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Network-Hexagons: H3-LISP GeoState & Mobility Network
draft-ietf-lisp-nexagon-10

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This is an older version of an Internet-Draft whose latest revision state is "Active".
Authors Sharon Barkai , Bruno Fernandez-Ruiz , Sharon Barkai , Rotem Tamir , Alberto Rodriguez-Natal , Fabio Maino , Albert Cabellos-Aparicio , Dino Farinacci
Last updated 2021-09-01
Replaces draft-barkai-lisp-nexagon
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
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draft-ietf-lisp-nexagon-10
LISP Working Group                                             S. Barkai
Internet-Draft                                         B. Fernandez-Ruiz
Intended status: Informational                                  S. ZionB
Expires: January 1, 2022                                        R. Tamir
                                                              Nexar Inc.
                                                      A. Rodriguez-Natal
                                                                F. Maino
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                    A. Cabellos-Aparicio
                                                   J. Paillisse Vilanova
                                       Technical University of Catalonia
                                                            D. Farinacci
                                                             lispers.net
                                                       September 1, 2021

        Network-Hexagons: H3-LISP GeoState & Mobility Network
                    draft-ietf-lisp-nexagon-10

Abstract

   This document specifies the use of H3 and LISP for Geolocation
   services, the utilization of geospatial data for mobility-uses by:
   - Predefined IPv6 addressable tiled abstraction of road-segments.
   - Interface for detections and annotations of tiled road-segments.
   - Sharing hazards, blockages, parking, weather, inventory..
   - Brokering the production and consumption of geo-state.
   - IP multicast channels of geo-state to subscribed clients.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 1, 2022.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Deployment Assumptions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Mobility Clients Network Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   6.  Mobility Unicast-Multicast  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   8.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   10. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9

1.  Introduction

  The Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) [I-D.ietf-lisp-rfc6830bis]
  splits IP addresses in two different namespaces, Endpoint Identifiers
  (EIDs) and Routing Locators (RLOCs). LISP uses map-and-encap approach
  (1) a Mapping System (distributed database) that stores and resolves
  EID-RLOC mappings and on (2) LISP tunnel routers (xTRs) encapsulating
   and decapsulating data packets based on content of those mappings.

  H3 (https://h3geo.org)is a geospatial indexing system using hexagonal
  grid that can be subdivided into finer and finer hexagonal grids,
  combining the benefits of a hexagonal grid with hierarchy.
  H3 supports sixteen resolutions. Each finer resolution has cells with
  1/7 the area of the coarser resolution. Hexagons cannot be perfectly
  subdivided into seven hexagons, so the finer cells are approximately
  contained within a parent cell. Each cell is identified by 64bit HID.

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  The Berkeley Deep Drive (BDD) (https://bdd-data.berkeley.edu) Industry
  Consortium investigates computer vision technologies for automotive
  applications and for taxonomy of published automotive classification.

  These standards are combined to create an in-network state reflecting
  condition of each hexagonal tile (~1sqm) in every road. LISP network
  maps & encapsulates traffic between client endpoint identifiers (EID)
  and addressable tile-objects (HID=>EID). Objects are aggregated by
  H3 EID services.

  The H3-LISP mobility network bridges timing and location gaps between
  production and consumption of information by clients of mobility data:
   o vision, sensory, LIADR, AI applications -- information producers
   o driving-apps, map-apps, command & control -- information consumers

  This is achieved by putting the physical world on a shared addressable
  state-grid of road-segments at the edge for low-latency upload.
  Tiled geo-state sharing is done using a brokered-network of tile
  representation, an indirection which solves key issues in v2v
  information sharing. For example multiple perspectives, geo-privacy,
  cyber security. These challenges arise when clients communicate
  when they do not really need to. A communication pattern which causes
  unnecessary complexity and exposures.

  In non brokered v2v models, a situation observable by some end-points,
  it is unclear if the relevant nee-to-know end-points will receive:
  i. consistent, ii. conflicting, iii. multiple, or iv. no indications.
  As an example, when a vehicle experiences a sudden highway slow-down,
  sees brake lights or "feels" an accelerometer slowdown, there is no
  clear way for it to share this annotation with vehicles 20-30sec away.
  Or, when a vehicle crosses an intersection, observing opposite-lane
  obstruction such as: construction, double-park, commercial loading,
  garbage truck, or stopped school-bus.. there is no clear way for it
  to alert approachers from another direction as it drives away.

