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OSPF Reverse Metric
draft-ietf-lsr-ospf-reverse-metric-05

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (lsr WG)
Authors Ketan Talaulikar , Peter Psenak , Hugh Johnston
Last updated 2022-05-01 (Latest revision 2022-04-28)
Replaces draft-ketant-lsr-ospf-reverse-metric
Stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Intended RFC status Proposed Standard
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Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication
Document shepherd Acee Lindem
Shepherd write-up Show Last changed 2022-04-28
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Responsible AD John Scudder
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draft-ietf-lsr-ospf-reverse-metric-05
Link State Routing                                         K. Talaulikar
Internet-Draft                                                Arrcus Inc
Intended status: Standards Track                               P. Psenak
Expires: October 30, 2022                            Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                             H. Johnston
                                                               AT&T Labs
                                                          April 28, 2022

                          OSPF Reverse Metric
                 draft-ietf-lsr-ospf-reverse-metric-05

Abstract

   This document specifies the extensions to OSPF that enable a router
   to use link-local signaling to signal the metric that receiving
   neighbor(s) should use for a link to the signaling router.  The
   signaling of this reverse metric, to be used on the link to the
   signaling router, allows a router to influence the amount of traffic
   flowing towards itself and in certain use cases enables routers to
   maintain symmetric metric on both sides of a link between them.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 30, 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents

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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Use Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     2.1.  Link Maintenance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Adaptive Metric Signaling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Solution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   4.  LLS Reverse Metric TLV  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  LLS Reverse TE Metric TLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   6.  Procedures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   7.  Operational Guidelines  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   8.  Backward Compatibility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   10. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   11. Contributors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   12. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     13.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11

1.  Introduction

   Routers running the Open Shortest Path First (OSPFv2) [RFC2328] and
   OSPFv3 [RFC5340] routing protocols originate a Router-LSA (Link State
   Advertisement) that describes all its links to its neighbors and
   includes a metric that indicates its "cost" of reaching the neighbor
   over that link.  Consider two routers R1 and R2 that are connected
   via a link.  The metric for this link in direction R1->R2 is
   configured on R1 and in the direction R2->R1 is configured on R2.
   Thus the configuration on R1 influences the traffic that it forwards
   towards R2 but does not influence the traffic that it may receive
   from R2 on that same link.

   This document describes certain use cases where a router is required
   to signal what we call the "reverse metric" (RM) to its neighbor to
   adjust the routing metric in the inbound direction.  When R1 signals
   its reverse metric on its link to R2, then R2 advertises this value
   as its metric to R1 in its Router-LSA instead of its locally
   configured value.  Once this information is part of the topology,
   then all other routers do their computation using this value which

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   results in the desired change in the traffic distribution that R1
   wanted to achieve towards itself over the link from R2.

   This document describes extensions to OSPF Link-Local Signaling (LLS)
   [RFC5613] to signal OSPF reverse metrics.  Section 4 specifies the
   LLS Reverse Metric TLV and Section 5 specifies the LLS Reverse TE
   Metric TLV.  The related procedures are specified in Section 6.

1.1.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

2.  Use Cases

   This section describes certain use cases that OSPF reverse metric
   helps address.  The usage of the OSPF reverse metric need not be
   limited to these cases and is intended to be a generic mechanism.

              Core Network
          ^                ^
          |                |
          V                v
     +----------+    +----------+
     |  AGGR1   |    |  AGGR2   |
     +----------+    +----------+
       ^      ^        ^      ^
       |      |        |      |
       |      +-----------+   |
       |               |  |   |
       |      +--------+  |   |
       v      v           v   v
    +-----------+      +-----------+
    |    R1     |      |    RN     |
    |  Router   | ...  |  Router   |
    +-----------+      +-----------+

              Figure 1: Reference Dual Hub and Spoke Topology

   Consider a deployment scenario where, as shown in Figure 1, a bunch
   of routers R1 through RN, are dual-home connected to AGGR1 and AGGR2
   that are aggregating their traffic towards a core network.

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2.1.  Link Maintenance

   Before network maintenance events are performed on individual links,
   operators substantially increase (to maximum value) the OSPF metric
   simultaneously on both routers attached to the same link.  In doing
   so, the routers generate new Router LSAs that are flooded throughout
   the network and cause all routers to gradually shift traffic onto
   alternate paths with very little or no disruption to in-flight
   communications by applications or end-users.  When performed
   successfully, this allows the operator to confidently perform
   disruptive augmentation, fault diagnosis, or repairs on a link
   without disturbing ongoing communications in the network.

