Requirements for Ethernet VPN (EVPN)
draft-ietf-l2vpn-evpn-req-05

The information below is for an old version of the document
Document Type Active Internet-Draft (l2vpn WG)
Authors Ali Sajassi  , Rahul Aggarwal  , Nabil Bitar  , Aldrin Isaac 
Last updated 2013-12-11 (latest revision 2013-10-15)
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Internet Working Group                                        A. Sajassi
INTERNET-DRAFT                                                     Cisco
Category: Informational                                                 
                                                             R. Aggarwal
J. Uttaro                                                         Arktan
AT&T                                                                    
                                                                N. Bitar
W. Henderickx                                                    Verizon
Alcatel-Lucent                                                          
                                                            Aldrin Isaac
                                                               Bloomberg
                                                                        
                                                                        
Expires: April 15, 2014                                 October 15, 2013

                 Requirements for Ethernet VPN (EVPN) 
                    draft-ietf-l2vpn-evpn-req-05.txt

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
 

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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document. Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Abstract

   The widespread adoption of Ethernet L2VPN services and the advent of
   new applications for the technology (e.g., data center interconnect)
   have culminated in a new set of requirements that are not readily
   addressable by the current Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS)
   solution. In particular, multi-homing with all-active forwarding is
   not supported and there's no existing solution to leverage
   Multipoint-to-Multipoint (MP2MP) LSPs for optimizing the delivery of
   multi-destination frames. Furthermore, the provisioning of VPLS, even
   in the context of BGP-based auto-discovery, requires network
   operators to specify various network parameters on top of the access
   configuration. This document specifies the requirements for an
   Ethernet VPN (EVPN) solution which addresses the above issues.

Table of Contents

   1. Specification of requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3. Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   4. Redundancy Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.1.  Flow-based Load Balancing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     4.2.  Flow-based Multi-pathing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.3.  Geo-redundant PE Nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     4.4.  Optimal Traffic Forwarding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.5.  Flexible Redundancy Grouping Support . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     4.6.   Multi-homed Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   5. Multicast Optimization Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  9
   6. Ease of Provisioning Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   7. New Service Interface Requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
   8. Fast Convergence  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
   9. Flood Suppression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   10. Supporting Flexible VPN Topologies and Policies  . . . . . . . 13
   11. Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   12. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   13. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   14. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   14. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   15. Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

 

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1. Specification of requirements

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2. Terminology

   AS: Autonomous System

   CE: Customer Edge

   E-Tree: Ethernet tree

   MAC address: Media Access Control address - referred to as MAC

   LSP: Label Switched Path

   PE: Provider Edge

   MP2MP: Multipoint to Multipoint

   VPLS: Virtual Private LAN Service

   Single-Active Mode: When a device or a network is multi-homed to two
   or more PEs and when only a single PE in such redundancy group can
   forward traffic to/from the multi-homed device or network for a given
   VLAN, then such multi-homing or redundancy is referred to as "Single-
   Active".

   All-Active: When a device is multi-homed to two or more PEs and when
   all PEs in such redundancy group can forward traffic to/from the
   multi-homed device for a given VLAN, then such multi-homing or
   redundancy is referred to as "All-Active".

3. Introduction

   VPLS, as defined in [RFC4664][RFC4761][RFC4762], is a proven and
   widely deployed technology. However, the existing solution has a
   number of limitations when it comes to redundancy, multicast
   optimization and provisioning simplicity. Furthermore, new
   applications are driving several new requirements for other L2VPN
   services such as E-TREE, and VPWS. 

   In the area of multi-homing current VPLS can only support multi-
 

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   homing with active/standby resiliency model, for example as described
   in [VPLS-BGP-MH]. Flexible multi-homing with all-active Attachment
   Circuits (ACs) cannot be supported by current VPLS solution.

   In the area of multicast optimization, [VPLS-MCAST] describes how
   multicast LSPs can be used in conjunction with VPLS. However, this
   solution is limited to Point-to-Multipoint (P2MP) LSPs, as there's no
   defined solution for leveraging Multipoint-to-Multipoint (MP2MP) LSPs
   with VPLS. 

