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YANG Packages
draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (netmod WG)
Authors Robert Wilton , Reshad Rahman , Joe Clarke , Jason Sterne , Bo Wu
Last updated 2022-03-04
Replaces draft-rwilton-netmod-yang-packages
Stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
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draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03
Network Working Group                                     R. Wilton, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                                 R. Rahman
Intended status: Standards Track                               J. Clarke
Expires: 5 September 2022                            Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                               J. Sterne
                                                                   Nokia
                                                              B. Wu, Ed.
                                                                  Huawei
                                                            4 March 2022

                             YANG Packages
                   draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03

Abstract

   This document defines YANG packages; a versioned organizational
   structure used to manage schema and conformance of YANG modules as a
   cohesive set instead of individually.

   It describes how packages: are represented on a server, can be
   defined in offline YANG instance data files, and can be used to
   define the content schema associated with YANG instance data files.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 5 September 2022.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

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   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Terminology and Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   3.  Background on YANG packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   4.  Objectives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   5.  YANG Package Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     5.1.  Package definition rules  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     5.2.  Package versioning  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
       5.2.1.  Updating a package with a new version . . . . . . . .   8
         5.2.1.1.  Non-Backwards-compatible changes  . . . . . . . .   8
         5.2.1.2.  Backwards-compatible changes  . . . . . . . . . .   8
         5.2.1.3.  Editorial changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       5.2.2.  YANG Semantic Versioning for packages . . . . . . . .   9
     5.3.  Package conformance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       5.3.1.  Use of YANG semantic versioning . . . . . . . . . . .  10
       5.3.2.  The relationship between packages and datastores  . .  11
     5.4.  Schema referential completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     5.5.  Package name scoping and uniqueness . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       5.5.1.  Globally scoped packages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       5.5.2.  Server scoped packages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.6.  Submodules packages considerations  . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     5.7.  Package tags  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     5.8.  YANG Package Usage Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       5.8.1.  Use of deviations in YANG packages  . . . . . . . . .  14
       5.8.2.  Use of features in YANG modules and YANG packages . .  15
     5.9.  YANG package core definition  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   6.  Package Instance Data Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   7.  Package Definitions on a Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     7.1.  Package List  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     7.2.  Tree diagram  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   8.  YANG Library Package Bindings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   9.  YANG packages as schema for YANG instance data document . . .  19
   10. YANG Modules  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   11. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   12. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
   13. Open Questions/Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39
   14. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
   15. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40

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     15.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  40
     15.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  42
   Appendix A.  Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  43
     A.1.  Example IETF Network Device YANG package  . . . . . . . .  43
     A.2.  Example IETF Basic Routing YANG package . . . . . . . . .  45
     A.3.  Package import conflict resolution example  . . . . . . .  48
   Appendix B.  Possible alternative solutions . . . . . . . . . . .  51
     B.1.  Using module tags . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
     B.2.  Using YANG library  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  52
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53

1.  Terminology and Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in BCP
   14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   This document uses terminology introduced in the YANG versioning
   requirements draft [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-versioning-reqs].

   This document also makes of the following terminology introduced in
   the Network Management Datastore Architecture [RFC8342]:

   *  datastore schema

   This document also makes of the following terminology introduced in
   the YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language [RFC7950]:

   *  data node

   *  schema node

   In addition, this document defines the following terminology:

   *  YANG package: a versioned organizational structure used to manage
      a set of YANG modules that collectively define a package schema.
      YANG packages are defined in Section 5.

   *  package schema: The combined set of schema nodes defined by a YANG
      package.  Package schema can be used to define datastore schema.

   *  backwards-compatible (BC) change: When used in the context of a
      YANG module, it follows the definition in Section 3.1.1 of
      [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-module-versioning].  When used in the
      context of a YANG package, it follows the definition in
      Section 5.2.1.2.

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   *  non-backwards-compatible (NBC) change: When used in the context of
      a YANG module, it follows the definition in Section 3.1.2 of
      [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-module-versioning].  When used in the
      context of a YANG package, it follows the definition in
      Section 5.2.1.2.

   *  editorial change: When used in the context of a YANG module, it
      follows the definition of an 'editorial change' in 3.2 of
      [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-module-versioning].  When used in the
      context of a YANG package, it follows the definition in
      Section 5.2.1.3.

2.  Introduction

   This document defines and describes the YANG [RFC7950] constructs
   that are used to define and use YANG packages.

   A YANG package is a versioned organizational structure used to manage
   a set of YANG modules that collectively define a package schema.  For
   example, a YANG package could contain the set of YANG modules
   required to implement an L2VPN service on a network device.

   Non-normative examples of YANG packages are provided in the
   appendices.

3.  Background on YANG packages

   It has long been acknowledged within the YANG community that network
   management using YANG requires a unit of organization and conformance
   that is broader in scope than individual YANG modules.

   'The YANG Package Statement' [I-D.bierman-netmod-yang-package]
   proposed a YANG package mechanism based on new YANG language
   statements, where a YANG package is defined in a file similar to how
   YANG modules are defined, and would require enhancements to YANG
   compilers to understand the new statements used to define packages.

   OpenConfig [openconfigsemver] describes an approach to versioning
   'bundle releases' based on git tags.  I.e. a set of modules, at
   particular versions, can be marked with the same release tag to
   indicate that they are known to interoperate together.

   The NETMOD WG in general, and the YANG versioning design team in
   particular, are exploring solutions [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-solutions]
   to the YANG versioning requirements,
   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-versioning-reqs].  Solutions to the versioning
   requirements can be split into several distinct areas.
   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-module-versioning] is focused on YANG

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   versioning scoped to individual modules.  The overall solution must
   also consider YANG versioning and conformance scoped to sets of
   modules.  YANG packages provide part of the solution for versioning
   sets of modules.