  Geo-state indirection helps communicate advanced machine vision and
  radar annotations. These are evolving technologies, and relaying road
  enumerations using peer-to-peer poses significant interoperability
  challenges.

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  These peer-to-peer limitations are inherent yet unnecessary, in most
  situations vehicles are not really proper peers. They happen to be in
  the same place at the same time. H3-LISP mobility network solves these
  limitations of direct vehicle-to-vehicle communication by broker-tile.
  Bridging timing, security, privacy, and interoperability gaps.
  Brokering is achieved by clients communicating through tiles.
  Addressable tiles are aggregated and maintained by H3 EIDs.

  Clients can provide drivers with heads-up alerts on hazards/obstacles
  beyond the line of sight of the driver and the in-car sensors: over
  traffic, around blocks, far-side junction, beyond road turns or
  curvatures. This highlights the importance of networks for road safety
  and role in Autonomous Vehicle (AV) operation support (AV-OSS).

  To summarize the H3-LISP solution outline:

  (1) MicroPartition: 64bit indexed geo-spatial H3.r15 of road-tiles
  (2) EnumState: 64bit state values of tile condition representation
  (3) Aggregation: EID per H3.r9 group of individual H3.r15 road-tiles
  (4) Channels: H3.r9 EIDs multicast address for geo-state updates
  (5) Scale: EID addressable services distributed for throughput
  (6) Overlay: tunneled-network routes the mobility-network traffic
  (7) Signal-free: overlay is used to map-register for mcast channels
  (8) Aggregation: tunnels used between client EIDs and H3 EIDs
  (9) Access: client/server XTRs tunnel traffic to-from the LISP RTRs
  (10) Control: RTRs register-resolve H3 EIDs and mcast subscriptions

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  |-0-|-1-|-2-|-3-|-4-|-5-|-6-|-7-|-8-|-9-|-A-|-B-|-C-|-D-|-E-|-F-|
  |                        H3 Hexagon ID Key                      |
  |-0-|-1-|-2-|-3-|-4-|-5-|-6-|-7-|-8-|-9-|-A-|-B-|-C-|-D-|-E-|-F-|
  |                      H3 Hexagon State-Value                   |
  |---------------------------------------------------------------|

  Each H3.r9 hexagon is an EID Service with corresponding H3 hexagon ID.
  Bound to that service is a LISP xTR specified to encapsulate packets
  to and from EID services and LISP Edge. Edge RTRs are used to re
  -tunnel packets from clients to services. Each service is also a
  multicast source for updating clients on the state of the H3.r15
  tiles aggregated by the EID services.

2.  Requirements Language

3. Definition of Terms

  H3ServiceEID: Is an addressable aggregation of H3.r15 state-tiles.
     It is a designated destination for physical world annotations, and
     an (s,g) source of multicast public-safety update channels.
     H3ServiceEID is itself an H3 hexagon, large enough to provide
     geo-spatial conditions context, but not too large as to over-burden
     subscribers with too much information. For Mobility Network it is
     H3.r9. It has a light-weight LISP protocol stack to tunnel packets
     aka ServerXTR. The EID is an IPv6 EID that contains the H3 64-bit
     address numbering scheme. See IANA consideration for details.

  ServerXTR: Is a data-plane only LISP protocol stack implementation, it
     co-exists with H3ServiceEID process. When the server roams, the xTR
     is with it. ServerXTR encaps/decaps packets to/from EdgeRTRs.

  MobilityClient: Is a roaming application that may be a part of an
     automobile, part of a navigation application, part of municipal,
     state or federal government command and control application, or a
     street view consumer application. It has a light-weight LISP
     data-plane stack to tunnel packets, aka ClientXTR.

  MobilityClient EID: Is the IPv6 EID used by the Mobility Clients
     to source packets. The destination of such packets are only
     H3ServiceEIDs. The EID format is opaque and is assigned as
     part of the MobilityClient mobility-network authorization.

  ClientXTR: Is a data-plane only LISP protocol stack implementation
     co-located with the Mobility Client application. It encaps/
     decaps packets from/to applications to/from EdgeRTRs.

