Skip to main content

Dynamic Flooding on Dense Graphs
draft-ietf-lsr-dynamic-flooding-17

The information below is for an old version of the document.
Document Type
This is an older version of an Internet-Draft whose latest revision state is "Active".
Authors Tony Li , Peter Psenak , Huaimo Chen , Luay Jalil , Srinath Dontula
Last updated 2024-04-04 (Latest revision 2024-03-16)
Replaces draft-li-lsr-dynamic-flooding
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Formats
Reviews
Additional resources Mailing list discussion
Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication
Associated WG milestone
Dec 2023
SUBMITTED: Dynamic Flooding on Dense Graphs
Document shepherd Acee Lindem
Shepherd write-up Show Last changed 2024-01-10
IESG IESG state Approved-announcement to be sent::AD Followup
Consensus boilerplate Yes
Telechat date (None)
Responsible AD John Scudder
Send notices to Acee Lindem <acee@cisco.com>, acee.ietf@gmail.com
IANA IANA review state IANA OK - Actions Needed
draft-ietf-lsr-dynamic-flooding-17
Internet Engineering Task Force                               T. Li, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                          Juniper Networks
Intended status: Experimental                             P. Psenak, Ed.
Expires: 17 September 2024                           Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                                 H. Chen
                                                               Futurewei
                                                                L. Jalil
                                                                 Verizon
                                                              S. Dontula
                                                                     ATT
                                                           16 March 2024

                    Dynamic Flooding on Dense Graphs
                   draft-ietf-lsr-dynamic-flooding-17

Abstract

   Routing with link state protocols in dense network topologies can
   result in sub-optimal convergence times due to the overhead
   associated with flooding.  This can be addressed by decreasing the
   flooding topology so that it is less dense.

   This document discusses the problem in some depth and an
   architectural solution.  Specific protocol changes for IS-IS, OSPFv2,
   and OSPFv3 are described in this document.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 17 September 2024.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2024 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024               [Page 1]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Problem Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Solution Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  Dynamic Flooding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     4.1.  Applicability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     4.2.  Leader election . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.3.  Computing the Flooding Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     4.4.  Topologies on Complete Bipartite Graphs . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.4.1.  A Minimal Flooding Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.4.2.  Xia Topologies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       4.4.3.  Optimization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.5.  Encoding the Flooding Topology  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     4.6.  Advertising the Local Edges Enabled for Flooding  . . . .  12
   5.  Protocol Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.1.  IS-IS TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       5.1.1.  IS-IS Area Leader Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       5.1.2.  IS-IS Dynamic Flooding Sub-TLV  . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       5.1.3.  IS-IS Area Node IDs TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       5.1.4.  IS-IS Flooding Path TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       5.1.5.  IS-IS Flooding Request TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       5.1.6.  IS-IS LEEF Advertisement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     5.2.  OSPF LSAs and TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       5.2.1.  OSPF Area Leader Sub-TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       5.2.2.  OSPF Dynamic Flooding Sub-TLV . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       5.2.3.  OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSA  . . . . . . . . .  20
       5.2.4.  OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       5.2.5.  OSPF Area Router ID TLVs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
         5.2.5.1.  OSPFv2 Area Router ID TLV . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
         5.2.5.2.  OSPFv3 Area Router ID TLV . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
       5.2.6.  OSPF Flooding Path TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
       5.2.7.  OSPF Flooding Request Bit . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
       5.2.8.  OSPF LEEF Advertisement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   6.  Behavioral Specification  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     6.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     6.2.  Flooding Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     6.3.  Leader Election . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024               [Page 2]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

     6.4.  Area Leader Responsibilities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     6.5.  Distributed Flooding Topology Calculation . . . . . . . .  30
     6.6.  Use of LANs in the Flooding Topology  . . . . . . . . . .  31
       6.6.1.  Use of LANs in Centralized mode . . . . . . . . . . .  31
       6.6.2.  Use of LANs in Distributed Mode . . . . . . . . . . .  31
         6.6.2.1.  Partial flooding on a LAN in IS-IS  . . . . . . .  31
         6.6.2.2.  Partial Flooding on a LAN in OSPF . . . . . . . .  32
     6.7.  Flooding Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     6.8.  Treatment of Topology Events  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       6.8.1.  Temporary Addition of Links to the Flooding
               Topology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       6.8.2.  Local Link Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       6.8.3.  Node Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
       6.8.4.  Failures of Links Not on the Flooding Topology  . . .  35
       6.8.5.  Failures of Links On the Flooding Topology  . . . . .  36
       6.8.6.  Node Deletion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       6.8.7.  Local Link Addition to the Flooding Topology  . . . .  36
       6.8.8.  Local Link Deletion from the Flooding Topology  . . .  37
       6.8.9.  Treatment of Disconnected Adjacent Nodes  . . . . . .  37
       6.8.10. Failure of the Area Leader  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
       6.8.11. Recovery from Multiple Failures . . . . . . . . . . .  38
       6.8.12. Rate-Limiting Temporary Flooding  . . . . . . . . . .  38
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     7.1.  IS-IS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
     7.2.  OSPF  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
       7.2.1.  OSPF Dynamic Flooding LSA TLVs Registry . . . . . . .  42
       7.2.2.  OSPF Link Attributes Sub-TLV Bit Values Registry  . .  42
     7.3.  IGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
   9.  Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
   10. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     10.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  44
     10.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  46
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  47

1.  Introduction

   In recent years, there has been increased focus on how to address the
   dynamic routing of networks that have a bipartite (a.k.a., spine-leaf
   or leaf-spine), Clos [Clos], or Fat Tree [Leiserson] topology.
   Conventional Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs, i.e., IS-IS
   [ISO10589], OSPFv2 [RFC2328], and OSPFv3 [RFC5340]) under-perform,
   redundantly flooding information throughout the dense topology,
   leading to overloaded control plane inputs and thereby creating
   operational issues.  For practical considerations, network architects
   have resorted to applying unconventional techniques to address the
   problem, e.g., applying BGP in the data center [RFC7938].  However
   some feel that using an Exterior Gateway Protocol as an IGP is sub-

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024               [Page 3]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   optimal, if only due to the configuration overhead.

   The primary issue that is demonstrated when conventional IGPs are
   applied is the poor reaction of the network to topology changes.
   Normal link state routing protocols rely on a flooding algorithm for
   state distribution within an area.  In a dense topology, this
   flooding algorithm is highly redundant, resulting in unnecessary
   overhead.  Each node in the topology receives each link state update
   multiple times.  Ultimately, all of the redundant copies will be
   discarded, but only after they have reached the control plane and
   been processed.  This creates issues because significant link state
   database updates can become queued behind many redundant copies of
   another update.  This delays convergence as the link state database
   does not stabilize promptly.

   In a real-world implementation, the packet queues leading to the
   control-plane are necessarily of finite size, so if the flooding rate
   exceeds the update processing rate for long enough, then the control
   plane will be obligated to drop incoming updates.  If these lost
   updates are of significance, this will further delay the
   stabilization of the link state database and the convergence of the
   network.

   This is not a new problem.  Historically, when routing protocols have
   been deployed in networks where the underlying topology is a complete
   graph, there have been similar issues.  This was more common when the
   underlying link-layer fabric presented the network layer with a full
   mesh of virtual connections.  This was addressed by reducing the
   flooding topology through IS-IS Mesh Groups [RFC2973], but this
   approach requires careful configuration of the flooding topology.

   Thus, the root problem is not limited to massively scalable data
   centers.  It exists with any dense topology at scale.

   Link state routing protocols were conceived when links were very
   expensive and topologies were sparse.  The fact that those same
   designs are sub-optimal in a dense topology should not come as a huge
   surprise.  Technology has progressed to the point where links are
   cheap and common.  This represents a complete reversal in the
   economic fundamentals of network engineering.  The original designs
   are to be commended for continuing to provide correct operation to
   this point, and optimizations for operation in today's environment
   are to be expected.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024               [Page 4]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.  These words may also appear in this
   document in lower case as plain English words, absent their normative
   meanings.

2.  Problem Statement

   In a dense topology, the flooding algorithm that is the heart of
   conventional link state routing protocols causes a great deal of
   redundant messaging.  This is exacerbated by scale.  While the
   protocol can survive this combination, the redundant messaging is
   unnecessary overhead and delays convergence.  Thus, the problem is to
   provide routing in dense, scalable topologies with rapid convergence.

3.  Solution Requirements

   A solution to this problem must then meet the following requirements:

   Requirement 1:  Provide a dynamic routing solution.  Reachability
                   must be restored after any topology change.

   Requirement 2:  Provide a significant improvement in convergence.

   Requirement 3:  The solution should address a variety of dense
                   topologies.  Just addressing a complete bipartite
                   topology such as K5,8 is insufficient.  [Bondy]
                   Multi-stage Clos topologies must also be addressed,
                   as well as topologies that are slight variants.
                   Addressing complete graphs is a good demonstration of
                   generality.

   Requirement 4:  There must be no single point of failure.  The loss
                   of any link or node should not unduly hinder
                   convergence.

   Requirement 5:  Dense topologies are subgraphs of much larger
                   topologies.  Operational efficiency requires that the
                   dense subgraph not operate in a radically different
                   manner than the remainder of the topology.  While
                   some operational differences are permissible, they
                   should be minimized.  Any change to any node outside
                   of the dense subgraph is not acceptable.  These
                   situations occur when massively scaled data centers

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024               [Page 5]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

                   are part of an overall larger wide-area network.
                   Having a second protocol operating just on this
                   subgraph would add much more complexity at the edge
                   of the subgraph where the two protocols would have to
                   inter-operate.