4.  Objectives

   The main goals of YANG package definitions include, but are not
   restricted to:

   *  To provide an alternative, simplified, YANG conformance mechanism.
      Rather than conformance being performed against a set of
      individual YANG module revisions, features, and deviations,
      conformance can be more simply stated in terms of YANG packages,
      with a set of modifications (e.g. additional modules, deviations,
      or features).

   *  To allow datastore schema to be specified in a concise way rather
      than having each server explicitly list all modules, revisions,
      and features.  YANG package definitions can be defined in
      documents that are available offline, and accessible via a URL,
      rather than requiring explicit lists of modules to be shared
      between client and server.  Hence, a YANG package must contain
      sufficient information to allow a client or server to precisely
      construct the schema associated with the package.

   *  To define a mainly linear versioned history of sets of modules
      versions that are known to work together.  I.e. to help mitigate
      the problem where a client must manage devices from multiple
      vendors, and vendor A implements version 1.0.0 of module foo and
      version 2.0.0 of module bar, and vendor B implements version 2.0.0
      of module foo and version 1.0.0 of module bar.  For a client,
      trying to interoperate with multiple vendors, and many YANG
      modules, finding a consistent lowest common denominator set of
      YANG module versions may be difficult, if not impossible.

   Protocol mechanisms of how clients can negotiate which packages or
   package versions are to be used for NETCONF/RESTCONF communications
   are outside the scope of this document, and are defined in
   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-ver-selection].

   Finally, the package definitions proposed by this document are
   intended to be relatively basic in their definition and the
   functionality that they support.  As industry gains experience using
   YANG packages, the standard YANG mechanisms of updating, or
   augmenting YANG modules could also be used to extend the
   functionality supported by YANG packages, if required.

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5.  YANG Package Definition

   This document specifies an approach to defining YANG packages that is
   different to either of the approaches described in the background.

   A YANG package is a versioned organizational structure used to manage
   a set of YANG modules that collectively define a package schema.

   Each YANG package has a name that SHOULD end with the suffix "-pkg".
   Package names are normally expected to be globally unique, but in
   some cases the package name may be locally scoped to a server or
   device, as described in Section 5.5.

   YANG packages are versioned using the same approaches described in
   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-module-versioning] and
   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-semver].  This is described in further detail
   in Section 5.2.

   Each YANG package version, defines:

   *  some metadata about the package, e.g., description, tags, scoping,
      referential completeness, location information.

   *  a set of YANG modules, at particular revisions, that are
      implemented by servers that implement the package.  The modules
      may contain deviations.

   *  a set of import-only YANG modules, at particular revisions, that
      are used 'import-only' by the servers that implement the package.

   *  a set of included YANG packages, at particular revisions, that are
      also implemented by servers that implement the package.

   *  a set of YANG module features that must be supported by servers
      that implement the package.

   The structure for YANG package definitions uses existing YANG
   language statements, YANG Data Structure Extensions
   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-data-ext], and YANG Instance Data File Format
   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-instance-file-format].

   YANG package definitions are available offline in YANG instance data
   files.  Client applications can be designed to support particular
   package versions that they expect to interoperate with.

   YANG package definitions are available from the server via
   augmentations to YANG Library [RFC8525].  Rather than client
   applications downloading the entire contents of YANG library to

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   confirm that the server's datastore schema are compatible with the
   client, they can simply check the names and versions of the packages
   advertised in YANG library to know what schema to expect in the
   server datastores.

   YANG package definitions can also be used to define the content
   schema associated with YANG instance data files holding other, e.g.,
   non packages related, instance data.

5.1.  Package definition rules

   Packages are defined using the following rules:

   1.  A YANG package MAY represent a referentially complete set of
       modules or MAY represent a set of modules with some module import
       dependencies missing, as described in Section 5.4.

   2.  Packages definitions are hierarchical.  A package can include
       other packages.  Only a single version of a package can be
       included, and conflicting package includes (e.g. from descendant
       package includes) MUST be explicitly resolved by indicating which
       version takes precedence, and which versions are being replaced.

   3.  YANG packages definitions MAY include modules containing
       deviation statements, but those deviation statements MUST only be
       used in an [RFC7950] compatible way to indicate where a server,
       or class of servers, deviates from a published standard.
       Deviations MUST NOT be included in a package definition that is
       part of a published standard.  See section Section 5.8.1 for
       further guidance on the use of deviations in YANG packages.

   4.  For each module implemented by a package, only a single revision
       of that module MUST be implemented.  Multiple revisions of a
       module MAY be listed as import-only dependencies.

   5.  The revision of a module listed in the package 'module' list
       supersedes any 'implemented' revision of the module listed in an
       included package module list.  The 'replaces-revision' leaf-list
       is used to indicate which 'implemented' or 'import-only' module
       revisions are replaces by this module revision.  This allows a
       package to explicitly resolve conflicts between implemented
       module revisions in included packages.

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   6.  The 'replaces-revision' leaf-list in the 'import-only-module'
       list can be used to exclude duplicate revisions of import-only
       modules from included packages.  Otherwise, the import-only-
       modules for a package are the import-only-modules from all
       included packages combined with any modules listed in the
       packages import-only-module list.

5.2.  Package versioning

   Individual versions of a YANG package are versioned using the
   "revision-label" scheme defined in section 3.3 of
   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-module-versioning].

5.2.1.  Updating a package with a new version

   Package compatibility is fundamentally defined by how the package
   schema between two package versions has changed.

   When a package definition is updated, the version associated with the
   package MUST be updated appropriately, taking into consideration the
   scope of the changes as defined by the rules below.

5.2.1.1.  Non-Backwards-compatible changes

   The following changes classify as non-backwards-compatible changes to
   a package definition:

   *  Changing an 'included-package' list entry to select a package
      version that is non-backwards-compatible to the prior package
      version, or removing a previously included package.

