synthetic traffic
   generation, and is designed to have minimal to zero impact on network
   processing (to process the packets for ECMP).

   @@@@ add reference to security considerations from

   When considering privacy of those involved in measurement or those
   whose traffic is measured, the sensitive information available to
   potential observers is greatly reduced when using active techniques
   which are within this scope of work.  Passive observations of user
   traffic for measurement purposes raise many privacy issues.  We refer
   the reader to the privacy considerations described in the Large Scale
   Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP) Framework [RFC7594],
   which covers active and passive techniques.

10.  IANA Considerations

   This memo makes no requests of IANA.

11.  Acknowledgements

   The authors acknowledge Ruediger Geib, for his penetrating comments
   on the initial draft.  Carlos Pignataro challenged the authors to
   consider a wider scope, and applied his substantial expertise with
   many technologies and their measurement features in his extensive
   comments.  Frank Brockners also shared useful comments.  We thank
   them all!

12.  References

12.1.  Normative References

              Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., Pignataro, C., Gredler, H.,
              Leddy, J., Youell, S., Mizrahi, T., Mozes, D., Lapukhov,
              P., Chang, R., and d., "Data Fields
              for In-situ OAM", draft-ietf-ippm-ioam-data-01 (work in
              progress), October 2017.

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 17]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   [RFC0792]  Postel, J., "Internet Control Message Protocol", STD 5,
              RFC 792, DOI 10.17487/RFC0792, September 1981,

   [RFC1122]  Braden, R., Ed., "Requirements for Internet Hosts -
              Communication Layers", STD 3, RFC 1122,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1122, October 1989,

   [RFC1812]  Baker, F., Ed., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers",
              RFC 1812, DOI 10.17487/RFC1812, June 1995,

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC2330]  Paxson, V., Almes, G., Mahdavi, J., and M. Mathis,
              "Framework for IP Performance Metrics", RFC 2330,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2330, May 1998,

   [RFC2460]  Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6
              (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460,
              December 1998, <>.

   [RFC2675]  Borman, D., Deering, S., and R. Hinden, "IPv6 Jumbograms",
              RFC 2675, DOI 10.17487/RFC2675, August 1999,

   [RFC2681]  Almes, G., Kalidindi, S., and M. Zekauskas, "A Round-trip
              Delay Metric for IPPM", RFC 2681, DOI 10.17487/RFC2681,
              September 1999, <>.

   [RFC2991]  Thaler, D. and C. Hopps, "Multipath Issues in Unicast and
              Multicast Next-Hop Selection", RFC 2991,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2991, November 2000,

   [RFC4494]  Song, JH., Poovendran, R., and J. Lee, "The AES-CMAC-96
              Algorithm and Its Use with IPsec", RFC 4494,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4494, June 2006,

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 18]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   [RFC4656]  Shalunov, S., Teitelbaum, B., Karp, A., Boote, J., and M.
              Zekauskas, "A One-way Active Measurement Protocol
              (OWAMP)", RFC 4656, DOI 10.17487/RFC4656, September 2006,

   [RFC5357]  Hedayat, K., Krzanowski, R., Morton, A., Yum, K., and J.
              Babiarz, "A Two-Way Active Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)",
              RFC 5357, DOI 10.17487/RFC5357, October 2008,

   [RFC5644]  Stephan, E., Liang, L., and A. Morton, "IP Performance
              Metrics (IPPM): Spatial and Multicast", RFC 5644,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5644, October 2009,

   [RFC5835]  Morton, A., Ed. and S. Van den Berghe, Ed., "Framework for
              Metric Composition", RFC 5835, DOI 10.17487/RFC5835, April
              2010, <>.

   [RFC6282]  Hui, J., Ed. and P. Thubert, "Compression Format for IPv6
              Datagrams over IEEE 802.15.4-Based Networks", RFC 6282,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6282, September 2011,

   [RFC6437]  Amante, S., Carpenter, B., Jiang, S., and J. Rajahalme,
              "IPv6 Flow Label Specification", RFC 6437,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6437, November 2011,

   [RFC6564]  Krishnan, S., Woodyatt, J., Kline, E., Hoagland, J., and
              M. Bhatia, "A Uniform Format for IPv6 Extension Headers",
              RFC 6564, DOI 10.17487/RFC6564, April 2012,

   [RFC6673]  Morton, A., "Round-Trip Packet Loss Metrics", RFC 6673,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6673, August 2012,

   [RFC7045]  Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Transmission and Processing
              of IPv6 Extension Headers", RFC 7045,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7045, December 2013,

   [RFC7312]  Fabini, J. and A. Morton, "Advanced Stream and Sampling
              Framework for IP Performance Metrics (IPPM)", RFC 7312,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7312, August 2014,

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 19]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   [RFC7799]  Morton, A., "Active and Passive Metrics and Methods (with
              Hybrid Types In-Between)", RFC 7799, DOI 10.17487/RFC7799,
              May 2016, <>.