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  EdgeRTR: Is the core scale and structure of the LISP mobility network.
     EdgeRTRs proxy H3ServiceEIDs and MobilityClient H3ServiceEID mcast
     registration. EdgeRTRs aggregate MobilityClients/H3Services using
     tunnels to facilitate hosting-providers and mobile-providers for
     accessing the mobility network.  EdgeRTRs decapsulate packets
     from ClientXTRs, ServerXTRs and re-encaps packets to the clients
     and servers tunnels. EdgeRTRs glean H3ServiceEIDs/MobilityClient
     EIDs when they decapsulates packets. EdgeRTRs store H3ServiceEIDs
     and RLOCs of where the H3ServiceEID is currently reachable from
     the map-cache. These mappings are registered to the LISP mapping
     so other EdgeRTRs know where to encapsulate for such EIDs. These
     mappings may be provisioned by dev-ops when H3Services are
     assigned EdgeRTRs. EdgeRTRs do not register MobilityClients' EIDs
     at the mapping as these are temporary-renewed while using the
     mobility network. Enterprises may provide their own EdgeRTRs to
     protect geo-privacy.

                          ___                                  ___
   H3ServiceEIDs   ___  /     \           H3ServiceEIDs ___  /     \
            ___  /     | H3.r9 |                 ___  /     | H3.r9 |
          /     | H3.r9 \ ___ /                /     | H3.r9 \ ___ /
         | H3.r9 \ ___ /  sXTR                | H3.r9 \ ___ /  sXTR
          \ ___ /  sXTR    |                   \ ___ /  sXTR     |
            sXTR    |      |                     sXTR     |      |
             |      |      |                      |       |      |
             |      |      |                      |       |      |
             + -  - + - - EdgeRTR           EdgeRTR - + - + - -  +
                             ||  (   (   ((  ||
                          (                        )
                        (      Network Hexagons      )
                      (            H3-LISP              )
                        (      Mobility Network       )
                          ((                        )
                            ||  ((   (())   ()  ||
                            ||                  ||
                = = = = = = =                     = = = = = = =
               ||                                             ||
            EdgeRTR                                         EdgeRTR
           ..    ..                                      ..      ..
          ..       ..                                  ..          ..
  ((((|))))    ((((|))))                         ((((|))))    ((((|))))
     /|\    RAN   /|\                               /|\    RAN   /|\
      ..                                                            ..
      ..                                                            ..
      ..          Road tiled by 1 sqm H3.r15 ID-Ed Geo-States       ..
      ..                                                            ..
      ..                  ___    ___    ___                         ..
      ..  ............. /     \/     \/     \ << cXTR::MobilityClientB
      .. - - - - - - -  H3.r15  H3.r15 H3.r15 - - - - - - - - - - - -
      MobilityClientA::cXTR >> \ ___ /\ ___ / .......................

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  - MobilityClientA has seen MobilityClientB future, and, vice versa
  - Clients share information using addressable state routed by LISP
  - ClientXTR (cXTR): tunnel encaps over access network to EdgeRTR
  - ServerXTR (sXTR): tunnel encaps over cloud network to EdgeRTR
  - H3-LISP Mobility overlay spans cXTRs to sXTRs
  - Uploads are routed to appropriate tile by the LISP network
  - EdgeRTRs perform multicast replication to edges and then cXTRs
  - Clients receive tile-by-tile geo-state updates via the multicast

4.  Deployment Assumptions

   The specification described in this document makes the following
   deployment assumptions:

   (1) Unique 64-bit HID is associated with each H3 geo-spatial tile
   (2) MobilityClients and H3ServiceEIDs share this well known index
   (3) 64-bit BDD state value is associated with each H3-indexed tile
   (4) Tile state is compiled 16 fields of 4-bits, or max 16 enums

  |-0-|-1-|-2-|-3-|-4-|-5-|-6-|-7-|-8-|-9-|-A-|-B-|-C-|-D-|-E-|-F-|
   0123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123

   We name the nibbles using hexadecimal index according to the
   position where the most significant nibble has index 0.
   Values are defined in section 9.

   Subscription of MobilityClients to mobility-network is renewed
   while on the move and is not intended as the basic connectivity.
   MobilityClients use DNS/AAA to obtain temporary EIDs/EdgeRTRs
   and use (LISP) data-plane tunnels to communicate using their
   temporary EIDs with the dynamically assigned EdgeRTRs.

   MobilityClient are otherwise unaware of the LISP network control
   plane and simply regard the data-plane tunnels as a virtual
   private network (VPN) that supports IPv6 EID to publish (Ucast)
   and Subscribe-to (Mcast) H3Services.