   *  Changing a 'module' or 'import-only-module' list entry to select a
      module revision that is non-backwards-compatible to the prior
      module revision, or removing a previously implemented module.

   *  Removing a feature from the 'mandatory-feature' leaf-list.

   *  Adding, changing, or removing a module containing one or more
      deviations, that when applied to the target module would create a
      change that is considered a non-backwards-compatible change to the
      affected data node in the schema associated with the prior package
      version.

5.2.1.2.  Backwards-compatible changes

   The following changes classify as backwards-compatible changes to a
   package definition:

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   *  Changing an 'included-package' list entry to select a package
      version that is backwards-compatible to the prior package version,
      or including a new package that does not conflict with any
      existing included package or module.

   *  Changing a 'module' or 'import-only-module' list entry to select a
      module revision that is backwards-compatible to the prior module
      revision, or including a new module to the package definition.

   *  Adding a feature to the 'mandatory-feature' leaf-list.

   *  Adding, changing, or removing a module containing one or more
      deviations, that when applied to the target module would create a
      change that is considered a backwards-compatible change to the
      affected data node in the schema associated with the prior package
      version.

5.2.1.3.  Editorial changes

   The following changes classify as editorial changes to a package
   definition:

   *  Changing a 'included-package' list entry to select a package
      version that is classified as an editorial change relative to the
      prior package version.

   *  Changing a 'module' or 'import-only-module' list entry to select a
      module revision that is classified as an editorial change relative
      to the prior module revision.

   *  Any change to any metadata associated with a package definition.

5.2.2.  YANG Semantic Versioning for packages

   YANG Semantic Versioning [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-semver] MAY be used as
   an appropriate type of revision-label for the package version leaf.

   If the format of the leaf matches the 'ysver:version' type specified
   in ietf-yang-semver.yang, then the package version leaf MUST be
   interpreted as a YANG semantic version number.

   For YANG packages defined by the IETF, YANG semantic version numbers
   MUST be used as the version scheme for YANG packages.

   The rules for incrementing the YANG package version number are
   equivalent to the semantic versioning rules used to version
   individual YANG modules, defined in section 3.2 of
   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-semver], but use the rules defined previously

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   in Section 5.2.1 to determine whether a change is classified as non-
   backwards-compatible, backwards-compatible, or editorial.  Where
   available, the semantic version number of the referenced elements in
   the package (included packages or modules) can be used to help
   determine the scope of changes being made.

5.3.  Package conformance

   YANG packages allows for conformance to be checked at a package level
   rather than requiring a client to download all modules, revisions,
   and deviations from the server to ensure that the datastore schema
   used by the server is compatible with the client.

   YANG package conformance is analogous to how YANG [RFC7950] requires
   that servers either implement a module faithfully, or otherwise use
   deviations to indicate areas of non-conformance.

   For a top level package representing a datastore schema, servers MUST
   implement the package definition faithfully, including all mandatory
   features.

   Package definitions MAY modify the schema for directly or
   hierarchically included packages through the use of different module
   revisions or module deviations.

5.3.1.  Use of YANG semantic versioning

   Using the YANG semantic versioning scheme for package version numbers
   and module revision labels can help with conformance.  In the general
   case, clients should be able to determine the nature of changes
   between two package versions by comparing the version number.

   This usually means that a client does not have to be restricted to
   working only with servers that advertise exactly the same version of
   a package in YANG library.  Instead, reasonable clients should be
   able to interoperate with any server that supports a package version
   that is backwards compatible to version that the client is designed
   for, assuming that the client is designed to ignore operational
   values for unknown data nodes.

   For example, a client coded to support 'foo' package at version 1.0.0
   should interoperate with a server implementing 'foo' package at
   version 1.3.5, because the YANG semantic versioning rules require
   that package version 1.3.5 is backwards compatible to version 1.0.0.

   This also has a relevance on servers that are capable of supporting
   version selection because they need not support every version of a
   YANG package to ensure good client compatibility.  Choosing suitable

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   minor versions within each major version number should generally be
   sufficient, particular if they can avoid non-backwards-compatible
   patch level changes.

5.3.2.  The relationship between packages and datastores

   As defined by NMDA [RFC8342], each datastore has an associated
   datastore schema.  Sections 5.1 and 5.3 of NMDA defines further
   constraints on the schema associated with datastores.  These
   constraints can be summarized thus:

   *  The schema for all conventional datastores is the same.

   *  The schema for non conventional configuration datastores (e.g.,
      dynamic datastores) may completely differ (i.e. no overlap at all)
      from the schema associated with the conventional configuration
      datastores, or may partially or fully overlap with the schema of
      the conventional configuration datastores.  A dynamic datastore,
      for example, may support different modules than conventional
      datastores, or may support a subset or superset of modules,
      features, or data nodes supported in the conventional
      configuration datastores.  Where a data node exists in multiple
      datastore schema it has the same type, properties and semantics.

   *  The schema for the operational datastore is intended to be a
      superset of all the configuration datastores (i.e. includes all
      the schema nodes from the conventional configuration datastores),
      but data nodes can be omitted if they cannot be accurately
      reported.  The operational datastore schema can include additional
      modules containing only config false data nodes, but there is no
      harm in including those modules in the configuration datastore
      schema as well.

   Given that YANG packages represent a schema, it follows that each
   datastore schema can be represented using packages.  In addition, the
   schema for most datastores on a server are often closely related.
   Given that there are many ways that a datastore schema could be
   represented using packages, the following guidance provides a
   consistent approach to help clients understand the relationship
   between the different datastore schema supported by a device (e.g.,
   which parts of the schema are common and which parts have
   differences):

   *  Any datastores (e.g., conventional configuration datastores) that
      have exactly the same datastore schema MUST use the same package
      definitions.  This is to avoid, for example, the creation of a
      'running-cfg' package and a separate 'intended-cfg' package that
      have identical schema.