   In the area of provisioning simplicity, current VPLS does offer a
   mechanism for single-sided provisioning by relying on BGP-based
   service auto-discovery [RFC4761][RFC6074]. This, however, still
   requires the operator to configure a number of network-side
   parameters on top of the access-side Ethernet configuration. 

   Furthermore, data center interconnect applications are driving the
   need for new service interface types which are a hybrid combination
   of VLAN Bundling and VLAN-based service interfaces. These are
   referred to as "VLAN-aware Bundling" service interfaces. 

   Also virtualization applications are fueling an increase in the
   volume of MAC addresses that are to be handled by the network, which
   gives rise to the requirement for having the network re-convergence
   upon failure be independent of the number of MAC addresses learned by
   the PE. 

   In addition, there are requirements for minimizing the amount of
   flooding of multi-destination frames and localizing the flooding to
   the confines of a given site. 

   Moreover, there are requirements for supporting flexible VPN
   topologies and policies beyond those currently covered by (H-)VPLS.

   The focus of this document is on defining the requirements for a new
   solution, namely Ethernet VPN (EVPN), which addresses the above
   issues.

   Section 4 discusses the redundancy requirements. Section 5 describes
   the multicast optimization requirements. Section 6 articulates the
   ease of provisioning requirements. Section 7 focuses on the new
   service interface requirements. Section 8 highlights the fast
   convergence requirements. Section 9 describes the flood suppression
   requirement, and finally section 10 discusses the requirements for
   supporting flexible VPN topologies and policies.

 

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4. Redundancy Requirements

4.1.  Flow-based Load Balancing

   A common mechanism for multi-homing a CE node to a set of PE nodes
   involves leveraging multi-chassis Ethernet link aggregation groups
   based on [802.1AX]. [PWE3-ICCP] describes one such scheme. In
   Ethernet link aggregation, the load-balancing algorithms by which a
   CE distributes traffic over the Attachment Circuits connecting to the
   PEs are quite flexible. The only requirement is for the algorithm to
   ensure in-order frame delivery for a given traffic flow. In typical
   implementations, these algorithms involve selecting an outbound link
   within the bundle based on a hash function that identifies a flow
   based on one or more of the following fields:

   i.   Layer 2: Source MAC Address, Destination MAC Address, VLAN
   ii.  Layer 3: Source IP Address, Destination IP Address
   iii. Layer 4: UDP or TCP Source Port, Destination Port

   A key point to note here is that [802.1AX] does not define a standard
   load-balancing algorithm for Ethernet bundles, and as such different
   implementations behave differently. As a matter of fact, a bundle
   operates correctly even in the presence of asymmetric load-balancing
   over the links. This being the case, the first requirement for all-
   active multi-homing is the ability to accommodate flexible flow-based
   load-balancing from the CE node based on L2, L3 and/or L4 header
   fields.

   (R1a) A solution MUST be capable of supporting flexible flow-based
   load balancing from the CE as described above. 

   (R1b) A solution MUST also be able to support flow-based load-
   balancing of traffic destined to the CE, even when the CE is
   connected to more than one PE. Thus the solution MUST be able to
   exercise multiple links connected to the CE, irrespective of the
   number of PEs that the CE is connected to. 

   It should be noted that when a CE is multi-homed to several PEs,
   there could be multiple ECMP paths from each remote PE to each multi-
   homed PE. Furthermore, for all-active multi-homed CE, a remote PE can
   choose any of the multi-homed PEs for sending traffic destined to the
   multi-homed CE. Therefore, when a solution supports all-active multi-
   homing, it MUST exercise as many of these paths as possible for
   traffic destined to a multi-homed CE.

   (R1c) A solution MAY support flow-based load balancing among PEs that
   are members of a redundancy group spanning multiple Autonomous
   Systems.
 