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   In order to get access to the MobilityVPN, MobilityClients first
   authenticate with the MobilityVPN AAA Server. DIAMETER [RFC6733]
   based AAA is typically done at the provider edge (PE) by gateways.
   However, the typical case involves several types of CPE connected
   to a specific service provider. The Mobility VPN, on the other hand,
   may overlay a number of wireless networks and cloud-edge providers.
   It also involves dozens of Car-OEM, Driving-Applications, Smart-
   City vendors. This is why we require clients to first go through
   AAA in order to get both a MobilityClientEID and EdgeRTR RLOC.

   ClientXTR performs the following steps to use the mobility network:
   1) obtain the address of the mobility network AAA server using DNS
   2) obtain MobilityClientEID and EdgeRTR(s) from AAA DIAMETER server
   3) renew authorization from AAA while using the mobility network

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  MobilityClient   Domain Name Server    DIAMETER AAA   Mobility EdgeRTR
          |                    |                   |                   |
          | nslookup nexagon   |                   |                   |
          |------------------->|                   |                   |
          |<-------------------|                   |                   |
          |  Mobility AAA IP   |                   |                   |
          |                    |                   |                   |
          |  AAR(AVP:IMSI/User/Password/Toyota)    |                   |
          |--------------------------------------->|                   |
          |                    |                   | ACR(AVP ClientEID)|
          |                    |                   |------------------>|
          |                    |                   |<------------------|
          |                    |                   | ACA(AVP ClientEID)|
          |    AAA (Client::EID,EdgeRTR::RLOC)     |                   |
          |<---------------------------------------|                   |
          |                    |                   |                   |
          .                                                            .
          .                                                            .
          .                                                            .
          |   Publish IPv6 H3ServiceEID, Subscribe MLDv2 H3ServiceEID  |
          |----------------------------------------------------------->|
          .                                                            .
          .                                                            .
          |<-----------------------------------------------------------|
          |       Signal freeing multicast Updates from H3ServiceEIDs  |
          .                                                            .
          .                                                            .
          .                                                            .
          |                    |                   |                   |
          |               AAR(Interim)             |                   |
          |--------------------------------------->|   ACR (Interim)   |
          |                    |                   |------------------>|
          |                    |                   |<------------------|
          |                    |                   |   ACA (Interim)   |
          |<---------------------------------------|                   |
          |               AAA (Interim)            |                   |

   Using this network login and re-login method we ensure that:
   - the MobilityClientEIDs serve as credentials with the EdgeRTRs
   - EdgeRTRs are provisioned to whitelist MobilityClient EIDs
   - EdgeRTRs are not tightly coupled to H3.r9 areas (privacy/balance)
   - Mobility Clients do not need to update EdgeRTRs while roaming

   The same EdgeRTR may serve several H3.r9 areas for ride continuity
   and several EdgeRTRs may load balance an H3.r9 area with high
   density of MobilityClients. When a MobilityClient ClientXTR is
   homed to EdgeRTR, it is able to communicate with H3ServiceEIDs.

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5. Mobility Clients Network Services

  The mobility network functions as a standard LISP overlay.
  The overlay delivers unicast and multicast packets across:
   - multiple access-networks and radio-access specifications
   - multiple edie providers, public, private, and hybrid clouds

  We use data-plane XTRs in the stack of each mobility client/server.
  ClientXTRs and ServerXTRs are homed to one or more EdgeRTRs.
  This structure allows for MobilityClients to "show up" at any time,
  behind any network provider in a given mobility network admin
  domain, and for any H3ServiceEID to be instantiated, moved, or
  failed-over to any rack in any cloud-provider. LISP overlay enables
  these roaming mobility network elements to communicate uninterrupted.
  This quality is insured by the LISP RFCs. The determination of
  identities for MobilityClients to always refer to the correct
  H3ServiceEID is insured by H3 geo-spatial HIDs.

  There are two options to associate ClientXTRs with LISP EdgeRTRs:

  I. Semi-random load-balancing by DNS/AAA

  In this option we assume that in a given metro edge a pool of
  EdgeRTRs can distribute the Mobility Clients load randomly between
  them and that EdgeRTRs are topologically equivalent. Each RTR uses
  LISP to tunnel traffic to and from other EdgeRTRs for MobilityClient
  with H3Service exchanges. MobilityClients home to EdgeRTRs.