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   *  Common package definitions SHOULD be used for those parts of the
      datastore schema that are common between datastores, when those
      datastores do not share exactly the same datastore schema.  E.g.,
      if a substantial part of the schema is common between the
      conventional, dynamic, and operational datastores then a single
      common package can be used to describe the common parts, along
      with other packages to describe the unique parts of each datastore
      schema.

   *  YANG modules that do not contain any configuration data nodes
      SHOULD be included in the package for configuration datastores if
      that helps unify the package definitions.

   *  The packages for the operational datastore schema MUST include all
      packages for all configuration datastores, along with any required
      modules defining deviations to mark unsupported data nodes.  The
      deviations MAY be defined directly in the packages defining the
      operational datastore schema, or in separate non referentially
      complete packages.

   *  The schema for a datastore MAY be represented using a single
      package or as the union of a set of compatible packages, i.e.,
      equivalently to a set of non-conflicting packages being included
      together in an overarching package definition.

5.4.  Schema referential completeness

   A YANG package may represent a schema that is 'referentially
   complete', or 'referentially incomplete', indicated in the package
   definition by the 'complete' flag.

   If all import statements in all YANG modules included in the package
   (either directly, or through included packages) can be resolved to a
   module revision defined with the YANG package definition, then the
   package is classified as referentially complete.  Conversely, if one
   or more import statements cannot be resolved to a module specified as
   part of the package definition, then the package is classified as
   referentially incomplete.

   A package that represents the exact contents of a datastore schema
   MUST always be referentially complete.

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   Referentially incomplete packages can be used, along with locally
   scoped packages, to represent an update to a device's datastore
   schema as part of an optional software hot fix.  E.g., the base
   software is made available as a complete globally scoped package.
   The hot fix is made available as an incomplete globally scoped
   package.  A device's datastore schema can define a local package that
   implements the base software package updated with the hot fix
   package.

   Referentially incomplete packages could also be used to group sets of
   logically related modules together, but without requiring a fixed
   dependency on all imported 'types' modules (e.g., iana-if-
   types.yang), instead leaving the choice of specific revisions of
   'types' modules to be resolved when the package definition is used.

5.5.  Package name scoping and uniqueness

   YANG package names can be globally unique, or locally scoped to a
   particular server or device.

5.5.1.  Globally scoped packages

   The name given to a package MUST be globally unique, and it MUST
   include an appropriate organization prefix in the name, equivalent to
   YANG module naming conventions.

   Ideally a YANG instance data file defining a particular package
   version would be publicly available at one or more URLs.

5.5.2.  Server scoped packages

   Package definitions may be scoped to a particular server by setting
   the 'is-local' leaf to true in the package definition.

   Locally scoped packages MAY have a package name that is not globally
   unique.

   Locally scoped packages MAY have a definition that is not available
   offline from the server in a YANG instance data file.

5.6.  Submodules packages considerations

   As defined in [RFC7950] and [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-semver], YANG
   conformance and versioning is specified in terms of particular
   revisions of YANG modules rather than for individual submodules.

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   However, YANG package definitions also include the list of submodules
   included by a module, primarily to provide a location of where the
   submodule definition can be obtained from, allowing a schema to be
   fully constructed from a YANG package instance data file definition.

5.7.  Package tags

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-module-tags] defines YANG module tags as a mechanism
   to annotate a module definition with additional metadata.  Tags MAY
   also be associated to a package definition via the 'tags' leaf-list.
   The tags use the same registry and definitions used by YANG module
   tags.

5.8.  YANG Package Usage Guidance

   It is RECOMMENDED that organizations that publish YANG modules also
   publish YANG package definition that group and version those modules
   into units of related functionality.  This increases
   interoperability, by encouraging implementations to use the same
   collections of YANG modules versions.  Using packages also makes it
   easier to understand relationship between modules, and enables
   functionality to be described on a more abstract level than
   individual modules.

5.8.1.  Use of deviations in YANG packages

   [RFC7950] section 5.6.3 defines deviations as the mechanism to allow
   servers to indicate where they do not conform to a published YANG
   module that is being implemented.

   In cases where implementations contain deviations from published
   packages, then those implementations SHOULD define a package that
   includes both the published packages and all modules containing
   deviations.  This implementation specific package accurately reflects
   the schema used by the device and allows clients to determine how the
   implementation differs from the published package schema in an
   offline consumable way, e.g., when published in an instance data file
   (see section 6).

   Organizations may wish to reuse YANG modules and YANG packages
   published by other organizations for new functionality.  Sometimes,
   they may desire to modify the published YANG modules.  However, they
   MUST NOT use deviations in an attempt to achieve this because such
   deviations cause two problems:

      They prevent implementations from reporting their own deviations
      for the same nodes.

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      They fracture the ecosystem by preventing implementations from
      conforming to the standards specified by both organizations.  This
      hurts the interoperability in the YANG community, promotes
      development of disconnected functional silos, and hurts creativity
      in the market.

5.8.2.  Use of features in YANG modules and YANG packages

   The YANG language supports feature statements as the mechanism to
   make parts of a schema optional.  Published standard YANG modules
   SHOULD make use of appropriate feature statements to provide
   flexibility in how YANG modules may be used by implementations and
   used by YANG modules published by other organizations.

   YANG packages support 'mandatory features' which allow a package to
   specify features that MUST be implemented by any conformant
   implementation of the package as a mechanism to simplify and manage
   the schema represented by a YANG package.

5.9.  YANG package core definition

   The ietf-yang-package-types.yang module defines a grouping to specify
   the core elements of the YANG package structure that is used within
   YANG package instance data files (ietf-yang-package-instance.yang)
   and also on the server (ietf-yang-packages.yang).

