Landmark Routing Protocol (LANMAR) for Large Scale Ad Hoc Networks

Document Type Expired Internet-Draft (manet WG)
Last updated 2002-11-07
Stream IETF
Intended RFC status (None)
Expired & archived
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Stream WG state WG Document
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IESG IESG state Expired
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This Internet-Draft is no longer active. A copy of the expired Internet-Draft can be found at


The Landmark Routing Protocol (LANMAR) utilizes the concept of landmark for scalable routing in large, mobile ad hoc networks. It relies on the notion of group mobility: i.e., a logical group (for example a team of coworkers at a convention) moves in a coordinated fashion. The existence of such logical group can be efficiently reflected in the addressing scheme. It assumes that an IP like address is used consisting of a group ID (or subnet ID) and a host ID, i.e. <Group ID, Host ID>. A landmark is dynamically elected in each group. The route to a landmark is propagated throughout the network using a Distance Vector mechanism. Separately, each node in the network uses a scoped routing algorithm (e.g., FSR) to learn about routes within a given (max number of hops) scope. To route a packet to a destination outside its scope, a node will direct the packet to the landmark corresponding to the group ID of such destination. Once the packet approaches the landmark, it will typically be routed directly to the destination. A solution to nodes outside of the scope of their landmark (i.e., drifters) is also addressed in the draft. Thus, by summarizing in the corresponding landmarks the routing information of remote groups of nodes and by using the truncated local routing table, LANMAR dramatically reduces routing table size and routing update overhead in large networks. The dynamic election of landmarks enables LANMAR to cope with mobile environments. LANMAR is well suited to provide an efficient and scalable routing solution in large, mobile, ad hoc environments in which group behavior applies and high mobility renders traditional routing schemes inefficient.


Mario Gerla (

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