  II. Topological by anycast

  In this option we align an EdgeRTR with topological aggregation.
  Mobility Clients are roaming in an area home to that RTR and so
  is the H3 Server. There is only one hop across the edge overlay
  between clients and servers and mcast replication is more
  focused, but clients need to keep re-homing as they move.

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  To summarize the H3LISP mobility network layout:

   (1) Mobility-Clients traffic is tunneled via data-plane ClientXTRs
       ClientXTRs are (multi) homed to EdgeRTR(s)
   (2) H3ServiceEID traffic is tunneled via data-plane ServerXTR
       ServerXTRs are (multi) homed to EdgeRTR(s)
   (3) EdgeRTRs use mapping service to resolve Ucast HIDs to RTR RLOCs
       EdgeRTRs also register to (Source, Group) H3ServiceEID multicasts

       MobilityClients <> ClientXTR <Access Provider > EdgeRTR  v
                                                                v
       v      << Map-Assisted Mobility-Network Overlay <<       v
       v
       >> EdgeRTR <Cloud Provider> ServerXTR <> H3ServiceEID

6. Mobility Unicast and Multicast

  Regardless of the way a given ClientXTR was associated with EdgeRTR,
  an authenticated MobilityClient EID can send: [64bitH3.15ID ::
  64bitState]annotations to the H3.r9 H3ServiceEID. The H3.r9 EID can
  be calculated by clients algorithmically from the H3.15 localization.

  The ClientXTR encapsulates MobilityClient EID and H3ServiceEID from
  the ClientXTR with the destination of the EdgeRTR RLOC LISP port.
  EdgeRTRs then re-encapsulate annotation packets either to a remote
  EdgeRTR (option 1) or to homed H3ServiceEID ServerXTR (option 2).
  The remote EdgeRTR aggregating H3ServiceEIDs re-encapsulates
  MobilityClient EID to the ServerXTR, to the H3ServiceEID.

  The headers consist of the following fields:

  Outer headers = 40 (IPv6) + 8 (UDP) + 8 (LISP) = 56
  Inner headers = 40 (IPv6) + 8 (UDP) + 4 (Nexagon Header) = 52
  1500 (MTU) - 56 - 52 = 1392 bytes of effective payload

  Nexagon Header Type allows for kv tupples of vkkk flooding
  Type 1:key-value, key-value.. 1392 / (8 + 8) = 87 pairs
  Type 2:value, key,key,key.. (1392 - 8) / 8 = 173 H3-R15 IDs

  Nexagon Header GZIP allows for compression, very effective for H3IDs
  Nexagon Header Reserved bits
  Nexagon Header kv count (in any format)

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 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ \
|Version| Traffic Class |           Flow Label                  |  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
|         Payload Length        |  Next Header  |   Hop Limit   |  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
|                                                               |  |
+                                                               +  |
|                                                               |  |
+                    Source MobilityClientEID                   +  |
|                                                               | IPv6
+                                                               +  |
|                                                               |  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
|                                                               |  |
+                                                               +  |
|                                                               |  |
+                       Dest H3ServiceEID                       +  |
|                                                               |  |
+                                                               +  |
|                                                               | /
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|       Source Port = xxxx      |       Dest Port = xxxx        | \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ UDP
|           UDP Length          |        UDP Checksum           | /
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ \
|  Type         |gzip |        Reserved         | Pair Count = X| Nexgon
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ /
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit H3-R15 ID                        +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit State                            +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit H3-R15 ID                        +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit State                            +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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  To Summarize Unicast:

   (1) MobilityClients can send annotations are localized to H3.r15
       tile. These annotations are sent to H3.r9 mobility H3ServiceEIDs
   (2) MobilityClient EID and H3ServiceEID HID are encapsulated:
         XTR <> RTR <> RTR <> XTR
       * RTRs can map-resolve re-tunnel HIDs
   (3) RTRs re-encapsulate original source-dest to ServerXTRs
       ServerXTRs decapsulate packets to H3ServiceEID

  Each H3.r9 Server is also an IP Multicast Source used to update
  subscribers on the aggregate state of the H3.r15 tiles in the H3.r9
  server. This forms a multipoint to multipoint state channel per H3
  location, where the aggregation has compute-first propagation.

  We use [RFC8378] signal-free multicast to implement mcast channels in
  the overlay. The mobility network has many channels, with thousands
  subscribers per channel. MobilityClients driving through/subscribing
  to an H3.r9 area can explicitly issue an [rfc4604] MLDv2 in order to
  subscribe, or, may be subscribed implicitly by the EdgeRTR.