   The "ietf-yang-package-types" YANG module has the following
   structure:

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   module: ietf-yang-package-types

     grouping yang-pkg-identification-leafs
       +-- name       pkg-name
       +-- version    pkg-version

     grouping yang-pkg-instance
       +-- name                  pkg-name
       +-- version               pkg-version
       +-- timestamp?            yang:date-and-time
       +-- organization?         string
       +-- contact?              string
       +-- description?          string
       +-- reference?            string
       +-- complete?             boolean
       +-- local?                boolean
       +-- tag*                  tags:tag
       +-- mandatory-feature*    scoped-feature
       +-- included-package* [name version]
       |  +-- name                pkg-name
       |  +-- version             pkg-version
       |  +-- replaces-version*   pkg-version
       |  +-- location*           inet:uri
       +-- module* [name]
       |  +-- name                 yang:yang-identifier
       |  +-- revision?            rev:revision-date-or-label
       |  +-- replaces-revision*   rev:revision-date-or-label
       |  +-- namespace?           inet:uri
       |  +-- location*            inet:uri
       |  +-- submodule* [name]
       |     +-- name?       yang:yang-identifier
       |     +-- revision    yang:revision-identifier
       |     +-- location*   inet:uri
       +-- import-only-module* [name revision]
          +-- name?                yang:yang-identifier
          +-- revision?            rev:revision-date-or-label
          +-- replaces-revision*   rev:revision-date-or-label
          +-- namespace?           inet:uri
          +-- location*            inet:uri
          +-- submodule* [name]
             +-- name?       yang:yang-identifier
             +-- revision    yang:revision-identifier
             +-- location*   inet:uri

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6.  Package Instance Data Files

   YANG packages SHOULD be available offline from the server, defined as
   YANG instance data files [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-instance-file-format]
   using the schema below to define the package data.

   The following rules apply to the format of the YANG package instance
   files:

   1.  The file SHOULD be encoded in JSON.

   2.  The name of the file SHOULD follow the format "<package-
       name>@<version>.json".

   3.  The package name MUST be specified in both the instance-data-set
       'name' and package 'name' leafs.

   4.  The 'description' field of the instance-data-set SHOULD be "YANG
       package definition".

   5.  The 'timestamp', "organization', 'contact' fields are defined in
       both the instance-data-set metadata and the YANG package
       metadata.  Package definitions SHOULD only define these fields as
       part of the package definition.  If any of these fields are
       populated in the instance-data-set metadata then they MUST
       contain the same value as the corresponding leaves in the package
       definition.

   6.  The 'revision' list in the instance data file SHOULD NOT be used,
       since versioning is handled by the package definition.

   7.  The instance data file for each version of a YANG package SHOULD
       be made available at one of more locations accessible via URLs.
       If one of the listed locations defines a definitive reference
       implementation for the package definition then it MUST be listed
       as the first entry in the list.

   The "ietf-yang-package" YANG module has the following structure:

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   module: ietf-yang-package

     structure package:
       // Uses the yang-package-instance grouping defined in
       // ietf-yang-package-types.yang
       +-- name                  pkg-name
       +-- version               pkg-version
       ... remainder of yang-package-instance grouping ...

7.  Package Definitions on a Server

7.1.  Package List

   A top level 'packages' container holds the list of all versions of
   all packages known to the server.  Each list entry uses the common
   package definition, but with the addition of package location that
   cannot be contained within a offline package definition contained in
   an instance data file.

   The '/packages/package' list MAY include multiple versions of a
   particular package.  E.g. if the server is capable of allowing
   clients to select which package versions should be used by the
   server.

7.2.  Tree diagram

   The "ietf-yang-packages" YANG module has the following structure:

   module: ietf-yang-packages
     +--ro packages
        +--ro package* [name version]
           // Uses the yang-package-instance grouping defined in
           // ietf-yang-package-types.yang, with location:
           +--ro name                  pkg-name
           +--ro version               pkg-version
           ... remainder of yang-package-instance grouping ...
           +--ro location*             inet:uri

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8.  YANG Library Package Bindings

   The YANG packages module also augments YANG library to allow a server
   to optionally indicate that a datastore schema is defined by a
   package, or a union of compatible packages.  Since packages can
   generally be made available offline in instance data files, it may be
   sufficient for a client to only check that a compatible version of
   the package is implemented by the server without fetching either the
   package definition, or downloading and comparing the full list of
   modules and enabled features.

   If a server indicates that a datastore schema maps to a particular
   package, then it MUST exactly match the schema defined by that
   package, taking into account enabled features and any deviations.

   If a server cannot faithfully implement a package then it can define
   a new package to accurately report what it does implement.  The new
   package can include the original package as an included package, and
   the new package can define additional modules containing deviations
   to the modules in the original package, allowing the new package to
   accurately describe the server's behavior.  There is no specific
   mechanism provided to indicate that a mandatory-feature in package
   definition is not supported on a server, but deviations MAY be used
   to disable functionality predicated by an if-feature statement.

   The "ietf-yl-packages" YANG module has the following structure:

   module: ietf-yl-packages
     augment /yanglib:yang-library/yanglib:schema:
       +--ro package* [name version]
          +--ro name        -> /pkgs:packages/package/name
          +--ro version     leafref

9.  YANG packages as schema for YANG instance data document

   YANG package definitions can be used as the content schema definition
   for YANG instance data files.  When using a package-based content
   schema, the name and version of the package MUST be specified, a
   package URL to the package definition MAY also be provided.

   The "ietf-yang-inst-data-pkg" YANG module has the following
   structure:

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module: ietf-yang-inst-data-pkg

  augment-structure /yid:instance-data-set/yid:content-schema/yid:content-schema-spec:
    +--:(pkg-schema)
      +-- pkg-schema
        +-- name        pkg-name
        +-- version     pkg-version
        +-- location*   inet:uri

10.  YANG Modules

   The YANG module definitions for the modules described in the previous
   sections.