4.  Dynamic Flooding

   We have observed that the combination of the dense topology and
   flooding on the physical topology is sub-optimal for network scaling.
   However, if we decouple the flooding topology from the physical
   topology and only flood on a greatly reduced portion of that
   topology, we can have efficient flooding and retain all of the
   resilience of existing protocols.  A node that supports flooding on
   the decoupled flooding topology is said to support dynamic flooding.

   With dynamic flooding, the flooding topology is computed within an
   IGP area with the dense topology either centrally on an elected node,
   termed the Area Leader, or in a distributed manner on all nodes that
   are supporting Dynamic Flooding.  If the flooding topology is
   computed centrally, it is encoded into and distributed as part of the
   normal link state database.  We call this the centralized mode of
   operation.  If the flooding topology is computed in a distributed
   fashion, we call this the distributed mode of operation.  Nodes
   within such an IGP area would only flood on the flooding topology.
   On links outside of the flooding topology, normal database
   synchronization mechanisms (i.e., OSPF database exchange, IS-IS
   Complete Sequence Number Protocol Data Units (CSNPs)) would apply,
   but flooding may not.  Details are described in Section 6.  New link
   state information that arrives from outside of the flooding topology
   suggests that the sender has no flooding topology information or that
   it is operating on old information about the flooding topology.  In
   these cases, the new link state information should be flooded on the
   flooding topology as well.

   The flooding topology covers the full set of nodes within the area,
   but excludes some of the links that standard flooding would employ.

   Since the flooding topology is computed before topology changes, the
   effort required to compute it does not factor into the convergence
   time and can be done when the topology is stable.  The speed of the
   computation and its distribution, in the case of centralized mode, is
   not a significant issue.

   If a node does not have any flooding topology information when it
   receives new link state information, it should flood according to
   standard flooding rules.  This situation will occur when the dense
   topology is first established but is unlikely to recur.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024               [Page 6]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   Link state protocols are intentionally designed to be asynchronous,
   with nodes acting independently.  During the flooding process,
   different nodes will have different information, resulting in
   transient conditions that can temporarily produce suboptimal
   forwarding.  We refer to these periods of transient conditions as
   'transients.'

   When centralized mode is used and if, during a transient, there are
   multiple flooding topologies being advertised, then nodes should
   flood link state updates on all of the flooding topologies.  Each
   node should locally evaluate the election of the Area Leader for the
   IGP area and first flood on its flooding topology.  The rationale
   behind this is straightforward: if there is a transient and there has
   been a recent change in Area Leader, then propagating topology
   information promptly along the most likely flooding topology should
   be the priority.

   During transients, loops may form in the flooding topology.  This is
   not problematic, as the standard flooding rules would cause duplicate
   updates to be ignored.  Similarly, during transients, the flooding
   topology may become disconnected.  Section 6.8.11 discusses how such
   conditions are handled.

4.1.  Applicability

   In a complete graph, this approach is appealing because it
   drastically decreases the flooding topology without the manual
   configuration of mesh groups.  By controlling the diameter of the
   flooding topology, as well as the maximum node degree in the flooding
   topology, convergence time goals can be met, and the stability of the
   control plane can be assured.

   Similarly, in a massively scaled data center, where there are many
   opportunities for redundant flooding, this mechanism ensures that
   flooding is redundant, with each leaf and spine well connected, while
   ensuring that no update takes too many hops and that no node shares
   an undue portion of the flooding effort.

   In a network where only a portion of the nodes support Dynamic
   Flooding, the remaining nodes will continue to perform standard
   flooding.  This is not an issue for correctness, as no node can
   become isolated.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024               [Page 7]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   Flooding that is initiated by nodes that support Dynamic Flooding
   will remain within the flooding topology until it reaches a legacy
   node, where standard flooding is resumed.  Standard flooding will be
   bounded by nodes supporting Dynamic Flooding, which can help limit
   the propagation of unnecessary flooding.  Whether or not the network
   can remain stable in this condition is very dependent on the number
   and location of the nodes that support Dynamic Flooding.

   During incremental deployment of dynamic flooding, an area will
   consist of one or more sets of connected nodes that support dynamic
   flooding and one or more sets of connected nodes that do not, i.e.,
   nodes that support standard flooding.  The flooding topology is the
   union of these sets of nodes.  Each set of nodes that does not
   support dynamic flooding needs to be part of the flooding topology
   and such a set of nodes may provide connectivity between two or more
   sets of nodes that support dynamic flooding.

4.2.  Leader election

   A single node within the dense topology is elected as an Area Leader.

   A generalization of the mechanisms used in existing Designated Router
   (OSPF) or Designated Intermediate-System (IS-IS) elections is used
   for leader election.  The elected node is known as the Area Leader.

   In the case of centralized mode, the Area Leader is responsible for
   computing and distributing the flooding topology.  When a new Area
   Leader is elected and has distributed new flooding topology
   information, then any prior Area Leaders should withdraw any of their
   flooding topology information from their link state database entries.

   In the case of distributed mode, the distributed algorithm advertised
   by the Area Leader MUST be used by all nodes that participate in
   Dynamic Flooding.

   Not every node needs to be a candidate to be the Area Leader within
   an area, as a single candidate is sufficient for correct operation.
   For redundancy, however, it is strongly RECOMMENDED that there be
   multiple candidates.

4.3.  Computing the Flooding Topology

   There is a great deal of flexibility in how the flooding topology may
   be computed.  For resilience, it needs to at least contain a cycle of
   all nodes in the dense subgraph.  However, additional links could be
   added to decrease the convergence time.  The trade-off between the
   density of the flooding topology and the convergence time is a matter
   for further study.  The exact algorithm for computing the flooding

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024               [Page 8]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   topology in the case of the centralized computation need not be
   standardized, as it is not an interoperability issue.  Only the
   encoding of the resultant topology needs to be documented.  In the
   case of distributed mode, all nodes in the IGP area need to use the
   same algorithm to compute the flooding topology.  It is possible to
   use private algorithms to compute flooding topology, so long as all
   nodes in the IGP area use the same algorithm.

   While the flooding topology should be a covering cycle, it need not
   be a Hamiltonian cycle where each node appears only once.  In fact,
   in many relevant topologies, this will not be possible, e.g., K5,8.
   This is fortunate, as computing a Hamiltonian cycle is known to be
   NP-complete.

   A simple algorithm to compute the topology for a complete bipartite
   graph is to simply select unvisited nodes on each side of the graph
   until both sides are completely visited.  If the numbers of nodes on
   each side of the graph are unequal, then revisiting nodes on the less
   populated side of the graph will be inevitable.  This algorithm can
   run in O(N) time, so it is quite efficient.

   While a simple cycle is adequate for correctness and resiliency, it
   may not be optimal for convergence.  At scale, a cycle may have a
   diameter that is half the number of nodes in the graph.  This could
   cause an undue delay in link state update propagation.  Therefore it
   may be useful to have a bound on the diameter of the flooding
   topology.  Introducing more links into the flooding topology would
   reduce the diameter but at the trade-off of possibly adding redundant
   messaging.  The optimal trade-off between convergence time and graph
   diameter is for further study.

   Similarly, if additional redundancy is added to the flooding
   topology, specific nodes in that topology may end up with a very high
   degree.  This could result in overloading the control plane of those
   nodes, resulting in poor convergence.  Thus, it may be preferable to
   have an upper bound on the degree of nodes in the flooding topology.
   Again, the optimal trade-off between graph diameter, node degree,
   convergence time, and topology computation time is for further study.

   If the leader chooses to include a multi-access broadcast LAN segment
   as part of the flooding topology, all of the links in that LAN
   segment should be included as well.  Once updates are flooded on the
   LAN, they will be received by every attached node.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024               [Page 9]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

4.4.  Topologies on Complete Bipartite Graphs

   Complete bipartite graph topologies have become popular for data
   center applications and are commonly called leaf-spine or spine-leaf
   topologies.  In this section, we discuss some flooding topologies
   that are of particular interest in these networks.

4.4.1.  A Minimal Flooding Topology

   We define a Minimal Flooding Topology on a complete bipartite graph
   as one in which the topology is connected and each node has at least
   degree two.  This is of interest because it guarantees that the
   flooding topology has no single points of failure.

   In practice, this implies that every leaf node in the flooding
   topology will have a degree of two.  As there are usually more leaves
   than spines, the degree of the spines will be higher, but the load on
   the individual spines can be evenly distributed.

   This type of flooding topology is also of interest because it scales
   well.  As the number of leaves increases, we can construct flooding
   topologies that perform well.  Specifically, for N spines and M
   leaves, if M >= N(N/2-1), then there is a flooding topology that has
   a diameter of four.

4.4.2.  Xia Topologies

   We define a Xia Topology on a complete bipartite graph as one in
   which all spine nodes are bi-connected through leaves with degree
   two, but the remaining leaves all have degree one and are evenly
   distributed across the spines.

   Constructively, we can create a Xia topology by iterating through the
   spines.  Each spine can be connected to the next spine by selecting
   any unused leaf.  Since leaves are connected to all spines, all
   leaves will have a connection to both the first and second spine and
   we can therefore choose any leaf without loss of generality.
   Continuing this iteration across all of the spines, selecting a new
   leaf at each iteration, will result in a path that connects all
   spines.  Adding one more leaf between the last and first spine will
   produce a cycle of N spines and N leaves.

   At this point, M-N leaves remain unconnected.  These can be
   distributed evenly across the remaining spines, connected by a single
   link.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 10]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   Xia topologies represent a compromise that trades off increased risk
   and decreased performance for lower flooding amplification.  Xia
   topologies will have a larger diameter.  For M spines, the diameter
   will be M + 2.