   In deployments such as a hub and spoke topology as shown in Figure 1,
   it is quite common to have routers with several hundred interfaces
   and individual interfaces that move anywhere from several hundred
   gigabits/second to terabits/second of traffic.  The challenge in such
   conditions is that the operator must accurately identify the same
   point-to-point link on two separate devices to increase (and
   afterward decrease) the OSPF metric appropriately and to do so in a
   coordinated manner.  When considering maintenance for PE-CE links
   when a large number of CE routers connect to a PE router, an
   additional challenge related to coordinating access to the CE routers
   may arise when the CEs are not managed by the provider.

   The OSPF reverse metric mechanism helps address these challenges.
   The operator can set the link on one of the routers (generally the
   hub like AGGR1 or a PE) in a "maintenance mode".  This causes the
   router to advertise the maximum metric for that link and also to
   signal its neighbor on the same link to advertise maximum metric via
   the reverse metric signaling mechanism.  Once the link maintenance is
   completed and the "maintenance mode" is turned off, the router
   returns to using its provisioned metric for the link and also stops
   the signaling of reverse metric on that link resulting in its
   neighbor to also revert to its provisioned metric for that link.

2.2.  Adaptive Metric Signaling

   In Figure 1 above, consider that at some point T, AGGR1 loses some of
   its capacity towards the core that may result in a congestion issue
   towards the core and it needs to reduce the traffic towards the core
   by redirecting some of the load to transit AGGR2 which is not
   experiencing a similar issue.  Altering its link metric towards the
   R1-RN routers would influence the traffic from the core towards R1-RN
   but not the other way around as desired.

   In such a scenario, the AGGR1 router could signal an incremental OSPF
   reverse metric to some or all of the R1-RN routers.  When the R1-RN

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   routers add this signaled reverse metric offset to the provisioned
   metric on their links towards AGGR1, then the path via AGGR2 becomes
   a better path causing traffic towards the core to be diverted away
   from AGGR1.  Note that the reverse metric mechanism allows such
   adaptive metric changes to be applied on the AGGR1 as opposed to
   being provisioned on a possibly large number of R1-RN routers.

   The reverse metric mechanism may also be similarly applied between
   spine and leaf nodes in a CLOS topology deployment.

3.  Solution

   To address the use cases described earlier and to allow an OSPF
   router to indicate its reverse metric for a specific link to its
   neighbor(s), this document proposes to extend OSPF link-local
   signaling to signal the Reverse Metric TLV in OSPF Hello packets.
   This ensures that the RM signaling is scoped ONLY to each specific
   link individually.  The router continues to include the Reverse
   Metric TLV in its Hello packets on the link as long as it needs its
   neighbor to use that metric value towards itself.  Further details of
   the procedures involved are specified in Section 6.

   The reverse metric mechanism specified in this document applies only
   for point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, and hybrid broadcast point-
   to-multipoint ( [RFC6845]) links.  It is not applicable for broadcast
   or non-broadcast-multi-access (NBMA) links since the same objective
   is achieved there using the OSPF Two-Part Metric mechanism [RFC8042]
   for OSPFv2.  The OSPFv3 solution for broadcast or NBMA links is
   outside the scope of this document.

4.  LLS Reverse Metric TLV

   The Reverse Metric TLV is a new LLS TLV.  It has following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     MTID      | Flags     |O|H|        Reverse Metric         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   where:

                       Figure 2: Reverse Metric TLV

      Type: 19

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      Length: 4 octet

      MTID : the multi-topology identifier of the link ([RFC4915])

      Flags: 1 octet, the following flags are defined currently and the
      rest MUST be set to 0 on transmission and ignored on reception.

      *  H (0x1) : Indicates that the neighbor should use the value only
         if it is higher than its provisioned metric value for the link.

      *  O (0x2) : Indicates that the reverse metric value provided is
         an offset that is to be added to the provisioned metric.

      Reverse Metric: 2 octets, the value or offset of reverse metric to
      replace or be added to the provisioned link metric.

5.  LLS Reverse TE Metric TLV

   The Reverse TE Metric TLV is a new LLS TLV.  It has the following
   format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |              Type             |             Length            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Flags   |O|H|                 RESERVED                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     Reverse TE Metric                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   where:

                      Figure 3: Reverse TE Metric TLV

      Type: 20

      Length: 4 octet

      Flags: 1 octet, the following flags are defined currently and the
      rest MUST be set to 0 on transmission and ignored on reception.

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      *  H (0x1) : Indicates that the neighbor should use the value only
         if it is higher than its provisioned TE metric value for the
         link.

      *  O (0x2) : Indicates that the reverse TE metric value provided
         is an offset that is to be added to the provisioned TE metric.