   <CODE BEGINS>
     file "ietf-yang-package-types#0.3.0-draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03.yang"
   module ietf-yang-package-types {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-package-types";
     prefix pkg-types;

     import ietf-yang-revisions {
       prefix rev;
       reference
         "XXXX: Updated YANG Module Revision Handling";
     }
     import ietf-yang-types {
       prefix yang;
       rev:revision-or-derived "2019-07-21";
       reference
         "RFC 6991bis: Common YANG Data Types.";
     }
     import ietf-inet-types {
       prefix inet;
       rev:revision-or-derived "2013-07-15";
       reference
         "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types.";
     }
     import ietf-module-tags {
       prefix tags;
       reference
         "RFC 8819: YANG Module Tags.";
     }

     organization
       "IETF NETMOD (Network Modeling) Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web:   <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/netmod/>

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        WG List:  <mailto:netmod@ietf.org>

        Author:   Rob Wilton
                  <mailto:rwilton@cisco.com>";
     description
       "This module provides type and grouping definitions for YANG
        packages.

        Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Revised BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see
        the RFC itself for full legal notices.

        The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL
        NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'NOT RECOMMENDED',
        'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this document are to be interpreted as
        described in BCP 14 (RFC 2119) (RFC 8174) when, and only when,
        they appear in all capitals, as shown here.";

     // RFC Ed.: update the date below with the date of RFC publication
     // and remove this note.
     // RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with actual RFC number and remove this
     // note.

     revision 2022-03-04 {
       rev:revision-label 0.3.0-draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03;
       description
         "Initial revision";
       reference
         "RFC XXXX: YANG Packages";
     }

     /*
      * Typedefs
      */

     typedef pkg-name {
       type yang:yang-identifier;
       description
         "Package names are typed as YANG identifiers.";

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     }

     typedef pkg-version {
       type rev:revision-date-or-label;
       description
         "Package versions SHOULD be a revision-label (e.g. perhaps a
          YANG Semver version string).  Package versions MAY also be a
          revision-date";
     }

     typedef pkg-identifier {
       type rev:name-revision;
       description
         "Package identifiers combine a pkg-name and a pkg-version";
     }

     typedef scoped-feature {
       type string {
         pattern '[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9\-_.]*:[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z0-9\-_.]*';
       }
       description
         "Represents a feature name scoped to a particular module,
          identified as the '<module-name>:<feature-name>', where both
          <module-name> and <feature-name> are YANG identifier strings,
          as defiend by Section 12 or RFC 6020.";
       reference
         "RFC XXXX, YANG Packages.";
     }

     /*
      * Groupings
      */

     grouping yang-pkg-identification-leafs {
       description
         "Parameters for identifying a specific version of a YANG
          package";
       leaf name {
         type pkg-name;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "The YANG package name.";
       }
       leaf version {
         type pkg-version;
         mandatory true;
         description
           "Uniquely identies a particular version of a YANG package.

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            Follows the definition for revision labels defined in
            draft-verdt-nemod-yang-module-versioning, section XXX";
       }
     }

     grouping yang-pkg-instance {
       description
         "Specifies the data node for a full YANG package instance
          represented either on a server or as a YANG instance data
          document.";
       uses yang-pkg-identification-leafs;
       leaf timestamp {
         type yang:date-and-time;
         description
           "An optional timestamp for when this package was created.
            This does not need to be unique across all versions of a
            package.";
       }
       leaf organization {
         type string;
         description
           "Organization responsible for this package";
       }
       leaf contact {
         type string;
         description
           "Contact information for the person or organization to whom
            queries concerning this package should be sent.";
       }
       leaf description {
         type string;
         description
           "Provides a description of the package";
       }
       leaf reference {
         type string;
         description
           "Allows for a reference for the package";
       }
       leaf complete {
         type boolean;
         default "true";
         description
           "Indicates whether the schema defined by this package is
            referentially complete.  I.e. all module imports can be
            resolved to a module explicitly defined in this package or
            one of the included packages.";
       }

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       leaf local {
         type boolean;
         default "false";
         description
           "Defines that the package definition is local to the server,
            and the name of the package MAY not be unique, and the
            package definition MAY not be available in an offline file.

            Local packages can be used when the schema for the device
            can be changed at runtime through the addition or removal of
            software packages, or hot fixes.";
       }
       leaf-list tag {
         type tags:tag;
         description
           "Tags associated with a YANG package.  Module tags defined in
            XXX, ietf-netmod-module-tags can be used here but with the
            modification that the tag applies to the entire package
            rather than a specific module.  See the IANA 'YANG Module
            Tag Prefix' registry for reserved prefixes and the IANA
            'YANG Module IETF Tag' registry for IETF standard tags.";
       }
       leaf-list mandatory-feature {
         type scoped-feature;
         description
           "Lists features from any modules included in the package that
            MUST be supported by any server implementing the package.

            Features already specified in a 'mandatory-feature' list of
            any included package MUST also be supported by server
            implementations and do not need to be repeated in this list.

            All other features defined in modules included in the
            package are OPTIONAL to implement.

            Features are identified using <module-name>:<feature-name>";
       }
       list included-package {
         key "name version";
         description
           "An entry in this list represents a package that is included
            as part of the package definition, or an indirectly included
            package that is changed in a non backwards compatible way.

            It can be used to resolve inclusion of conflicting package
            versions by explicitly specifying which package version is
            used.

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            If included packages implement different revisions
            of the same module, then an explicit entry in the
            module list MUST be provided to select the specific module
            revision 'implemented' by this package definition.