  The advantage of explicit client MLDv2 registration as [RFC8378]
  trigger is that clients manage their own mobility mcast handover per
  location-direction vectors, and that it allows for otherwise silent
  non annotating clients. The advantage of EdgeRTR implicit registration
  is that less signaling required.

  MLDv2 signaling messages are encapsulated between the ClientXTR and
  EdgeRTR, therefore there is no requirement for the underlying network
  to support native multicast. If native access multicast is supported
  then MobilityClient registration to H3ServiceEID safety channels may
  be integrated with it, in which case mobile packet-core element
  supporting it will use this standard to register with the
  appropriate H3.r9 channels in its area.

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  Multicast update packets are of the following structure:

 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ \
|Version| Traffic Class |           Flow Label                  |  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
|         Payload Length        |  Next Header  |   Hop Limit   |  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
|                                                               |  |
+                                                               +  |
|                                                               |  |
+                       Source H3-R9 EID Address                +  |
|                                                               | IPv6
+                                                               +  |
|                                                               |  |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+  |
|                                                               |  |
+                                                               +  |
|                                                               |  |
+                          Group Address                        +  |
|                                                               |  |
+                                                               +  |
|                                                               | /
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|       Source Port = xxxx      |       Dest Port = xxxx        | \
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ UDP
|           UDP Length          |        UDP Checksum           | /
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ \
|                                                               |Nexagon
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ /
~                            Nexagons Payload                   ~
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ \
|  Type =   1   |gzip |        Reserved         | Pair Count = X|Nexagon
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ /
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit H3-R15 ID                        +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit State                            +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit H3-R15 ID                        +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit State                            +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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 0                   1                   2                   3
 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ \
|  Type =   2   |gzip |     Reserved            |H3R15 Count = X|Nexagon
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ /
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit State                            +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit H3-R15 ID                        +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit H3-R15 ID                        +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
|                                                               |
+                       64 Bit H3-R15 ID                        +
|                                                               |
+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

  The remote EdgeRTRs homing MobilityClients in turn replicate the
  packet to the MobilityClients registered with them.

  We expect an average of 600 H3.r15 tiles of the full 7^6 (~100K)
  possible in H3.r9 to be part of any road. The H3.r9 server can
  transmit the status of all 600 or just those with meaningful states
  based on updated SLA and policy.

  To Summarize:

   (1) H3LISP Clients tune to H3.r9 mobility updates using [RFC8378]
       H3LISP Client issue MLDv2 registration to H3.r9 HIDs
       ClientXTRs encapsulate MLDv2 to EdgeRTRs who register (s,g)

   (2) ServerXTRs encapsulate updates to EdgeRTRs who map-resolve (s,g)
       RLOCs EdgeRTRs replicate mobility update and tunnel to registered
       EdgeRTRs Remote EdgeRTRs replicate updates to ClientXTRs

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7.  Security Considerations

  The nexagon layer3 v2n network is inherently more secure and private
  then peer to peer alternatives because of the indirection. No car or
  infrastructure element communicates directly with MobilityClients.
  All information is conveyed using shared addressable geo-state.
  MobilityClients receive information only from network channels
  published by a trusted broker. MobilityClients have no indication as
  to the origin of the information. This is an important step towards
  better privacy, security, extendability, and interoperability compared
  with legacy layer2 protocols.

  In order to be able to use the nexagon mobility network for a given
  period, the mobility clients go through a DNS/AAA stage by which they
  obtain their clientEID identifiers-credentials and the RLOCs of
  EdgeRTRs they may use as gateways to the network. This MobilityClient
  <> EdgeRTR interface is the most sensitive in this network to privacy
  and security considerations.

  The traffic on the MobilityClient<>EdgeRTR interface is tunneled, and
  its UDP content may be encrypted; still, the EdgeRTR will know based
  on the LISP headers alone the MobilityClient RLOC and H3-R9 (~0.1sqkm)
  geo-spatial area to which a given client publishes or subscribes to.

  For this reason we envision the ability of enterprise or groups of
  users to "bring their own" EdgeRTRs. BYO-RTR masks individual clients'
  RLOC to H3-R9 association and is pre-provisioned to be able to use the
  mapping system and be on a white-list of EdgeRTRs aggregating
  H3ServiceEIDs. If the EdgeRTR functionality is delivered by 5GCore UPF
  then the only entity which can correlate underlay IP, User, and Geo-
  location is the regulated carrier, which can do so anyway.