   In a Xia topology, some leaves are singly connected.  This represents
   a risk in that in some failures, convergence may be delayed.
   However, there may be some alternate behaviors that can be employed
   to mitigate these risks.  If a leaf node sees that its single link on
   the flooding topology has failed, it can compensate by performing a
   database synchronization check with a different spine.  Similarly, if
   a leaf determines that its connected spine on the flooding topology
   has failed, it can compensate by performing a database
   synchronization check with a different spine.  In both of these
   cases, the synchronization check is intended to ameliorate any delays
   in link state propagation due to the fragmentation of the flooding
   topology.

   The benefit of this topology is that flooding load is easily
   understood.  Each node in the spine cycle will never receive an
   update more than twice.  For M leaves and N spines, a spine never
   transmits more than (M/N +1) updates.

4.4.3.  Optimization

   If two nodes are adjacent on the flooding topology and there are a
   set of parallel links between them, then any given update MUST be
   flooded over a single one of those links.  The selection of the
   specific link is implementation-specific.

4.5.  Encoding the Flooding Topology

   There are a variety of ways that the flooding topology could be
   encoded efficiently.  If the topology was only a cycle, a simple list
   of the nodes in the topology would suffice.  However, this is
   insufficiently flexible as it would require a slightly different
   encoding scheme as soon as a single additional link is added.
   Instead, we choose to encode the flooding topology as a set of
   intersecting paths, where each path is a set of connected links.

   Advertisement of the flooding topology includes support for multi-
   access broadcast LANs.  When a LAN is included in the flooding
   topology, all edges between the LAN and nodes connected to the LAN
   are assumed to be part of the flooding topology.  To reduce the size
   of the flooding topology advertisement, explicit advertisement of
   these edges is optional.  Note that this may result in the
   possibility of "hidden nodes" which are part of the flooding topology
   but are not explicitly mentioned in the flooding topology

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 11]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   advertisements.  These hidden nodes can be found by examination of
   the Link State database where connectivity between a LAN and nodes
   connected to the LAN is fully specified.

   Note that while all nodes MUST be part of the advertised flooding
   topology, not all multi-access LANs need to be included.  Only those
   LANs which are part of the flooding topology need to be included in
   the advertised flooding topology.

   Other encodings are certainly possible.  We have attempted to make a
   useful trade-off between simplicity, generality, and space.

4.6.  Advertising the Local Edges Enabled for Flooding

   Correct operation of the flooding topology requires that all nodes
   which participate in the flooding topology choose local links for
   flooding which are part of the calculated flooding topology.  Failure
   to do so could result in an unexpected partition of the flooding
   topology and/or sub-optimal flooding reduction.  As an aid to
   diagnosing problems when dynamic flooding is in use, this document
   defines a means of advertising what local edges are enabled for
   flooding (LEEF).  The protocol-specific encodings are defined in
   Sections 5.1.6 and 5.2.8.

   The following guidelines apply:

      Advertisement of LEEFs is optional.

      As the flooding topology is defined in terms of edges (i.e., pairs
      of nodes) and not in terms of links, in cases where parallel
      adjacencies to the same neighbor exist, the advertisement SHOULD
      indicate that all such links have been enabled.

      LEEF advertisements MUST NOT include edges enabled for temporary
      flooding (Section 6.7).

      LEEF advertisements MUST NOT be used either when calculating a
      flooding topology or when determining what links to add
      temporarily to the flooding topology when the flooding topology is
      temporarily partitioned.

5.  Protocol Elements

5.1.  IS-IS TLVs

   The following TLVs/sub-TLVs are added to IS-IS:

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 12]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   1.  A sub-TLV that an IS may include in its Link State Protocol Data
       Unit (LSP) to indicate its preference for becoming the Area
       Leader.

   2.  A sub-TLV that an IS may include in its LSP to indicate that it
       supports Dynamic Flooding and the algorithms that it supports for
       distributed mode, if any.

   3.  A TLV to advertise the list of system IDs that compose the
       flooding topology for the area.  A system ID is an identifier for
       a node.

   4.  A TLV to advertise a path that is part of the flooding topology.

   5.  A TLV that requests flooding from the adjacent node.

5.1.1.  IS-IS Area Leader Sub-TLV

   The Area Leader Sub-TLV allows a system to:

   1.  Indicate its eligibility and priority for becoming the Area
       Leader.

   2.  Indicate whether centralized or distributed mode is to be used to
       compute the flooding topology in the area.

   3.  Indicate the algorithm identifier for the algorithm that is used
       to compute the flooding topology in distributed mode.

   Intermediate Systems (nodes) that are not advertising this Sub-TLV
   are not eligible to become the Area Leader.

   The Area Leader is the node with the numerically highest Area Leader
   priority in the area.  In the event of ties, the node with the
   numerically highest system ID is the Area Leader.  Due to transients
   during database flooding, different nodes may not agree on the Area
   Leader.  This is not problematic, as subsequent flooding will cause
   the entire area to converge.

   The Area Leader Sub-TLV is advertised as a Sub-TLV of the IS-IS
   Router Capability TLV-242 that is defined in [RFC7981] and has the
   following format:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |     Length    | Priority      |   Algorithm   |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 13]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

      Type: TBD1

      Length: 2

      Priority: 0-255, unsigned integer.  Determination of the priority
      is outside of the scope of this document.

      Algorithm: a numeric identifier in the range 0-255 that identifies
      the algorithm used to calculate the flooding topology.  The
      following values are defined:

      -  0: Centralized computation by the Area Leader.

      -  1-127: Standardized distributed algorithms.

      -  128-254: Private distributed algorithms.  Individual values are
         to be assigned according to the "Private Use" policy defined in
         [RFC8126] (see Section 7.3).

      -  255: Reserved

5.1.2.  IS-IS Dynamic Flooding Sub-TLV

   The Dynamic Flooding Sub-TLV allows a system to:

   1.  Indicate that it supports Dynamic Flooding.  This is indicated by
       the advertisement of this Sub-TLV.

   2.  Indicate the set of algorithms that it supports.

   In incremental deployments, understanding which nodes support Dynamic
   Flooding can be used to optimize the flooding topology.  In
   distributed mode, knowing the capabilities of the nodes can allow the
   Area Leader to select the optimal algorithm.

   The Dynamic Flooding Sub-TLV is advertised as a Sub-TLV of the IS-IS
   Router Capability TLV (242) [RFC7981] and has the following format:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |     Length    | Algorithm...  |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type: TBD7

      Length: 1-255; number of Algorithms

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 14]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

      Algorithm: numeric identifiers in the range 0-255 that identify
      the algorithm used to calculate the flooding topology, as
      described in Section 5.1.1.

5.1.3.  IS-IS Area Node IDs TLV

   The IS-IS Area Node IDs TLV is only used in centralized mode.

   The Area Node IDs TLV is used by the Area Leader to enumerate the
   Node IDs (System ID + pseudo-node ID) that it has used in computing
   the area flooding topology.  Conceptually, the Area Leader creates a
   list of node IDs for all nodes in the area (including pseudo-nodes
   for all LANs in the topology), assigning an index to each node,
   starting with index 0.  Indices are implicitly assigned sequentially,
   with the index of the first node being the Starting Index and each
   subsequent node's index is the previous node's index + 1.

   Because the space in a single TLV is limited, more than one TLV may
   be required to encode all of the node IDs in the area.  This TLV may
   be present in multiple LSPs.

   The format of the Area Node IDs TLV is:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |     Length    | Starting Index                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |L| Reserved    | Node IDs ...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     Node IDs continued ....
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type: TBD2

      Length: 3 + ((System ID Length + 1) * (number of node IDs))

      Starting index: The index of the first node ID that appears in
      this TLV.

      L (Last): This bit is set if the index of the last node ID that
      appears in this TLV is equal to the last index in the full list of
      node IDs for the area.

      Node IDs: A concatenated list of node IDs for the area

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 15]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   If there are multiple IS-IS Area Node IDs TLVs with the L-bit set
   advertised by the same node, the TLV which specifies the smaller
   maximum index is used and the other TLV(s) with L-bit set are
   ignored.  TLVs which specify node IDs with indices greater than that
   specified by the TLV with the L-bit set are also ignored.

5.1.4.  IS-IS Flooding Path TLV

   The IS-IS Flooding Path TLV is only used in centralized mode.

   The Flooding Path TLV is used to denote a path in the flooding
   topology.  The goal is an efficient encoding of the links of the
   topology.  A single link is a simple case of a path that only covers
   two nodes.  A connected path may be described as a sequence of
   indices: (I1, I2, I3, ...), denoting a link from the system with
   index 1 to the system with index 2, a link from the system with index
   2 to the system with index 3, and so on.

   If a path exceeds the size that can be stored in a single TLV, then
   the path may be distributed across multiple TLVs by the replication
   of a single system index.

   Complex topologies that are not a single path can be described using
   multiple TLVs.

   The Flooding Path TLV contains a list of system indices relative to
   the systems advertised through the Area Node IDs TLV.  At least 2
   indices must be included in the TLV.  Due to the length restriction
   of TLVs, this TLV can contain at most 126 system indices.

   The Flooding Path TLV has the format:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |     Length    | Starting Index                |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     | Index 2                       | Additional indices ...
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type: TBD3

      Length: 2 * (number of indices in the path)

      Starting index: The index of the first system in the path.

      Index 2: The index of the next system in the path.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 16]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

      Additional indices (optional): A sequence of additional indices to
      systems along the path.

5.1.5.  IS-IS Flooding Request TLV

   The Flooding Request TLV allows a system to request an adjacent node
   to enable flooding towards it on a specific link in the case where
   the connection to the adjacent node is not part of the existing
   flooding topology.