            For import-only modules, the 'replaces-revision' leaf-list
            can be used to select the specific module revisions used by
            this package.";
         reference
           "XXX";
         uses yang-pkg-identification-leafs;
         leaf-list replaces-version {
           type pkg-version;
           description
             "Gives the version of an included package version that
              is replaced by this included package version.";
         }
         leaf-list location {
           type inet:uri;
           description
             "Contains a URL that represents where an instance data file
              for this YANG package can be found.

              This leaf will only be present if there is a URL available
              for retrieval of the schema for this entry.

              If multiple locations are provided, then the first
              location in the leaf-list MUST be the definitive location
              that uniquely identifies this package";
         }
       }
       list module {
         key "name";
         description
           "An entry in this list represents a module that must be
            implemented by a server implementing this package, as per
            RFC 7950 section 5.6.5, with a particular set of supported
            features and deviations.

            A entry in this list overrides any module revision
            'implemented' by an included package.  Any replaced module
            revision SHOULD also be listed in the 'replaces-revision'
            list.";
         reference
           "RFC 7950: The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language.";
         leaf name {
           type yang:yang-identifier;
           mandatory true;

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           description
             "The YANG module name.";
         }
         leaf revision {
           type rev:revision-date-or-label;
           description
             "The YANG module revision date or revision-label.

              If no revision statement is present in the YANG module,
              this leaf is not instantiated.";
         }
         leaf-list replaces-revision {
           type rev:revision-date-or-label;
           description
             "Gives the revision of an module (implemented or
              import-only) defined in an included package that is
              replaced by this implemented module revision.";
         }
         leaf namespace {
           type inet:uri;
           description
             "The XML namespace identifier for this module.";
         }
         leaf-list location {
           type inet:uri;
           description
             "Contains a URL that represents the YANG schema resource
              for this module.

              This leaf will only be present if there is a URL available
              for retrieval of the schema for this entry.";
         }
         list submodule {
           key "name";
           description
             "Each entry represents one submodule within the
              parent module.";
           leaf name {
             type yang:yang-identifier;
             description
               "The YANG submodule name.";
           }
           leaf revision {
             type rev:revision-date-or-label;
             mandatory true;
             description
               "The YANG submodule revision date or revision-label.

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                If the parent module include statement for this submodule
                includes a revision date then it MUST match the revision
                date specified here or it MUST match the revision-date
                associated with the revision-label specified here.";
           }
           leaf-list location {
             type inet:uri;
             description
               "Contains a URL that represents the YANG schema resource
                for this submodule.

                This leaf will only be present if there is a URL
                available for retrieval of the schema for this entry.";
           }
         }
       }
       list import-only-module {
         key "name revision";
         description
           "An entry in this list indicates that the server imports
            reusable definitions from the specified revision of the
            module, but does not implement any protocol accessible
            objects from this revision.

            Multiple entries for the same module name MAY exist.  This
            can occur if multiple modules import the same module, but
            specify different revision-dates in the import statements.";
         leaf name {
           type yang:yang-identifier;
           description
             "The YANG module name.";
         }
         leaf revision {
           type rev:revision-date-or-label;
           description
             "The YANG module revision date or revision-label.

              If no revision statement is present in the YANG module,
              this leaf is not instantiated.";
         }
         leaf-list replaces-revision {
           type rev:revision-date-or-label;
           description
             "Gives the revision of an import-only-module defined in an
              included package that is replaced by this
              import-only-module revision.";
         }
         leaf namespace {

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           type inet:uri;
           description
             "The XML namespace identifier for this module.";
         }
         leaf-list location {
           type inet:uri;
           description
             "Contains a URL that represents the YANG schema resource
              for this module.

              This leaf will only be present if there is a URL available
              for retrieval of the schema for this entry.";
         }
         list submodule {
           key "name";
           description
             "Each entry represents one submodule within the
              parent module.";
           leaf name {
             type yang:yang-identifier;
             description
               "The YANG submodule name.";
           }
           leaf revision {
             type yang:revision-identifier;
             mandatory true;
             description
               "The YANG submodule revision date.  If the parent module
                include statement for this submodule includes a revision
                date then it MUST match this leaf's value.";
           }
           leaf-list location {
             type inet:uri;
             description
               "Contains a URL that represents the YANG schema resource
                for this submodule.

                This leaf will only be present if there is a URL
                available for retrieval of the schema for this entry.";
           }
         }
       }
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

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   <CODE BEGINS>
     file "ietf-yang-package-instance#0.3.0-draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03.yang"
   module ietf-yang-package-instance {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-package-instance";
     prefix pkg-inst;

     import ietf-yang-revisions {
       prefix rev;
       reference
         "XXXX: Updated YANG Module Revision Handling";
     }
     import ietf-yang-package-types {
       prefix pkg-types;
       rev:revision-or-derived "0.2.0";
       reference
         "RFC XXX: this RFC.";
     }
     import ietf-yang-structure-ext {
       prefix sx;
       reference
         "RFC 8791: YANG Data Structure Extensions.";
     }

     organization
       "IETF NETMOD (Network Modeling) Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web:   <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/netmod/>
        WG List:  <mailto:netmod@ietf.org>

        Author:   Rob Wilton
                  <mailto:rwilton@cisco.com>";
     description
       "This module provides a definition of a YANG package, which is
        used as the content schema for an YANG instance data document specifying
        a YANG package.

        Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Revised BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see

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        the RFC itself for full legal notices.