  Beyond this hop, the mapping system does not hold MobilityClientEIDs,
  and remote EdgeRTRs are only aware of MobilityClient ephemeral EIDs,
  not actual RLOC or any other mobile-device identifiers. EdgeRTRs
  register in the mapping (s,g) H3-R9 multicast groups. Which clients
  use which EdgeRTR is not in the mapping system, only the AAA server is
  aware of that. The H3ServiceEIDs themselves decrypt and parse actual
  H3-R15 annotations; they also consider during this MobilityClientEID
  credentials to avoid "fake-news", but again these are only temporary
  EIDs allocated to clients in order to be able to use the mobility
  network and not for their actual IP.

  H3Services are provisioned to their EdgeRTRs, in the EdgeRTRs, and
  optionally also in the mapping system.

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  In summary of main risk mitigations for the lisp-nexagon interface:

  (1) tapping: all communications are through dynamic tunnels therefore
  may be encrypted using IP-Sec or other supported point to point
  underlay standards. These are not static tunnels but LISP re-tunneling
  routers (RTRs) perform all nexagon Overlay aggregation.

  (2) spoofing: it is very hard to guess a MobilityClientEID valid for
  a short period of time. Clients and H3Services EIDs are whitelisted
  in EdgeRTRs, Clients using the AAA procedure, H3Services via dev-ops.

  (3) impersonating: efforts to use MobilityClients and H3Services RLOCs
  should be caught by the underlying service provider edge and access
  networks. EID impersonating is caught by EdgeRTR EID RLOC whitelist
  mismatch.

  (4) credibility: the interface crowd-sources geo-state and does not
  assume to trust single detections. Credit history track to
  MobilityClientEIDs by as part of normal H3Services fact checking,
  aggregate scores affect AAA credentials.

  (5) privacy: Only EdgeRTRs are aware of both clients' RLOC and
  geo-location, only AAA is aware of client IDs credentials and credit
  but not geo-location. Aggregate credit score span all H3Services
  administratively without source.

8.  Acknowledgments

   This work is partly funded by the ANR LISP-Lab project #ANR-
   13-INFR-009 (https://lisplab.lip6.fr).

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9.  IANA Considerations

I. Formal H3 to IPv6 EID mapping

II. State enum fields of H3 tiles:

Field 0x: Traffic Direction {
0x - null
1x - Lane North
2x - Lane North + 30
3x - Lane North + 60
4x - Lane North + 90
5x - Lane North + 120
6x - Lane North + 150
7x - Lane North + 180
8x - Lane North + 210
9x - Lane North + 240
Ax - Lane North + 270
Bx - Lane North + 300
Cx - Lane North + 330
Dx - junction
Ex - shoulder
Fx - sidewalk
}

field 1x: Persistent or Structural {
 0x - null
 1x - pothole light
 2x - pothole severe
 3x - speed-bump low
 4x - speed-bump high
 5x - icy
 6x - flooded
 7x - snow-cover
 8x - snow-deep
 9x - construction cone
 Ax - gravel
 Bx - choppy
 Cx - blind-curve
 Dx - steep-slope
 Ex - low-bridge
}
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field 2x: Transient Condition {
 0x - null
 1x - pedestrian
 2x - bike scooter
 3x - stopped car / truck
 4x - moving car / truck
 5x - first responder vehicle
 6x - sudden slowdown
 7x - oversized over-height vehicle
 8x - red-light-breach
 9x - light collision (fender bender)
 Ax - hard collision / casualty
 Bx - collision course
 Cx - collision debris
 Dx - hard brake
 Ex - sharp corner
 Fx - freeing-parking
}

field 3x: Traffic-light Cycle {
 0x - null
 1x - 1 seconds to green
 2x - 2 seconds to green
 3x - 3 seconds to green
 4x - 4 seconds to green
 5x - 5 seconds to green
 6x - 6 seconds to green
 7x - 7 seconds to green
 8x - 8 seconds to green
 9x - 9 seconds to green
 Ax - 10 seconds or less
 Bx - 20 seconds or less
 Cx - 30 seconds or less
 Dx - 60 seconds or less
 Ex - green now
 Fx - red now
}