   A node that supports Dynamic Flooding MAY include the Flooding
   Request TLV in its Intermediate System to Intermediate System Hello
   (IIH) Protocol Data Units (PDUs).

   The Flooding Request TLV has the format:

      0                   1                   2                   3
      0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |     Type      |     Length    |   Levels      |    Scope      |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
     |    ...        |
     +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type: TBD9

      Length: 1 + number of advertised Flooding Scopes

      Levels: the level(s) for which flooding is requested.  Levels are
      encoded as the circuit type as specified in IS-IS [ISO10589]

      Scope (8 bits): Flooding Scope for which the flooding is requested
      as defined in the LSP Flooding Scope Identifier Registry as
      created by [RFC7356].  Inclusion of flooding scopes is optional
      and is only necessary if [RFC7356] is supported.  Multiple
      flooding scopes MAY be included.  Values are restricted to the
      range 0..127.

   Circuit Flooding Scope MUST NOT be sent in the Flooding Request TLV
   and MUST be ignored if received.

   When the TLV is received in a level-specific LAN-Hello PDU (L1-LAN-
   IIH or L2-LAN-IIH), only levels that match the PDU type are valid.
   Levels that do not match the PDU type MUST be ignored on receipt.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 17]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   When the TLV is received in a Point-to-Point Hello (P2P-IIH), only
   levels that are supported by the established adjacency are valid.
   Levels that are not supported by the adjacency MUST be ignored on
   receipt.

   If flooding was disabled on the received link due to Dynamic
   Flooding, then flooding MUST be temporarily enabled over the link for
   the specified Circuit Type(s) and Flooding Scope(s) received in the
   in the Flooding Request TLV.  Flooding MUST be enabled until the
   Circuit Type or Flooding Scope is no longer advertised in the
   Flooding Request TLV or the TLV no longer appears in IIH PDUs
   received on the link.

   When flooding is temporarily enabled on the link for any Circuit Type
   or Flooding Scope due to receiving the Flooding Request TLV, the
   receiver MUST perform standard database synchronization for the
   corresponding Circuit Type(s) and Flooding Scope(s) on the link.  In
   the case of IS-IS, this results in setting the Send Routeing Message
   (SRM) flag for all related LSPs on the link and sending CSNPs.

   So long as the Flooding Request TLV is being received, flooding MUST
   NOT be disabled for any of the Circuit Types or Flooding Scopes
   present in the Flooding Request TLV, even if the connection between
   the neighbors is removed from the flooding topology.  Flooding for
   such Circuit Types or Flooding Scopes MUST continue on the link and
   be considered temporarily enabled.

5.1.6.  IS-IS LEEF Advertisement

   In support of advertising which edges are currently enabled in the
   flooding topology, an implementation MAY indicate that a link is part
   of the flooding topology by advertising a bit-value in the Link
   Attributes sub-TLV defined by [RFC5029].

   The following bit-value is defined by this document:

   Local Edge Enabled for Flooding (LEEF) - suggested value 4 (to be
   assigned by IANA)

5.2.  OSPF LSAs and TLVs

   This section defines new LSAs and TLVs for both OSPFv2 and OSPFv3.

   The following LSAs and TLVs/sub-TLVs are added to OSPFv2/OSPFv3:

   1.  A TLV that is used to advertise the preference for becoming the
       Area Leader.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 18]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   2.  A TLV that is used to indicate the support for Dynamic Flooding
       and the algorithms that the advertising node supports for
       distributed mode, if any.

   3.  An OSPFv2 Opaque LSA and OSPFv3 LSA to advertise the flooding
       topology for centralized mode.

   4.  A TLV to advertise the list of Router IDs that comprise the
       flooding topology for the area.

   5.  A TLV to advertise a path that is part of the flooding topology.

   6.  A bit in the LLS Type 1 Extended Options and Flags that requests
       flooding from the adjacent node.

5.2.1.  OSPF Area Leader Sub-TLV

   The usage of the OSPF Area Leader Sub-TLV is identical to IS-IS and
   is described in Section 5.1.1.

   The OSPF Area Leader Sub-TLV is used by both OSPFv2 and OSPFv3.

   The OSPF Area Leader Sub-TLV is advertised as a top-level TLV of the
   RI LSA that is defined in [RFC7770] and has the following format:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Type             |             Length            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |    Priority   |   Algorithm   |            Reserved           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type: TBD4

      Length: 4 octets

      Priority: 0-255, unsigned integer

      Algorithm: As defined in Section 5.1.1.

5.2.2.  OSPF Dynamic Flooding Sub-TLV

   The usage of the OSPF Dynamic Flooding Sub-TLV is identical to IS-IS
   and is described in Section 5.1.2.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 19]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   The OSPF Dynamic Flooding Sub-TLV is used by both OSPFv2 and OSPFv3.

   The OSPF Dynamic Flooding Sub-TLV is advertised as a top-level TLV of
   the RI LSA that is defined in [RFC7770] and has the following format:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |              Type             |             Length            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      | Algorithm ... |                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

      Type: TBD8

      Length: Number of Algorithms

      Algorithm: As defined in Section 5.1.1.

5.2.3.  OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSA

   The OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSA is only used in centralized
   mode.

   The OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSA is used to advertise
   additional data related to dynamic flooding in OSPFv2.  OSPFv2 Opaque
   LSAs are described in [RFC5250].

   Multiple OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSAs can be advertised by an
   OSPFv2 router.  The flooding scope of the OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding
   Opaque LSA is area-local.

   The format of the OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSA is as follows:

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 20]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |            LS age             |     Options   |   LS Type     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |      TBD5     |                 Opaque ID                     |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                     Advertising Router                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                     LS sequence number                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |         LS checksum           |             Length            |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      +-                            TLVs                             -+
      |                             ...                               |

                Figure 1: OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSA

   The opaque type used by OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSA is TBD.
   The opaque type is used to differentiate the various types of OSPFv2
   Opaque LSAs as described in section 3 of [RFC5250].  The LS Type is
   10.  The LSA Length field [RFC2328] represents the total length (in
   octets) of the Opaque LSA including the LSA header and all TLVs
   (including padding).

   The Opaque ID field is an arbitrary value used to maintain multiple
   Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSAs.  For OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque
   LSAs, the Opaque ID has no semantic significance other than to
   differentiate Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSAs originated from the same
   OSPFv2 router.

   The format of the TLVs within the body of the OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding
   Opaque LSA is the same as the format used by the Traffic Engineering
   Extensions to OSPF [RFC3630].

   The Length field defines the length of the value portion in octets
   (thus a TLV with no value portion would have a length of 0).  The TLV
   is padded to a 4-octet alignment; padding is not included in the
   length field (so a 3-octet value would have a length of 3, but the
   total size of the TLV would be 8 octets).  Nested TLVs are also
   32-bit aligned.  For example, a 1-octet value would have the length
   field set to 1, and 3 octets of padding would be added to the end of
   the value portion of the TLV.  The padding is composed of zeros.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 21]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

5.2.4.  OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA

   The OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSA is only used in centralized
   mode.

   The OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA is used to advertise additional data
   related to dynamic flooding in OSPFv3.

   The OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA has a function code of TBD.  The
   flooding scope of the OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA is area-local.  The
   U bit will be set indicating that the OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA
   should be flooded even if it is not understood.  The Link State ID
   (LSID) value for this LSA is the Instance ID.  OSPFv3 routers MAY
   advertise multiple OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSAs in each area.

   The format of the OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA is as follows:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |            LS age             |1|0|1|          TBD6           |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                    Link State ID                              |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                    Advertising Router                         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                    LS sequence number                         |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |        LS checksum            |            Length             |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +-                            TLVs                             -+
       |                             ...                               |

                   Figure 2: OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA

5.2.5.  OSPF Area Router ID TLVs

   In OSPF, TLVs are defined to advertise indices associated with nodes
   and Broadcast/NBMA networks.  Due to identifier differences between
   OSPFv2 and OSPFv3, two different TLVs are defined as described in the
   following sub-sections.

   The OSPF Area Router ID TLVs are used by the Area Leader to enumerate
   the Router IDs that it has used in computing the flooding topology.
   This includes the identifiers associated with Broadcast/NBMA networks
   as defined for Network LSAs.  Conceptually, the Area Leader creates a
   list of Router IDs for all routers in the area, assigning an index to

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 22]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   each router, starting with index 0.  Indices are implicitly assigned
   sequentially, with the index of the first node being the Starting
   Index and each subsequent node's index is the previous node's index +
   1.

5.2.5.1.  OSPFv2 Area Router ID TLV

   This TLV is a top-level TLV of the OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque
   LSA.

   Because the space in a single OSPFv2 opaque LSA is limited, more than
   one LSA may be required to encode all of the Router IDs in the area.
   This TLV MAY be advertised in multiple OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque
   LSAs so that all Router IDs can be advertised.

   The format of the Area Router IDs TLV is:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |              Type             |             Length            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Starting Index             |L| Flags       |   Reserved    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +-        OSPFv2 Router ID TLV Entry                           -+
       |                           ...                                 |

                    Figure 3: OSPFv2 Area Router IDs TLV

      TLV Type: 1

      TLV Length: 4 + sum of the lengths of all TLV entries

      Starting index: The index of the first Router/Designated Router ID
      that appears in this TLV.

      L (Last): This bit is set if the index of the last Router/
      Designated ID that appears in this TLV is equal to the last index
      in the full list of Router IDs for the area.

      OSPFv2 Router ID TLV Entries: A concatenated list of Router ID TLV
      Entries for the area.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 23]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   If there are multiple OSPFv2 Area Router ID TLVs with the L-bit set
   advertised by the same router, the TLV which specifies the smaller
   maximum index is used and the other TLV(s) with L-bit set are
   ignored.  TLVs which specify Router IDs with indices greater than
   that specified by the TLV with the L-bit set are also ignored.