      RESERVED: 24-bit field.  SHOULD be set to 0 on transmission and
      MUST be ignored on receipt.

      Reverse TE Metric: 4 octets, the value or offset of reverse
      traffic engineering metric to replace or to be added to the
      provisioned TE metric of the link.

6.  Procedures

   When a router needs to signal an RM value that its neighbor(s) should
   use for a link towards the router, it includes the Reverse Metric TLV
   in the LLS block of its hello messages sent on that link and
   continues to include this TLV for as long as it needs its neighbor to
   use this value.  The mechanisms used to determine the value to be
   used for the RM is specific to the implementation and use case and is
   outside the scope of this document.  For example, the RM value may be
   derived based on the router's link bandwidth with respect to a
   reference bandwidth.

   A router receiving a hello packet from its neighbor that contains the
   Reverse Metric TLV on a link SHOULD use the RM value to derive the
   metric for the link to the advertising router in its Router-LSA.
   When the O flag is set, the metric value to be advertised is derived
   by adding the value in the TLV to the provisioned metric for the
   link.  When the O flag is clear, the metric value to be advertised is
   derived directly from the value in the TLV.  When the H flag is set
   and the O flag is clear, the metric value to be advertised is derived
   directly from the value in the TLV only when the RM value signaled is
   higher than the provisioned metric for the link.

   A router stops including the Reverse Metric TLV in its hello messages
   when it needs its neighbors to go back to using their own provisioned
   metric values.  When this happens, a router that had modified its
   metric in response to receiving a Reverse Metric TLV from its
   neighbor should revert to using its provisioned metric value.

   In certain scenarios, two or more routers may start the RM signaling
   on the same link.  This could create collision scenarios.  The
   following rules MUST be adopted by routers to ensure that there is no
   instability in the network due to churn in their metric due to
   signaling of RM:

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   o  The RM value that is signaled by a router to its neighbor MUST NOT
      be derived from the reverse metric being signaled by any of its
      neighbors on any of its links.

   o  The RM value that is signaled by a router MUST NOT be derived from
      its metric which has been modified on account of an RM signaled
      from any of its neighbors on any of its links.  RM signaling from
      other routers can affect the router's metric advertised in its
      Router-LSA.  When deriving the RM values that a router signals to
      its neighbors, it should use its provisioned local metric values
      not influenced by any RM signaling.

   Based on these rules, a router MUST never start, stop, or change its
   RM metric signaling based on the RM metric signaling initiated by
   some other router.  Based on the local configuration policy, each
   router would end up accepting the RM value signaled by its neighbor
   and there would be no churn of metrics on the link or the network on
   account of RM signaling.

   In certain use cases when symmetrical metrics are desired (e.g., when
   metrics are derived based on link bandwidth), the RM signaling can be
   enabled on routers on either end of a link.  In other use cases (as
   described in Section 2.1), RM signaling may need to be enabled only
   on the router at one end of a link.

   When using multi-topology routing with OSPF [RFC4915], a router MAY
   include multiple instances of the Reverse Metric TLV in the LLS block
   of its hello message - one for each of the topologies for which it
   desires to signal the reserve metric.

   In certain scenarios, the OSPF router may also require the
   modification of the TE metric being advertised by its neighbor router
   towards itself in the inbound direction.  The Reverse TE Metric TLV,
   using similar procedures as described above, MAY be used to signal
   the reverse TE metric for router links.  The neighbor SHOULD use the
   reverse TE metric value to derive the TE metric advertised in the TE
   Metric sub-TLV of the Link TLV in its TE Opaque LSA [RFC3630].

7.  Operational Guidelines

   The use of reverse metric signaling does not alter the OSPF metric
   parameters stored in a router's persistent provisioning database.

   If routers that receive a reverse metric advertisement send a syslog
   message, this will assist in rapidly identifying the node in the
   network that is advertising an OSPF metric or TE metric different
   from that which is configured locally on the device.

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   When the link TE metric is raised to the maximum value, either due to
   the reverse metric mechanism or by explicit user configuration, this
   SHOULD immediately trigger the CSPF (Constrained Shortest Path First)
   recalculation to move the TE traffic away from that link.

   Implementations SHOULD provide a configuration option to enable the
   signaling of reverse metric from a router to its neighbors and are
   RECOMMENDED to provide a configuration option to disable the
   acceptance of the RM from its neighbors.

   If an implementation enables this mechanism by default, it is
   RECOMMENDED that it be disabled by the operators when not explicitly
   using it.

   For the use case in Section 2.1, a router SHOULD limit the period of
   advertising reverse metric towards a neighbor only for the duration
   of a network maintenance window.