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4.2.  Flow-based Multi-pathing 

   Any solution that meets the all-active flow based load balancing
   requirement described in section 4.1 MUST also be able to exercise
   multiple paths between a given pair of PEs. For instance, if there
   are multiple RSVP-TE LSPs between a pair of PEs then the solution
   MUST be capable of load balancing traffic among those LSPs on a per
   flow basis. Similarly, if LDP is being used as the signaling protocol
   for transport LSPs, then the solution MUST be able to leverage LDP
   signaled equal cost LSPs. The solution MUST also be able to leverage
   work in the MPLS WG that is in progress to improve the load balancing
   capabilities of the network based on entropy labels [RFC6790]. 

   (R2) A solution MUST be able to exercise as many ECMP paths as
   possible between any pair of PEs in conjunction with the all-active
   load-balancing described above. 

   For example consider a scenario in which CE1 is multi-homed to PE1
   and PE2, and CE2 is multi-homed to PE3 and PE4 running in all-active
   mode. Furthermore, consider that there exist three ECMPs between any
   of the CE1's and CE2's multi-homed PEs. Traffic from CE1 to CE2 can
   be forwarded on twelve different paths over MPLS/IP core as follow:
   CE1 load balances traffic to both PE1 and PE2. Each of the PE1 and
   PE2 have three ECMPs to PE3 and PE4 for the total of twelve paths.
   Finally, when traffic arrives at PE3 and PE4, it gets forwarded to
   CE2 over the Ethernet channel (aka link bundle).     

   It is worth pointing out that flow-based multi-pathing complements
   flow-based load balancing described in the previous section.

4.3.  Geo-redundant PE Nodes

   The PE nodes offering multi-homed connectivity to a CE or access
   network may be situated in the same physical location (co-located),
   or may be spread geographically (e.g., in different COs or POPs). The
   latter is desirable when offering a geo-redundant solution that
   ensures business continuity for critical applications in the case of
   power outages, natural disasters, etc. An all-active multi-homing
   mechanism SHOULD support both co-located as well as geo-redundant PE
   placement. The latter scenario often means that requiring a dedicated
   link between the PEs, for the operation of the multi-homing
   mechanism, is not appealing from a cost standpoint. Furthermore, the
   IGP cost from remote PEs to the pair of PEs in the dual-homed setup
   cannot be assumed to be the same when those latter PEs are geo-
   redundant.

   (R3a) A solution MUST support all-active multi-homing without the
 

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   need for a dedicated control/data link among the PEs in the multi-
   homed group.

   (R3b) A solution MUST NOT assume that the IGP cost from a remote PE
   to each of the PEs in the multi-homed group is the same. 

   (R3c) A solution MUST support multi-homing across different IGP
   domains within the same Autonomous System.

   (R3d) A solution SHOULD support multi-homing across multiple
   Autonomous Systems.

4.4.  Optimal Traffic Forwarding

   In a typical network, and considering a designated pair of PEs, it is
   common to find both single-homed as well as multi-homed CEs being
   connected to those PEs. 

   R4: An all-active multi-homing solution SHOULD support optimal
   forwarding of unicast traffic for all the following scenarios. By
   "optimal forwarding", we mean that traffic will not be forwarded
   between PE devices that are members of a multi-home group unless the
   destination CE is attached to one of the multi-homed PEs. 

   i.   single-homed CE to multi-homed CE
   ii.  multi-homed CE to single-homed CE
   iii. multi-homed CE to multi-homed CE

   This is especially important in the case of geo-redundant PEs, where
   having traffic forwarded from one PE to another within the same
   multi-homed group introduces additional latency, on top of the
   inefficient use of the PE node's and core nodes' switching capacity.
   A multi-homed group (also known as a multi-chassis LAG) is a group of
   PEs supporting a multi-homed CE.

4.5.  Flexible Redundancy Grouping Support 

   (R5) In order to simplify service provisioning and activation, the
   multi-homing mechanism SHOULD allow arbitrary grouping of PE nodes
   into redundancy groups where each redundancy group represents all
   multi-homed groups that share the same group of PEs. 

   This is best explained with an example: consider three PE nodes -
   PE1, PE2 and PE3. The multi-homing mechanism MUST allow a given PE,
   say PE1, to be part of multiple redundancy groups concurrently. For
   example, there can be a group (PE1, PE2), a group (PE1, PE3), and
   another group (PE2, PE3) where CEs could be multi-homed to any one of
 

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   these three redundancy groups. 