   Each entry in the OSPFv2 Area Router IDs TLV represents either a node
   or a Broadcast/NBMA network identifier.  An entry has the following
   format:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    ID Type    |  Number of IDs                |  Reserved     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +-    Originating Router ID/DR Address                         -+
       |                     ...                                       |

                   Figure 4: OSPFv2 Router IDs TLV Entry

      ID Type: 1 octet.  The following values are defined:

      -  1 - Router

      -  2 - Designated Router

      Number of IDs: 2 octets

      Reserved: 1 octet, MUST be transmitted as 0 and MUST be ignored on
      receipt

      Originating Router ID/DR Address:(4 * Number of IDs) octets as
      indicated by the ID Type

5.2.5.2.  OSPFv3 Area Router ID TLV

   This TLV is a top-level TLV of the OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA.

   Because the space in a single OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA is limited,
   more than one LSA may be required to encode all of the Router IDs in
   the area.  This TLV MAY be advertised in multiple OSPFv3 Dynamic
   Flooding Opaque LSAs so that all Router IDs can be advertised.

   The format of the OSPFv3 Area Router IDs TLV is:

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 24]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |              Type             |             Length            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Starting Index             |L| Flags       |   Reserved    |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +-        OSPFv3 Router ID TLV Entry                           -+
       |                           ...                                 |

                    Figure 5: OSPFv3 Area Router IDs TLV

      TLV Type: 1

      TLV Length: 4 + sum of the lengths of all TLV entries

      Starting index: The index of the first Router/Designated Router ID
      that appears in this TLV.

      L (Last): This bit is set if the index of the last Router/
      Designated Router ID that appears in this TLV is equal to the last
      index in the full list of Router IDs for the area.

      OSPFv3 Router ID TLV Entries: A concatenated list of Router ID TLV
      Entries for the area.

   If there are multiple OSPFv3 Area Router ID TLVs with the L-bit set
   advertised by the same router, the TLV which specifies the smaller
   maximum index is used and the other TLV(s) with L-bit set are
   ignored.  TLVs which specify Router IDs with indices greater than
   that specified by the TLV with the L-bit set are also ignored.

   Each entry in the OSPFv3 Area Router IDs TLV represents either a
   router or a Broadcast/NBMA network identifier.  An entry has the
   following format:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    ID Type    |  Number of IDs                |  Reserved     |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +-    Originating ID Entry                                     -+
       |                    ...                                        |

                    Figure 6: OSPFv3 Router ID TLV Entry

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 25]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

      ID Type - 1 octet.  The following values are defined:

      -  1 - Router

      -  2 - Designated Router

      Number of IDs - 2 octets

      Reserved - 1 octet, MUST be transmitted as 0 and MUST be ignored
      on receipt

   The Originating ID Entry takes one of the following forms, depending
   on the ID Type.

   For a Router:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Originating Router ID                                      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The length of the Originating ID Entry is (4 * Number of IDs) octets.

   For a Designated Router:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Originating Router ID                                      |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Interface ID                                               |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The length of the Originating ID Entry is (8 * Number of IDs) octets

5.2.6.  OSPF Flooding Path TLV

   The OSPF Flooding Path TLV is a top-level TLV of the OSPFv2 Dynamic
   Flooding Opaque LSAs and OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA.

   The usage of the OSPF Flooding Path TLV is identical to IS-IS and is
   described in Section 5.1.4.

   The OSPF Flooding Path TLV contains a list of Router ID indices
   relative to the Router IDs advertised through the OSPF Area Router
   IDs TLV.  At least 2 indices must be included in the TLV.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 26]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   Multiple OSPF Flooding Path TLVs can be advertised in a single OSPFv2
   Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSA or OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA.  OSPF
   Flooding Path TLVs can also be advertised in multiple OSPFv2 Dynamic
   Flooding Opaque LSAs or OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA, if they all can
   not fit in a single LSA.

   The Flooding Path TLV has the format:

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |              Type             |             Length            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Starting Index             |       Index 2                 |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +-                        Additional Indices                   -+
       |                           ...                                 |

                      Figure 7: OSPF Flooding Path TLV

      TLV Type: 2

      TLV Length: 2 * (number of indices in the path)

      Starting index: The index of the first Router ID in the path.

      Index 2: The index of the next Router ID in the path.

      Additional indices (optional): A sequence of additional indices to
      Router IDs along the path.

5.2.7.  OSPF Flooding Request Bit

   A single new option bit, the Flooding Request (FR) bit, is defined in
   the LLS Type 1 Extended Options and Flags field [RFC5613].  The FR
   bit allows a router to request an adjacent node to enable flooding
   towards it on a specific link in the case where the connection to the
   adjacent node is not part of the current flooding topology.

   A node that supports Dynamic Flooding MAY include the FR bit in its
   OSPF LLS Extended Options and Flags TLV.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 27]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   If the FR bit is signaled for a link on which flooding was disabled
   due to Dynamic Flooding, then flooding MUST be temporarily enabled
   over the link.  Flooding MUST be enabled until the FR bit is no
   longer advertised in the OSPF LLS Extended Options and Flags TLV or
   the OSPF LLS Extended Options and Flags TLV no longer appear in the
   OSPF Hellos.

   When flooding is temporarily enabled on the link for any area due to
   receiving the FR bit in the OSPF LLS Extended Options and Flags TLV,
   the receiver MUST perform standard database synchronization for the
   area corresponding to the link.  If the adjacency is already in the
   FULL state, the mechanism specified in [RFC4811] MUST be used for
   database resynchronization.

   So long as the FR bit is being received in the OSPF LLS Extended
   Options and Flags TLV for a link, flooding MUST NOT be disabled on
   the link even if the connection between the neighbors is removed from
   the flooding topology.  Flooding MUST continue on the link and be
   considered as temporarily enabled.

5.2.8.  OSPF LEEF Advertisement

   In support of advertising the specific edges that are currently
   enabled in the flooding topology, an implementation MAY indicate that
   a link is part of the flooding topology.  The OSPF Link Attributes
   Bits TLV is defined to support this advertisement.

        0                   1                   2                   3
        0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |              Type             |             Length            |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |    Link Attribute Bits                                        |
       +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
       |                                                               |
       +-            Additional Link Attribute Bits                   -+
       |                           ...                                 |

                  Figure 8: OSPF Link Attributes Bits TLV

   Type: TBD and specific to OSPFv2 and OSPFv3

   Length: Size of the Link Attribute Bits in octets.  It MUST be a
   multiple of 4 octets.

   The following bits are defined:

   Bit #0: - Local Edge Enabled for Flooding (LEEF)

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 28]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   OSPF Link-attribute Bits TLV appears as:

   1.  A sub-TLV of the OSPFv2 Extended Link TLV [RFC7684]

   2.  A sub-TLV of the OSPFv3 Router-Link TLV [RFC8362]

6.  Behavioral Specification

   In this section, we specify the detailed behavior of the nodes
   participating in the IGP.

6.1.  Terminology

   We define some terminology here that is used in the following
   sections:

      A node is considered reachable if it is part of the connected
      network graph.  Note that this is independent of any constraints
      that may be considered when performing IGP shortest-path tree
      calculation (e.g., link metrics, overload bit state, etc.).  The
      two-way connectivity check MUST be performed before including an
      edge in the connected network graph.

      A node is connected to the flooding topology, if it has at least
      one local link, which is part of the flooding topology.

      A node is disconnected from the flooding topology when it is not
      connected to the flooding topology.

      Current flooding topology - The latest version of the flooding
      topology that has been received (in the case of centralized mode)
      or calculated locally (in the case of distributed mode).

6.2.  Flooding Topology

   The flooding topology MUST include all reachable nodes in the area.

   If a node's reachability changes, the flooding topology MUST be
   recalculated.  In centralized mode, the Area Leader MUST advertise a
   new flooding topology.

   If a node becomes disconnected from the current flooding topology but
   is still reachable, then a new flooding topology MUST be calculated.
   In centralized mode, the Area Leader MUST advertise the new flooding
   topology.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 29]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   The flooding topology SHOULD be bi-connected to provide network
   resiliency, but this does incur some amount of redundant flooding.
   Xia topologies (Section 4.4.2) are an example of an explicit decision
   to sacrifice resiliency to avoid redundancy.

6.3.  Leader Election

   Any capable node MAY advertise its eligibility to become the Area
   Leader.

   Nodes that are not reachable are not eligible to become the Area
   Leader.  Nodes that do not advertise their eligibility to become the
   Area Leader are not eligible.  Amongst the eligible nodes, the node
   with the numerically highest priority is the Area Leader.  If
   multiple nodes all have the highest priority, then the node with the
   numerically highest system identifier in the case of IS-IS, or
   Router-ID in the case of OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 is the Area Leader.

6.4.  Area Leader Responsibilities

   If the Area Leader operates in centralized mode, it MUST advertise
   algorithm 0 in its Area Leader Sub-TLV.  For Dynamic Flooding to be
   enabled, it also MUST compute and advertise a flooding topology for
   the area.  The Area Leader may update the flooding topology at any
   time, however, it should not destabilize the network with undue or
   overly frequent topology changes.  If the Area Leader operates in
   centralized mode and needs to advertise a new flooding topology, it
   floods the new flooding topology on both the new and old flooding
   topologies.

   If the Area Leader operates in distributed mode, it MUST advertise a
   non-zero algorithm in its Area Leader Sub-TLV.

   When the Area Leader advertises algorithm 0 in its Area Leader Sub-
   TLV and does not advertise a flooding topology, Dynamic Flooding is
   disabled for the area.  Note this applies whether the Area Leader
   intends to operate in centralized mode or distributed mode.