8.  Backward Compatibility

   The signaling specified in this document happens at a link-local
   level between routers on that link.  A router that does not support
   this specification would ignore the Reverse Metric and Reverse TE
   Metric LLS TLVs and not update its metric(s) in the other LSAs.  As a
   result, the behavior would be the same as prior to this
   specification.  Therefore, there are no backward compatibility
   related issues or considerations that need to be taken care of when
   implementing this specification.

9.  IANA Considerations

   This specification updates Link Local Signalling TLV Identifiers
   registry.

   IANA is requested to make permanent the following code points that
   have been assigned via early allocation

   o 19 - Reverse Metric TLV

   o 20 - Reverse TE Metric TLV

10.  Security Considerations

   The security considerations for "OSPF Link-Local Signaling" [RFC5613]
   also apply to the extension described in this document.  The usage of
   the reverse metric TLVs is to alter the metrics used by routers on
   the link and influence the flow and routing of traffic over the
   network.  Hence, modification of the Reverse Metric and Reverse TE

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   Metric TLVs may result in misrouting of traffic.  If authentication
   is being used in the OSPF routing domain [RFC5709][RFC7474], then the
   Cryptographic Authentication TLV [RFC5613] SHOULD also be used to
   protect the contents of the LLS block.

   Receiving a malformed LLS Reverse Metric or Reverse TE Metric TLVs
   MUST NOT result in a hard router or OSPF process failure.  The
   reception of malformed LLS TLVs or sub-TLVs SHOULD be logged, but
   such logging MUST be rate-limited to prevent denial-of-service (DoS)
   attacks.

11.  Contributors

   Thanks to Jay Karthik for his contributions to the use cases and the
   review of the solution.

12.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Les Ginsberg, Aijun Wang, Gyan
   Mishra, and Matthew Bocci for their review and feedback on this
   document.  The authors would also like to thank Acee Lindem for this
   detailed shepherd's review and comments on this document.

   The document leverages the concept of Reverse Metric for IS-IS, its
   related use cases, and applicability aspects from [RFC8500].

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2328]  Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2328, April 1998,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2328>.

   [RFC3630]  Katz, D., Kompella, K., and D. Yeung, "Traffic Engineering
              (TE) Extensions to OSPF Version 2", RFC 3630,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3630, September 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3630>.

   [RFC5340]  Coltun, R., Ferguson, D., Moy, J., and A. Lindem, "OSPF
              for IPv6", RFC 5340, DOI 10.17487/RFC5340, July 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5340>.

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   [RFC5613]  Zinin, A., Roy, A., Nguyen, L., Friedman, B., and D.
              Yeung, "OSPF Link-Local Signaling", RFC 5613,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5613, August 2009,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5613>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

13.2.  Informative References

   [RFC4915]  Psenak, P., Mirtorabi, S., Roy, A., Nguyen, L., and P.
              Pillay-Esnault, "Multi-Topology (MT) Routing in OSPF",
              RFC 4915, DOI 10.17487/RFC4915, June 2007,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4915>.

   [RFC5709]  Bhatia, M., Manral, V., Fanto, M., White, R., Barnes, M.,
              Li, T., and R. Atkinson, "OSPFv2 HMAC-SHA Cryptographic
              Authentication", RFC 5709, DOI 10.17487/RFC5709, October
              2009, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5709>.

   [RFC6845]  Sheth, N., Wang, L., and J. Zhang, "OSPF Hybrid Broadcast
              and Point-to-Multipoint Interface Type", RFC 6845,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6845, January 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6845>.

   [RFC7474]  Bhatia, M., Hartman, S., Zhang, D., and A. Lindem, Ed.,
              "Security Extension for OSPFv2 When Using Manual Key
              Management", RFC 7474, DOI 10.17487/RFC7474, April 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7474>.

   [RFC8042]  Zhang, Z., Wang, L., and A. Lindem, "OSPF Two-Part
              Metric", RFC 8042, DOI 10.17487/RFC8042, December 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8042>.

   [RFC8500]  Shen, N., Amante, S., and M. Abrahamsson, "IS-IS Routing
              with Reverse Metric", RFC 8500, DOI 10.17487/RFC8500,
              February 2019, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8500>.

Authors' Addresses

   Ketan Talaulikar
   Arrcus Inc
   India

   Email: ketant.ietf@gmail.com

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   Peter Psenak
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Apollo Business Center
   Mlynske nivy 43
   Bratislava  821 09
   Slovakia

   Email: ppsenak@cisco.com

   Hugh Johnston
   AT&T Labs
   USA

   Email: hugh_johnston@labs.att.com

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