4.6.   Multi-homed Network

   There are applications, which require an Ethernet network, rather
   than a single device, to be multi-homed to a group of PEs. The
   Ethernet network would typically run a resiliency mechanism such as
   Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol [802.1Q] or Ethernet Ring Protection
   Switching [G.8032]. The PEs may or may not participate in the control
   protocol of the Ethernet network. For a multi-homed network running
   [802.1Q] or [G.8032], these protocols require that each VLAN to be
   active only on one of the multi-homed links.  

   (R6a) A solution MUST support multi-homed network connectivity with
   active/standby redundancy. 

   (R6b) A solution MUST also support multi-homed network with all-
   active VLAN-based load balancing (i.e. disjoint VLAN sets active on
   disparate PEs). 

   (R6c) A solution MAY support VLAN-based load balancing among PEs that
   are member of a redundancy group spanning multiple ASes. 

   (R6d) A solution MAY support multi-homed network with all-active MAC-
   based load balancing (i.e. different MAC addresses on a VLAN are
   reachable via different PEs).

5. Multicast Optimization Requirements

   There are environments where the usage of MP2MP LSPs may be desirable
   for optimizing multicast, broadcast and unknown unicast traffic in
   order to reduce the amount of multicast states in the core routers.
   [VPLS-MCAST] precludes the usage of MP2MP LSPs since current VPLS
   solutions require an egress PE to perform learning when it receives
   unknown unicast packets over a LSP. This is challenging when MP2MP
   LSPs are used, as MP2MP LSPs do not have inherent mechanisms to
   identify the sender. The usage of MP2MP LSPs for multicast
   optimization becomes tractable if the need to identify the sender for
   performing learning is lifted. 

   (R7a) A solution MUST be able to provide a mechanism that does not
   require MAC learning against MPLS LSPs when packets are received over
   a MP2MP LSP. 

   (R7b) A solution SHOULD be able to provide procedures to use MP2MP
   LSPs for optimizing delivery of multicast, broadcast and unknown
 

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   unicast traffic.

6. Ease of Provisioning Requirements

   As L2VPN technologies expand into enterprise deployments, ease of
   provisioning becomes paramount. Even though current VPLS has an auto-
   discovery mechanism, which enables automated discovery of member PEs
   belonging to a given VPN instance over the MPLS/IP core network,
   further simplifications are required, as outlined below:

   (R8a) The solution MUST support auto-discovery of VPN member PEs over
   MPLS/IP core network similar to VPLS auto-discovery mechanism
   described in [RFC4761] and [RFC6074].

   (R8b) The solution SHOULD support auto-discovery of PEs belonging to
   a given redundancy or multi-homed group.

   (R8c) The solution SHOULD support auto-sensing of the site-id for a
   multi-homed device or network, and support auto-generation of the
   redundancy group-id based on the site-id.

   (R8d) The solution SHOULD support automated Designated Forwarder (DF)
   election among PEs participating in a redundancy (multi-homing) group
   and to be able to divide service instances (e.g., VLANs) among member
   PEs of the redundancy group. 

   (R8e) For deployments where VLAN identifiers are global across the
   MPLS network (i.e. the network is limited to a maximum of 4K
   services), the PE devices SHOULD derive the MPLS specific attributes
   (e.g., VPN ID, BGP Route Target, etc.) from the VLAN identifier. This
   way, it is sufficient for the network operator to configure the VLAN
   identifier(s) for the access circuit, and all the MPLS and BGP
   parameters required for setting up the service over the core network
   would be automatically derived without any need for explicit
   configuration.

   Implementations SHOULD revert to using default values for parameters
   as and where applicable.

7. New Service Interface Requirements

   [MEF] and [IEEE 802.1Q] have the following services specified:

   - Port mode: in this mode, all traffic on the port is mapped to a
   single bridge domain and a single corresponding L2VPN service
   instance. Customer VLAN transparency is guaranteed end-to-end.

 

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   - VLAN mode: in this mode, each VLAN on the port is mapped to a
   unique bridge domain and corresponding L2VPN service instance. This
   mode allows for service multiplexing over the port and supports
   optional VLAN translation.