   Note that once Dynamic Flooding is enabled, disabling it risks
   destabilizing the network due to the issues discussed in Section 1.

6.5.  Distributed Flooding Topology Calculation

   If the Area Leader advertises a non-zero algorithm in its Area Leader
   Sub-TLV, all nodes in the area that support Dynamic Flooding and
   support the algorithm advertised by the Area Leader MUST compute the
   flooding topology based on the Area Leader's advertised algorithm.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 30]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   Nodes that do not support the advertised algorithm MUST continue to
   use standard IS-IS/OSPF flooding mechanisms.  Nodes that do not
   support the flooding algorithm advertised by the Area Leader MUST be
   considered as Dynamic Flooding incapable nodes by the Area Leader.

   If the value of the algorithm advertised by the Area Leader is from
   the range 128-254 (private distributed algorithms), it is the
   responsibility of the network operator to guarantee that all nodes in
   the area agree on the dynamic flooding algorithm corresponding to the
   advertised value.

6.6.  Use of LANs in the Flooding Topology

   The use of LANs in the flooding topology differs depending on whether
   the area is operating in centralized mode or distributed mode.

6.6.1.  Use of LANs in Centralized mode

   As specified in Section 4.5, when a LAN is advertised as part of the
   flooding topology, all nodes connected to the LAN are assumed to be
   using the LAN as part of the flooding topology.  This assumption is
   made to reduce the size of the Flooding Topology advertisement.

6.6.2.  Use of LANs in Distributed Mode

   In distributed mode, the flooding topology is NOT advertised,
   therefore the space consumed to advertise it is not a concern.  It is
   therefore possible to assign only a subset of the nodes connected to
   the LAN to use the LAN as part of the flooding topology.  Doing so
   may further optimize flooding by reducing the amount of redundant
   flooding on a LAN.  However, support of flooding by a subset of the
   nodes connected to a LAN requires some modest, but backward-
   compatible, changes in the way flooding is performed on a LAN.

6.6.2.1.  Partial flooding on a LAN in IS-IS

   The Designated Intermediate System (DIS) for a LAN MUST use the
   standard flooding behavior.

   Non-DIS nodes whose connection to the LAN is included in the flooding
   topology MUST use the standard flooding behavior.

   Non-DIS nodes whose connection to the LAN is NOT included in the
   flooding topology behave as follows:

   *  Received CSNPs from the DIS are ignored.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 31]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   *  Partial Sequence Number Protocol Data Units (PSNPs) are NOT
      originated on the LAN.

   *  An LSP received on the LAN that is newer than the corresponding
      LSP present in the LSPDB is retained and flooded on all local
      circuits which are part of the flooding topology (i.e., do not
      discard newer LSPs simply because they were received on a LAN
      which the receiving node is not using for flooding).

   *  An LSP received on the LAN which is older or the same as the
      corresponding LSP in the LSPDB is silently discarded.

   *  LSPs received on links other than the LAN are NOT flooded on the
      LAN.

   NOTE: If any node connected to the LAN requests the enablement of
   temporary flooding, all nodes MUST revert to the standard flooding
   behavior on the LAN.

6.6.2.2.  Partial Flooding on a LAN in OSPF

   The Designated Router (DR) and Backup Designated Router (BDR) for
   LANs MUST use the standard flooding behavior.

   Non-DR/BDR nodes with a connection to a LAN that is included in the
   flooding topology use the standard flooding behavior on that LAN.

   Non-DR/BDR nodes with a connection to a LAN that is NOT included in
   the flooding topology behave as follows:

   *  LSAs received on the LAN are acknowledged to the DR/BDR.

   *  LSAs received on interfaces other than the LAN are NOT flooded on
      the LAN.

   NOTE: If any node connected to the LAN requests the enablement of
   temporary flooding, all nodes revert to the standard flooding
   behavior.

   NOTE: The sending of LSA Acks by nodes NOT using the LAN as part of
   the flooding topology eliminates the need for changes on the part of
   the DR/BDR, which might include nodes that do not support the dynamic
   flooding algorithm.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 32]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

6.7.  Flooding Behavior

   Nodes that support Dynamic Flooding MUST use the flooding topology
   for flooding when possible, and MUST NOT revert to standard flooding
   when a valid flooding topology is available.

   In some cases, a node that supports Dynamic Flooding may need to add
   a local link(s) to the flooding topology temporarily, even though the
   link(s) is not part of the calculated flooding topology.  This is
   termed "temporary flooding" and is discussed in Section 6.8.1.

   In distributed mode, the flooding topology is calculated locally.  In
   centralized mode, the flooding topology is advertised in the area
   link state database.  Received link state updates, whether received
   on a link that is in the flooding topology or on a link that is not
   in the flooding topology, MUST be flooded on all links that are in
   the flooding topology, except for the link on which the update was
   received.

   In centralized mode, new information in the form of new paths or new
   node ID assignments can be received at any time.  This may replace
   some or all of the existing information about the flooding topology.
   There may be transient conditions where the information that a node
   has is inconsistent or incomplete.  If a node detects that its
   current information is inconsistent, then the node may wait for an
   implementation-specific amount of time, expecting more information to
   arrive that will provide a consistent, complete view of the flooding
   topology.

   In both centralized and distributed mode, if a node determines that
   some of its adjacencies are to be added to the flooding topology, it
   should add those and begin flooding on those adjacencies immediately.
   If a node determines that adjacencies are to be removed from the
   flooding topology, then it should wait for an implementation-specific
   amount of time before acting on that information.  This serves to
   ensure that new information is flooded promptly and completely,
   allowing all nodes to receive updates in a timely fashion.

6.8.  Treatment of Topology Events

   In this section, we explicitly consider a variety of different
   topological events in the network and how Dynamic Flooding should
   address them.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 33]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

6.8.1.  Temporary Addition of Links to the Flooding Topology

   In some cases, a node that supports Dynamic Flooding may need to add
   a local link(s) to the flooding topology temporarily, even though the
   link(s) is not part of the calculated flooding topology.  We refer to
   this as "temporary flooding" on the link.

   When temporary flooding is enabled on the link, the flooding needs to
   be enabled in both directions on the link.  To achieve that, the
   following steps MUST be performed:

      The Link State Database needs to be re-synchronised on the link.
      This is done using the standard protocol mechanisms.  In the case
      of IS-IS, this results in setting the SRM bit for all LSPs on the
      circuit and sending a complete set of CSNPs on the link.  In OSPF,
      the mechanism specified in [RFC4811] is used.

      Flooding is enabled locally on the link.

      Flooding is requested from the neighbor using the mechanism
      specified in section Section 5.1.5 or Section 5.2.7.

   The request for temporary flooding MUST be withdrawn on the link when
   all of the following conditions are met:

      The node itself is connected to the current flooding topology.

      The adjacent node is connected to the current flooding topology.

   Any change in the flooding topology MUST result in an evaluation of
   the above conditions for any link on which temporary flooding was
   enabled.

   Temporary flooding is stopped on the link when both adjacent nodes
   stop requesting temporary flooding on the link.

6.8.2.  Local Link Addition

   If a local link is added to the topology, the protocol will form a
   normal adjacency on the link and update the appropriate link state
   advertisements for the nodes on either end of the link.  These link
   state updates will be flooded on the flooding topology.

   In centralized mode, the Area Leader, upon receiving these updates,
   may choose to retain the existing flooding topology or may choose to
   modify the flooding topology.  If the Area Leader decides to change
   the flooding topology, it will update the flooding topology in the
   link state database and flood it using the new flooding topology.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 34]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   In distributed mode, any change in the topology, including the link
   addition, MUST trigger the flooding topology recalculation.  This is
   done to ensure that all nodes converge to the same flooding topology,
   regardless of the time of the calculation.

   Temporary flooding MUST be enabled on the newly added local link, as
   long as at least one of the following conditions are met:

      The node on which the local link was added is not connected to the
      current flooding topology.

      The new adjacent node is not connected to the current flooding
      topology.

   Note that in this case there is no need to perform a database
   synchronization as part of the enablement of the temporary flooding,
   because it was part of the adjacency bring-up itself.

   If multiple local links are added to the topology before the flooding
   topology is updated, temporary flooding MUST be enabled on a subset
   of these links per the conditions discussed in Section 6.8.12.

6.8.3.  Node Addition

   If a node is added to the topology, then at least one link is also
   added to the topology.  Section 6.8.2 applies.

   A node that has a large number of neighbors is at risk of introducing
   a local flooding storm if all neighbors are brought up at once and
   temporary flooding is enabled on all links simultaneously.  The most
   robust way to address this is to limit the rate of initial adjacency
   formation following bootup.  This reduces unnecessary redundant
   flooding as part of initial database synchronization and minimizes
   the need for temporary flooding as it allows time for the new node to
   be added to the flooding topology after only a small number of
   adjacencies have been formed.

   In the event a node elects to bring up a large number of adjacencies
   simultaneously, a significant amount of redundant flooding may be
   introduced as multiple neighbors of the new node enable temporary
   flooding to the new node which initially is not part of the flooding
   topology.

6.8.4.  Failures of Links Not on the Flooding Topology

   If a link that is not part of the flooding topology fails, then the
   adjacent nodes will update their link state advertisements and flood
   them on the flooding topology.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 35]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   In centralized mode, the Area Leader, upon receiving these updates,
   may choose to retain the existing flooding topology or may choose to
   modify the flooding topology.  If it elects to change the flooding
   topology, it will update the flooding topology in the link state
   database and flood it using the new flooding topology.

   In distributed mode, any change in the topology, including the
   failure of the link that is not part of the flooding topology MUST
   trigger the flooding topology recalculation.  This is done to ensure
   that all nodes converge to the same flooding topology, regardless of
   the time of the calculation.