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field 4x: Impacted Tile from Neighboring {
 0x - null
 1x - epicenter
 2x - light yellow
 3x - yellow
 4x - light orange
 5x - orange
 6x - light red
 7x - red
 8x - light blue
 9x - blue
 Ax - green
 Bx - light green
}

field 5x: Transient, Cycle, Impacted, Valid for Next{
 0x - null
 1x - 1sec
 2x - 5sec
 3x - 10sec
 4x - 20sec
 5x - 40sec
 6x - 60sec
 7x - 2min
 8x - 3min
 9x - 4min
 Ax - 5min
 Bx - 10min
 Cx - 15min
 Dx - 30min
 Ex - 60min
 Fx - 24hours
}

field 6x: LaneRightsSigns {
 0x - null
 1x - yield
 2x - speedLimit
 3x - straightOnly
 4x - noStraight
 5x - rightOnly
 6x - noRight
 7x - rightStraight
 8x - leftOnly
 9x - leftStraight
 Ax - noLeft
 Bx - noUTurn
 Cx - noLeftU
 Dx - bikeLane
 Ex - HOVLane
 Fx - Stop
}

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field 7x: MovementSigns {
0x - null
1x - keepRight
2x - keepLeft
3x - stayInLane
4x - doNotEnter
5x - noTrucks
6x - noBikes
7x - noPeds
8x - oneWay
9x - parking
Ax - noParking
Bx - noStandaing
Cx - noPassing
Dx - loadingZone
Ex - railCross
Fx - schoolZone
}

field 8x: CurvesIntersectSigns {
0x - null
1x - turnsLeft
2x - turnsRight
3x - curvesLeft
4x - curvesRight
5x - reversesLeft
6x - reversesRight
7x - windingRoad
8x - hairPin
9x - pretzelTurn
Ax - crossRoads
Bx - crossT
Cx - crossY
Dx - circle
Ex - laneEnds
Fx - roadNarrows
}

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field 9x: Current Tile Speed {
0x - null
1x - < 5kmh
2x - < 10kmh
3x - < 15kmh
4x - < 20kmh
5x - < 30kmh
6x - < 40kmh
7x - < 50kmh
8x - < 60kmh
9x - < 80kmh
Ax - < 100kmh
Bx - < 120kmh
Cx - < 140kmh
Dx - < 160kmh
Ex - > 160kmh
Fx - queuedTraffic
}

field Ax: Vehicle / Pedestrian Traffic {
0x - null
1x - probability of ped/vehicle on tile close to 100%
2x - 95%
3x - 90%
4x - 85%
5x - 80%
6x - 70%
7x - 60%
8x - 50%
9x - 40%
Ax - 30%
Bx - 20%
Cx - 15%
Dx - 10%
Ex - 5%
Fx - probability of ped/vehicle on tile close to 0%, empty
}

filed Bx - reserved
field Cx - reserved
field Dx - reserved
field Ex - reserved
field Fx - reserved

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10.  Normative References

  [I-D.ietf-lisp-rfc6830bis]
              Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., Lewis, D., and A.
              Cabellos-Aparicio, "The Locator/ID Separation Protocol
              (LISP)", draft-ietf-lisp-rfc6830bis-36 (work in progress),
              September 2020.

   [RFC8378]  Farinacci, D., Moreno, V., "Signal-Free Locator/ID
              Separation Protocol (LISP) Multicast", RFC8378,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8378, May 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8378>.

   [RFC6733]  Fajardo, V., Ed., Arkko, J., Loughney, J., and G. Zorn,
              Ed., "Diameter Base Protocol", RFC 6733,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6733, October 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6733>.

Authors' Addresses

   Sharon Barkai
   Nexar
   CA
   USA

   Email: sbarkai@gmail.com

   Bruno Fernandez-Ruiz
   Nexar
   London
   UK

   Email: b@getnexar.com

   S ZionB
   Nexar
   Israel

   Email: sharon@fermicloud.io

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   Rotem Tamir
   Nexar
   Israel

   rotemtamir@getnexar.com

   Alberto Rodriguez-Natal
   Cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA
   USA

   Email: natal@cisco.com

   Fabio Maino
   Cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA
   USA

   Email: fmaino@cisco.com

   Albert Cabellos-Aparicio
   Technical University of Catalonia
   Barcelona
   Spain

   Email: acabello@ac.upc.edu

   Jordi Paillisse-Vilanova
   Technical University of Catalonia
   Barcelona
   Spain

   Email: jordip@ac.upc.edu

   Dino Farinacci
   lispers.net
   San Jose, CA
   USA

   Email: farinacci@gmail.com