   - VLAN bundling: in this mode, a group of VLANs on the port are
   collectively mapped to a unique bridge domain and corresponding L2VPN
   service instance. Customer MAC addresses must be unique across all
   VLANs mapped to the same service instance.

   For each of the above services a single bridge domain is assigned per
   service instance on the PE supporting the associated service. For
   example, in case of the port mode, a single bridge domain is assigned
   for all the ports belonging to that service instance regardless of
   number of VLANs coming through these ports.

   It is worth noting that the term 'bridge domain' as used above refers
   to a MAC forwarding table as defined in the IEEE bridge model, and
   does not denote or imply any specific implementation. 

   [RFC4762] defines two types of VPLS services based on "unqualified
   and qualified learning" which in turn maps to port mode and VLAN mode
   respectively.  

   A solution is required to support the above three service types plus
   two additional service types which are primarily intended for hosted
   data center applications and are described below.

   For hosted data center interconnect applications, network operators
   require the ability to extend Ethernet VLANs over a WAN using a
   single L2VPN instance while maintaining data-plane separation between
   the various VLANs associated with that instance. This is referred to
   as VLAN-aware bundling service. 

   (R9) A solution MAY support VLAN-aware bundle service.

   This gives rise to two new service interface types: VLAN-aware
   bundling without translation, and VLAN-aware bundling with
   translation.

   The VLAN-aware Bundling without Translation service interface has the
   following characteristics:

   - The service interface MUST provide bundling of customer VLANs into
   a single L2VPN service instance.

   - The service interface MUST guarantee customer VLAN transparency
   end-to-end.
 

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   - The service interface MUST maintain data-plane separation between
   the customer VLANs (i.e. create a dedicated bridge-domain per VLAN).

   In the special case of all-to-one bundling, the service interface
   MUST NOT assume any a priori knowledge of the customer VLANs. In
   other words, the customer VLANs shall not be configured on the PE,
   rather the interface is configured just like a port-based service.

   The VLAN-aware Bundling with Translation service interface has the
   following characteristics:

   - The service interface MUST provide bundling of customer VLANs into
   a single L2VPN service instance.

   - The service interface MUST maintain data-plane separation between
   the customer VLANs (i.e. create a dedicated bridge-domain per VLAN).

   The service interface MUST support customer VLAN translation to
   handle the scenario where different VLAN Identifiers (VIDs) are used
   on different interfaces to designate the same customer VLAN.

   The main difference, in terms of service provider resource
   allocation, between these new service types and the previously
   defined three types is that the new services require several bridge
   domains to be allocated (one per customer VLAN) per L2VPN service
   instance as opposed to a single bridge domain per L2VPN service
   instance.

8. Fast Convergence

   (R10a) A solution MUST provide the ability to recover from PE-CE
   attachment circuit failures as well as PE node failure for the case
   of both multi-homed device and multi-homed network. 

   (R10b) The recovery mechanism(s) MUST provide convergence time that
   is independent of the number of MAC addresses learned by the PE. This
   is particularly important in the context of virtualization
   applications which are fueling an increase in the number of MAC
   addresses to be handled by the Layer 2 network.  

   (R10c) Furthermore, the recovery mechanism(s) SHOULD provide
   convergence time that is independent of the number of service
   instances associated with the attachment circuit or the PE.

 

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9. Flood Suppression

   (R11) The solution SHOULD allow the network operator to choose
   whether unknown unicast frames are to be dropped or to be flooded.
   This attribute needs to be configurable on a per service instance
   basis.

   In addition, for the case where the solution is used for data-center
   interconnect, it is required to minimize the flooding of broadcast
   frames outside the confines of a given site. Of particular interest
   is periodic ARP traffic. 

   Furthermore, it is required to eliminate any unnecessary flooding of
   unicast traffic upon topology changes, especially in the case of
   multi-homed site where the PEs have a priori knowledge of the backup
   paths for a given MAC address.

10. Supporting Flexible VPN Topologies and Policies

   (R12) A solution MUST be capable of supporting flexible VPN
   topologies that are not constrained by the underlying mechanisms of
   the solution. 