6.8.5.  Failures of Links On the Flooding Topology

   If there is a failure on the flooding topology, the adjacent nodes
   will update their link state advertisements and flood them.  If the
   original flooding topology is bi-connected, the flooding topology
   should still be connected despite a single failure.

   If the failed local link represented the only connection to the
   flooding topology on the node where the link failed, the node MUST
   enable temporary flooding on a subset of its local links.  This
   allows the node to send its updated link state advertisement(s) and
   also, keep receiving link state updates from other nodes in the
   network before the new flooding topology is calculated and
   distributed (in the case of centralized mode).

   In centralized mode, the Area Leader will notice the change in the
   flooding topology, recompute the flooding topology, and flood it
   using the new flooding topology.

   In distributed mode, all nodes supporting dynamic flooding will
   notice the change in the topology and recompute the new flooding
   topology.

6.8.6.  Node Deletion

   If a node is deleted from the topology, then at least one link is
   also removed from the topology.  Section 6.8.4 and Section 6.8.5
   apply.

6.8.7.  Local Link Addition to the Flooding Topology

   If the flooding topology changes and a local link that was not part
   of the flooding topology is now part of the flooding topology, then
   the node MUST:

      Re-synchronize the Link State Database over the link.  This is

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 36]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

      done using the standard protocol mechanisms.  In the case of IS-
      IS, this requires sending a complete set of CSNPs.  In OSPF, the
      mechanism specified in [RFC4811] is used.

      Make the link part of the flooding topology and start flooding on
      it.

6.8.8.  Local Link Deletion from the Flooding Topology

   If the flooding topology changes and a local link that was part of
   the flooding topology is no longer part of the flooding topology,
   then the node MUST remove the link from the flooding topology.

   The node MUST keep flooding on such link for a limited amount of time
   to allow other nodes to migrate to the new flooding topology.

   If the removed local link represented the only connection to the
   flooding topology on the node, the node MUST enable temporary
   flooding on a subset of its local links.  This allows the node to
   send its updated link state advertisement(s) and also keep receiving
   link state updates from other nodes in the network before the new
   flooding topology is calculated and distributed (in the case of
   centralized mode).

6.8.9.  Treatment of Disconnected Adjacent Nodes

   Every time there is a change in the flooding topology, a node MUST
   check if any adjacent nodes are disconnected from the current
   flooding topology.  Temporary flooding MUST be enabled towards a
   subset of the disconnected nodes per the discussion in Section 6.8.12
   and Section 6.7.

6.8.10.  Failure of the Area Leader

   The failure of the Area Leader can be detected by observing that it
   is no longer reachable.  In this case, the Area Leader election
   process is repeated and a new Area Leader is elected.

   To minimize disruption to Dynamic Flooding if the Area Leader becomes
   unreachable, the node that has the second-highest priority for
   becoming Area Leader (including the system identifier/Router-ID tie-
   breaker if necessary) SHOULD advertise the same algorithm in its Area
   Leader Sub-TLV as the Area Leader and (in centralized mode) SHOULD
   advertise a flooding topology.  This SHOULD be done even when the
   Area Leader is reachable.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 37]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   In centralized mode, the new Area Leader will compute a new flooding
   topology and flood it using the new flooding topology.  To minimize
   disruption, the new flooding topology SHOULD have as much in common
   as possible with the old flooding topology.  This will minimize the
   risk of over-flooding.

   In the distributed mode, the new flooding topology will be calculated
   on all nodes that support the algorithm that is advertised by the new
   Area Leader.  Nodes that do not support the algorithm advertised by
   the new Area Leader will no longer participate in Dynamic Flooding
   and will revert to standard flooding.

6.8.11.  Recovery from Multiple Failures

   In the event of multiple failures on the flooding topology, it may
   become partitioned.  The nodes that remain active on the edges of the
   flooding topology partitions will recognize this and will try to
   repair the flooding topology locally by enabling temporary flooding
   towards the nodes that they consider disconnected from the flooding
   topology until a new flooding topology becomes connected again.

   Nodes, where local failure was detected, update their link state
   advertisements and flood them on the remainder of the flooding
   topology.

   In centralized mode, the Area Leader will notice the change in the
   flooding topology, recompute the flooding topology, and flood it
   using the new flooding topology.

   In distributed mode, all nodes that actively participate in Dynamic
   Flooding will compute the new flooding topology.

   Note that this is very different from the area partition because
   there is still a connected network graph between the nodes in the
   area.  The area may remain connected and forwarding may still be
   functioning correctly.

6.8.12.  Rate-Limiting Temporary Flooding

   As discussed in the previous sections, some events require the
   introduction of temporary flooding on edges that are not part of the
   current flooding topology.  This can occur regardless of whether the
   area is operating in centralized mode or distributed mode.

   Nodes that decide to enable temporary flooding also have to decide
   whether to do so on a subset of the edges that are currently not part
   of the flooding topology or on all the edges that are currently not
   part of the flooding topology.  Doing the former risks a longer

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 38]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   convergence time as it may miss vital edges and not fully repair the
   flooding topology.  Doing the latter risks introducing a flooding
   storm that destabilizes the network.

   It is recommended that a node rate limit the number of edges on which
   it chooses to enable temporary flooding.  Initial values for the
   number of edges on which to enable temporary flooding and the rate at
   which additional edges may subsequently be enabled is left as an
   implementation decision.

7.  IANA Considerations

7.1.  IS-IS

   This document requests the following code points from the "IS-IS Sub-
   TLVs for IS-IS Router CAPABILITY TLV" registry (IS-IS TLV 242).

      Type: TBD1

      Description: IS-IS Area Leader Sub-TLV

      Reference: This document (Section 5.1.1)

      Type: TBD7

      Description: IS-IS Dynamic Flooding Sub-TLV

      Reference: This document (Section 5.1.2)

   This document requests that IANA allocate and assign code points from
   the "IS-IS Top-Level TLV Codepoints" registry.  One for each of the
   following TLVs:

      Type: TBD2

      Description: IS-IS Area System IDs TLV

      Reference: This document (Section 5.1.3)

      Type: TBD3

      Description: IS-IS Flooding Path TLV

      Reference: This document (Section 5.1.4)

      Type: TBD9

      Description: IS-IS Flooding Request TLV

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 39]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

      Reference: This document (Section 5.1.5)

   This document requests that IANA extend the "IS-IS Neighbor Link-
   Attribute Bit Values" registry to contain a "L2BM" column that
   indicates if a bit may appear in an L2 Bundle Member Attributes TLV.
   All existing rows should have the value "N" for "L2BM".  The
   following explanatory note should be added to the registry:

   |  The "L2BM" column indicates applicability to the L2 Bundle Member
   |  Attributes TLV.  The options for the "L2BM" column are:
   |  
   |  Y - This bit MAY appear in the L2 Bundle Member Attributes TLV.
   |  
   |  N - This bit MUST NOT appear in the L2 Bundle Member Attributes
   |  TLV.

   This document requests that IANA allocate a new bit-value from the
   "IS-IS Neighbor Link-Attribute Bit Values" registry.

      Value: 0x4 (suggested, to be assigned by IANA)

      L2BM: N

      Name: Local Edge Enabled for Flooding (LEEF)

      Reference: This document

7.2.  OSPF

   This document requests the following code points from the "OSPF
   Router Information (RI) TLVs" registry:

      Type: TBD4

      Description: OSPF Area Leader Sub-TLV

      Reference: This document (Section 5.2.1)

      Type: TBD8

      Description: OSPF Dynamic Flooding Sub-TLV

      Reference: This document (Section 5.2.2)

   This document requests the following code point from the "Opaque
   Link-State Advertisements (LSA) Option Types" registry:

      Type: TBD5

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 40]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

      Description: OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSA

      Reference: This document (Section 5.2.3)

   This document requests the following code point from the "OSPFv3 LSA
   Function Codes" registry:

      Type: TBD6

      Description: OSPFv3 Dynamic Flooding LSA

      Reference: This document (Section 5.2.4)

   This document requests a new bit in the "LLS Type 1 Extended Options
   and Flags" registry:

      Bit Position: TBD10

      Description: Flooding Request bit

      Reference: This document (Section 5.2.7)

   This document requests the following code point from the "OSPFv2
   Extended Link TLV Sub-TLVs" registry:

      Type: TBD11

      Description: OSPFv2 Link Attributes Bits Sub-TLV

      Reference: This document (Section 5.2.8)

      L2 Bundle Member Attributes (L2BM): Y

   This document requests the following code point from the "OSPFv3
   Extended LSA Sub-TLVs" registry:

      Type: TBD12

      Description: OSPFv3 Link Attributes Bits Sub-TLV

      Reference: This document (Section 5.2.8)

      L2 Bundle Member Attributes (L2BM): Y

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 41]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

7.2.1.  OSPF Dynamic Flooding LSA TLVs Registry

   This specification also requests a new registry - "OSPF Dynamic
   Flooding LSA TLVs".  New values can be allocated via IETF Review or
   IESG Approval.

   The "OSPF Dynamic Flooding LSA TLVs" registry will define top-level
   TLVs for the OSPFv2 Dynamic Flooding Opaque LSA and OSPFv3 Dynamic
   Flooding LSAs.  It should be added to the "Open Shortest Path First
   (OSPF) Parameters" registries group.

   The following initial values are allocated:

      Type: 0

      Description: Reserved

      Reference: This document

      Type: 1

      Description: OSPF Area Router IDs TLV

      Reference: This document (Section 5.2.5)

      Type: 2

      Description: OSPF Flooding Path TLV

      Reference: This document (Section 5.2.6)

   Types in the range 32768-33023 are for experimental use; these will
   not be registered with IANA, and MUST NOT be mentioned by RFCs.