   [RFC7820]  Mizrahi, T., "UDP Checksum Complement in the One-Way
              Active Measurement Protocol (OWAMP) and Two-Way Active
              Measurement Protocol (TWAMP)", RFC 7820,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7820, March 2016,

   [RFC8029]  Kompella, K., Swallow, G., Pignataro, C., Ed., Kumar, N.,
              Aldrin, S., and M. Chen, "Detecting Multiprotocol Label
              Switched (MPLS) Data-Plane Failures", RFC 8029,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8029, March 2017,

12.2.  Informative References

   [bdrmap]   Luckie, M., Dhamdhere, A., Huffaker, B., Clark, D., and
              KC. Claffy, "bdrmap: Inference of Borders Between IP
              Networks",  In Proceedings of the 2016 ACM on Internet
              Measurement Conference, pp. 381-396. ACM, 2016.

              Brockners, F., Bhandari, S., Pignataro, C., Gredler, H.,
              Leddy, J., Youell, S., Mizrahi, T., Mozes, D., Lapukhov,
              P., Chang, R., and d., "Data Fields
              for In-situ OAM", draft-brockners-inband-oam-data-07 (work
              in progress), July 2017.

   [IDCong]   Luckie, M., Dhamdhere, A., Clark, D., and B. Huffaker,
              "Challenges in inferring Internet interdomain congestion",
               In Proceedings of the 2014 Conference on Internet
              Measurement Conference, pp. 15-22. ACM, 2014.

   [MLB]      Augustin, B., Friedman, T., and R. Teixeira, "Measuring
              load-balanced paths in the Internet",   Proceedings of the
              7th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement, pp.
              149-160. ACM, 2007., 2007.

   [MLRM]     Fontugne, R., Mazel, J., and K. Fukuda, "An empirical
              mixture model for large-scale RTT measurements",  2015
              IEEE Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM), pp.
              2470-2478. IEEE, 2015., 2015.

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 20]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   [P2]       Jain, R. and I. Chlamtac, "The P 2 algorithm for dynamic
              calculation of quantiles and histograms without storing
              observations",  Communications of the ACM 28.10 (1985):
              1076-1085, 2015.

   [PT]       Augustin, B., Cuvellier, X., Orgogozo, B., Viger, F.,
              Friedman, T., Latapy, M., Magnien, C., and R. Teixeira,
              "Avoiding traceroute anomalies with Paris traceroute",
              Proceedings of the 6th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet
              measurement, pp. 153-158. ACM, 2006., 2006.

   [RFC7594]  Eardley, P., Morton, A., Bagnulo, M., Burbridge, T.,
              Aitken, P., and A. Akhter, "A Framework for Large-Scale
              Measurement of Broadband Performance (LMAP)", RFC 7594,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7594, September 2015,

   [RTTSub]   Bischof, Z., Rula, J., and F. Bustamante, "In and out of
              Cuba: Characterizing Cuba's connectivity",  In Proceedings
              of the 2015 ACM Conference on Internet Measurement
              Conference, pp. 487-493. ACM, 2015.

   [SCAMPER]  Matthew Luckie, M., "Scamper: a scalable and extensible
              packet prober for active measurement of the Internet",
               Proceedings of the 10th ACM SIGCOMM conference on
              Internet measurement, pp. 239-245. ACM, 2010., 2010.

   [SSNT]     Park, K. and W. Willinger, "Self-Similar Network Traffic
              and Performance Evaluation (1st ed.)",  John Wiley & Sons,
              Inc., New York, NY, USA, 2000.

Authors' Addresses

   Jose Ignacio Alvarez-Hamelin
   Universidad de Buenos Aires
   Av. Paseo Colon 850
   Buenos Aires  C1063ACV

   Phone: +54 11 5285-0716

Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 21]
Internet-Draft           AURA Metrics & Methods             January 2018

   Al Morton
   AT&T Labs
   200 Laurel Avenue South
   Middletown, NJ  07748

   Phone: +1 732 420 1571
   Fax:   +1 732 368 1192

   Joachim Fabini
   TU Wien
   Gusshausstrasse 25/E389
   Vienna  1040

   Phone: +43 1 58801 38813
   Fax:   +43 1 58801 38898

   Carlos Pignataro
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   7200-11 Kit Creek Road
   Research Triangle Park, NC  27709


Alvarez-Hamelin, et al.   Expires July 9, 2018                 [Page 22]