   One example of this is E-TREE topology where one or more sites in the
   VPN are roots and the others are leaves. The roots are allowed to
   send traffic to other roots and to leaves, while leaves can
   communicate only with the roots. The solution MUST provide the
   ability to support E-TREE topology. 

   (R12b) The solution MAY provide the ability to apply policies at the
   MAC address granularity to control which PEs in the VPN learn which
   MAC address and how a specific MAC address is forwarded. It should be
   possible to apply policies to allow only some of the member PEs in
   the VPN to send or receive traffic for a particular MAC address.

   (R12c) A solution MUST be capable of supporting both inter-AS option-
   C and inter-AS option-B scenarios as described in [RFC4364]. 

11. Contributors

   Samer Salam, Cisco, ssalam@cisco.com
   John Drake, Juniper, jdrake@juniper.net
   Clarence Filsfils, Cisco, cfilsfil@cisco.com

12. Security Considerations

   Any protocol extensions developed for the EVPN solution shall include
   the appropriate security analysis. The requirement is to introduce no
 

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   new vulnerabilities beyond those of [RFC4761] and [RFC4762] when MAC
   learning is performed in data-plane and beyond that of [RFC4364] when
   MAC learning is performed in control plane.

13. IANA Considerations

   None.

14. Normative References
   [RFC2119] "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels",
              August 1996.

   [RFC4761] Kompella, K. and Y. Rekhter, "Virtual Private LAN Service
              (VPLS) Using BGP for Auto-Discovery and Signaling", RFC
              4761, January 2007.

   [RFC4762] Lasserre, M. and V. Kompella, "Virtual Private LAN Service
              (VPLS) Using Label Distribution Protocol (LDP) Signaling",
              RFC 4762, January 2007.

   [RFC4364] "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)", February
              2006.

   [802.1AX] IEEE Std. 802.1AX-2008, "IEEE Standard for Local and
              metropolitan area networks - Link Aggregation", IEEE
              Computer Society, November 2008.

   [802.1Q] IEEE Std. 802.1Q-2011, "IEEE Standard for Local and
              metropolitan area networks - Virtual Bridged Local Area
              Networks", 2011.

   [RFC6074] E. Rosen and B. Davie, "Provisioning, Auto-Discovery, and
              Signaling in Layer 2 Virtual Private Networks (L2VPNs)",
              January 2011.

14. Informative References
   [RFC4664] "Framework for Layer 2 Virtual Private Networks (L2VPNs)",
              September 2006.

   [VPLS-BGP-MH] Kothari et al., "BGP based Multi-homing in Virtual
              Private LAN Service", draft-ietf-l2vpn-vpls-multihoming-
              06, work in progress, February, 2013.

   [PWE3-ICCP] Martini et al., "Inter-Chassis Communication Protocol for
              L2VPN PE Redundancy", draft-ietf-pwe3-iccp-11.txt, work in
 

Sajassi, et al.          Expires April 15, 2014                [Page 14]
INTERNET DRAFT       Requirements for Ethernet VPN         July 15, 2013

              progress, February, 2013.

   [VPLS-MCAST] R. Aggarwal, et al., "Multicast in VPLS", draft-ietf-
              l2vpn-vpls-mcast-15.txt, work in progress, July 2013.

   [MEF] MEF 6.1 Technical Specification, "Ethernet Service
              Definitions",  April 2008.

   [RFC6790] K. Kompella et al., "The Use of Entropy Labels in MPLS
              Forwarding", RFC 6790, November 2012.

15. Author's Address

      Ali Sajassi
      Cisco
      Email: sajassi@cisco.com

      Rahul Aggarwal
      Arktan
      Email: raggarwa_1@yahoo.com

      Wim Henderickx
      Alcatel-Lucent
      Email: wim.henderickx@alcatel-lucent.com

      Aldrin Isaac
      Bloomberg
      Email: aisaac71@bloomberg.net

      James Uttaro
      AT&T
      Email: uttaro@att.com

      Nabil Bitar
      Verizon Communications
      Email : nabil.n.bitar@verizon.com

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