   Types in the range 33024-65535 are not to be assigned at this time.
   Before any assignments can be made in the 33024-65535 range, there
   MUST be an IETF specification that specifies IANA Considerations that
   cover the range being assigned.

7.2.2.  OSPF Link Attributes Sub-TLV Bit Values Registry

   This specification also requests a new registry - "OSPF Link
   Attributes Sub-TLV Bit Values".  New values can be allocated via IETF
   Review or IESG Approval.

   The "OSPF Link Attributes Sub-TLV Bit Values" registry defines Link
   Attribute bit-values for the OSPFv2 Link Attributes Sub-TLV and
   OSPFv3 Link Attributes Sub-TLV.  It should be added to the "Open

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 42]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   Shortest Path First (OSPF) Parameters" registries group.  This
   registry should contain a column "L2BM" that indicates if a bit may
   appear in an L2 Bundle Member Attributes (L2BM) sub-TLV.  The
   following explanatory note should be added to the registry:

   |  The "L2BM" column indicates applicability to the L2 Bundle Member
   |  Attributes sub-TLV.  The options for the "L2BM" column are:
   |  
   |  Y - This bit MAY appear in the L2 Bundle Member Attributes sub-
   |  TLV.
   |  
   |  N - This bit MUST NOT appear in the L2 Bundle Member Attributes
   |  sub-TLV.

   The following initial value is allocated:

      Bit Number: 0

      Description: Local Edge Enabled for Flooding(LEEF)

      Reference: This document (Section 5.2.8)

      L2 Bundle Member Attributes (L2BM): N

7.3.  IGP

   IANA is requested to set up a registry called "IGP Algorithm Type For
   Computing Flooding Topology" under the existing "Interior Gateway
   Protocol (IGP) Parameters" IANA registry.

   Values in this registry come from the range 0-255.

   The initial values in the IGP Algorithm Type For Computing Flooding
   Topology registry are:

      0: Reserved for centralized mode.

      1-127: Individual values are to be assigned according to the
      "Expert Review" policy defined in [RFC8126].  The designated
      experts should require a clear, public specification of the
      algorithm and comply with [RFC7370].

      128-254: Reserved for private use.

      255: Reserved.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 43]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

8.  Security Considerations

   This document introduces no new security issues.  Security of routing
   within a domain is already addressed as part of the routing protocols
   themselves.  This document proposes no changes to those security
   architectures.

   An attacker could become the Area Leader and introduce a flawed
   flooding algorithm into the network thus compromising the operation
   of the protocol.  Authentication methods as described in [RFC5304]
   and [RFC5310] for IS-IS, [RFC2328] and [RFC7474] for OSPFv2 and
   [RFC5340] and [RFC4552] for OSPFv3 SHOULD be used to prevent such
   attacks.

9.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Sarah Chen, Tony Przygienda, Dave
   Cooper, Gyan Mishra, and Les Ginsberg for their contribution to this
   work.  The authors would also like to thank Arista Networks for
   supporting the development of this technology.

   The authors would like to thank Zeqing (Fred) Xia, Naiming Shen, Adam
   Sweeney, Acee Lindem, and Olufemi Komolafe for their helpful
   comments.

   The authors would like to thank Tom Edsall for initially introducing
   them to the problem.

   Advertising Local Edges Enabled for Flooding (LEEF) is based on an
   idea proposed by Huaimo Chen, Mehmet Toy, Yi Yang, Aijun Wang, Xufeng
   Liu, Yanhe Fan, and Lei Liu.  We wish to thank them for their
   contribution.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [ISO10589] ISO, "Intermediate System to Intermediate System Intra-
              Domain Routing Exchange Protocol for use in Conjunction
              with the Protocol for Providing the Connectionless-mode
              Network Service (ISO 8473)", ISO/IEC 10589:2002, October
              2002.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 44]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   [RFC2328]  Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2328, April 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2328>.

   [RFC4552]  Gupta, M. and N. Melam, "Authentication/Confidentiality
              for OSPFv3", RFC 4552, DOI 10.17487/RFC4552, June 2006,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4552>.

   [RFC5029]  Vasseur, JP. and S. Previdi, "Definition of an IS-IS Link
              Attribute Sub-TLV", RFC 5029, DOI 10.17487/RFC5029,
              September 2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5029>.

   [RFC5250]  Berger, L., Bryskin, I., Zinin, A., and R. Coltun, "The
              OSPF Opaque LSA Option", RFC 5250, DOI 10.17487/RFC5250,
              July 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5250>.

   [RFC5304]  Li, T. and R. Atkinson, "IS-IS Cryptographic
              Authentication", RFC 5304, DOI 10.17487/RFC5304, October
              2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5304>.

   [RFC5310]  Bhatia, M., Manral, V., Li, T., Atkinson, R., White, R.,
              and M. Fanto, "IS-IS Generic Cryptographic
              Authentication", RFC 5310, DOI 10.17487/RFC5310, February
              2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5310>.

   [RFC5340]  Coltun, R., Ferguson, D., Moy, J., and A. Lindem, "OSPF
              for IPv6", RFC 5340, DOI 10.17487/RFC5340, July 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5340>.

   [RFC5613]  Zinin, A., Roy, A., Nguyen, L., Friedman, B., and D.
              Yeung, "OSPF Link-Local Signaling", RFC 5613,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5613, August 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5613>.

   [RFC7356]  Ginsberg, L., Previdi, S., and Y. Yang, "IS-IS Flooding
              Scope Link State PDUs (LSPs)", RFC 7356,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7356, September 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7356>.

   [RFC7474]  Bhatia, M., Hartman, S., Zhang, D., and A. Lindem, Ed.,
              "Security Extension for OSPFv2 When Using Manual Key
              Management", RFC 7474, DOI 10.17487/RFC7474, April 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7474>.

   [RFC7684]  Psenak, P., Gredler, H., Shakir, R., Henderickx, W.,
              Tantsura, J., and A. Lindem, "OSPFv2 Prefix/Link Attribute
              Advertisement", RFC 7684, DOI 10.17487/RFC7684, November
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7684>.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 45]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   [RFC7770]  Lindem, A., Ed., Shen, N., Vasseur, JP., Aggarwal, R., and
              S. Shaffer, "Extensions to OSPF for Advertising Optional
              Router Capabilities", RFC 7770, DOI 10.17487/RFC7770,
              February 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7770>.

   [RFC7981]  Ginsberg, L., Previdi, S., and M. Chen, "IS-IS Extensions
              for Advertising Router Information", RFC 7981,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7981, October 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7981>.

   [RFC8126]  Cotton, M., Leiba, B., and T. Narten, "Guidelines for
              Writing an IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26,
              RFC 8126, DOI 10.17487/RFC8126, June 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8126>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8362]  Lindem, A., Roy, A., Goethals, D., Reddy Vallem, V., and
              F. Baker, "OSPFv3 Link State Advertisement (LSA)
              Extensibility", RFC 8362, DOI 10.17487/RFC8362, April
              2018, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8362>.

10.2.  Informative References

   [Bondy]    Bondy, J. A. and U. S. R. Murty, "Graph Theory With
              Applications", 1976,
              <https://www.zib.de/groetschel/teaching/WS1314/
              BondyMurtyGTWA.pdf>.  ISBN 0-444-19451-7

   [Clos]     Clos, C., "A Study of Non-Blocking Switching Networks",
              The Bell System Technical Journal Vol. 32(2), DOI
              10.1002/j.1538-7305.1953.tb01433.x, March 1953,
              <http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1538-7305.1953.tb01433.x>.

   [Leiserson]
              Leiserson, C. E., "Fat-Trees: Universal Networks for
              Hardware-Efficient Supercomputing", IEEE Transactions on
              Computers 34(10):892-901, 1985.

   [RFC2973]  Balay, R., Katz, D., and J. Parker, "IS-IS Mesh Groups",
              RFC 2973, DOI 10.17487/RFC2973, October 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2973>.

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 46]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   [RFC3630]  Katz, D., Kompella, K., and D. Yeung, "Traffic Engineering
              (TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2", RFC 3630,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3630, September 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3630>.

   [RFC4811]  Nguyen, L., Roy, A., and A. Zinin, "OSPF Out-of-Band Link
              State Database (LSDB) Resynchronization", RFC 4811,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4811, March 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4811>.

   [RFC7370]  Ginsberg, L., "Updates to the IS-IS TLV Codepoints
              Registry", RFC 7370, DOI 10.17487/RFC7370, September 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7370>.

   [RFC7938]  Lapukhov, P., Premji, A., and J. Mitchell, Ed., "Use of
              BGP for Routing in Large-Scale Data Centers", RFC 7938,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7938, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7938>.

Authors' Addresses

   Tony Li (editor)
   Juniper Networks
   1133 Innovation Way
   Sunnyvale, California 94089
   United States of America
   Email: tony.li@tony.li

   Peter Psenak (editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Eurovea Centre, Central 3
   Pribinova Street 10
   81109 Bratislava
   Slovakia
   Email: ppsenak@cisco.com

   Huaimo Chen
   Futurewei
   Boston, MA,
   United States of America
   Email: hchen.ietf@gmail.com

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 47]
Internet-Draft              Dynamic Flooding                  March 2024

   Luay Jalil
   Verizon
   Richardson, Texas 75081
   United States of America
   Email: luay.jalil@verizon.com

   Srinath Dontula
   ATT
   200 S Laurel Ave
   Middletown, New Jersey 07748
   United States of America
   Email: sd947e@att.com

Li, et al.              Expires 17 September 2024              [Page 48]