        The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL
        NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'NOT RECOMMENDED',
        'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this document are to be interpreted as
        described in BCP 14 (RFC 2119) (RFC 8174) when, and only when,
        they appear in all capitals, as shown here.";

     // RFC Ed.: update the date below with the date of RFC publication
     // and remove this note.
     // RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with actual RFC number and remove this
     // note.

     revision 2022-03-04 {
       rev:revision-label 0.3.0-draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03;
       description
         "Initial revision";
       reference
         "RFC XXXX: YANG Packages";
     }

     /*
      * Top-level structure
      */
     sx:structure "package" {
       description
         "Defines the YANG package structure for use in a YANG instance
          data document.";
       uses pkg-types:yang-pkg-instance;
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

   <CODE BEGINS>
     file "ietf-yang-packages#0.3.0-draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03.yang"
   module ietf-yang-packages {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-packages";
     prefix pkgs;

     import ietf-yang-revisions {
       prefix rev;
       reference
         "XXXX: Updated YANG Module Revision Handling";
     }
     import ietf-yang-package-types {
       prefix pkg-types;
       rev:revision-or-derived "0.2.0";

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       reference
         "RFC XXX: this RFC.";
     }
     import ietf-inet-types {
       prefix inet;
       rev:revision-or-derived "2013-07-15";
       reference
         "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types.";
     }

     organization
       "IETF NETMOD (Network Modeling) Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web:   <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/netmod/>
        WG List:  <mailto:netmod@ietf.org>

        Author:   Rob Wilton
                  <mailto:rwilton@cisco.com>";
     description
       "This module defines YANG packages on a server implementation.

        Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Revised BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see
        the RFC itself for full legal notices.

        The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL
        NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'NOT RECOMMENDED',
        'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this document are to be interpreted as
        described in BCP 14 (RFC 2119) (RFC 8174) when, and only when,
        they appear in all capitals, as shown here.";

     // RFC Ed.: update the date below with the date of RFC publication
     // and remove this note.
     // RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with actual RFC number and remove this
     // note.

     revision 2022-03-04 {
       rev:revision-label 0.3.0-draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03;
       description

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         "Initial revision";
       reference
         "RFC XXXX: YANG Packages";
     }

     /*
      * Groupings
      */

     grouping yang-pkg-ref {
       description
         "Defines the leaves used to reference a single YANG package";
       leaf name {
         type leafref {
           path "/pkgs:packages/pkgs:package/pkgs:name";
         }
         description
           "The name of the references package.";
       }
       leaf version {
         type leafref {
           path "/pkgs:packages"
              + '/pkgs:package[pkgs:name = current()/../name]'
              + "/pkgs:version";
         }
         description
           "The version of the referenced package.";
       }
     }

     grouping yang-ds-pkg-ref {
       description
         "Defines the list used to reference a set of YANG packages that
          collectively represent a datastore schema.";
       list package {
         key "name version";
         description
           "Identifies the YANG packages that collectively defines the
            schema for the associated datastore.

            The datastore schema is defined as the union of all
            referenced packages, that MUST represent a referentially
            complete schema.

            All of the referenced packages must be compatible with no
            conflicting module versions or dependencies.";
         uses yang-pkg-ref;
       }

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     }

     /*
      * Top level data nodes.
      */

     container packages {
       config false;
       description
         "All YANG package definitions";
       list package {
         key "name version";
         description
           "YANG package instance";
         uses pkg-types:yang-pkg-instance;
         leaf-list location {
           type inet:uri;
           description
             "Contains a URL that represents where an instance data file
              for this YANG package can be found.

              This leaf will only be present if there is a URL available
              for retrieval of the schema for this entry.

              If multiple locations are provided, then the first
              location in the leaf-list MUST be the definitive location
              that uniquely identifies this package";
         }
       }
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

   <CODE BEGINS>
     file "ietf-yl-package#0.3.0-draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03.yang"
   module ietf-yl-packages {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yl-packages";
     prefix yl-pkgs;

     import ietf-yang-revisions {
       prefix rev;
       reference
         "XXXX: Updated YANG Module Revision Handling";
     }
     import ietf-yang-packages {
       prefix pkgs;
       rev:revision-or-derived "0.2.0";

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       reference
         "RFC XXX: YANG Packages.";
     }
     import ietf-yang-library {
       prefix yanglib;
       rev:revision-or-derived "2019-01-04";
       reference
         "RFC 8525: YANG Library";
     }

     organization
       "IETF NETMOD (Network Modeling) Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web:   <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/netmod/>
        WG List:  <mailto:netmod@ietf.org>

        Author:   Rob Wilton
                  <mailto:rwilton@cisco.com>";
     description
       "This module provides defined augmentations to YANG library to
        allow a server to report YANG package information.

        Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Revised BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see
        the RFC itself for full legal notices.

        The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL
        NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'NOT RECOMMENDED',
        'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this document are to be interpreted as
        described in BCP 14 (RFC 2119) (RFC 8174) when, and only when,
        they appear in all capitals, as shown here.";

     // RFC Ed.: update the date below with the date of RFC publication
     // and remove this note.
     // RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with actual RFC number and remove this
     // note.

     revision 2022-03-04 {

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       rev:revision-label 0.3.0-draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03;
       description
         "Initial revision";
       reference
         "RFC XXXX: YANG Packages";
     }

     /*
      * Augmentations
      */

     augment "/yanglib:yang-library/yanglib:schema" {
       description
         "Allow datastore schema to be related to a set of YANG
          packages";
       uses pkgs:yang-ds-pkg-ref;
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

   <CODE BEGINS>
     file "ietf-yang-inst-data-pkg#0.3.0-draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03.yang"
   module ietf-yang-inst-data-pkg {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-inst-data-pkg";
     prefix yid-pkg;

     import ietf-yang-revisions {
       prefix rev;
       reference
         "XXXX: Updated YANG Module Revision Handling";
     }
     import ietf-yang-package-types {
       prefix pkg-types;
       rev:revision-or-derived "0.2.0";
       reference
         "RFC XXX: this RFC.";
     }
     import ietf-yang-structure-ext {
       prefix sx;
       reference
         "RFC 8791: YANG Data Structure Extensions.";
     }
     import ietf-yang-instance-data {
       prefix yid;
       reference
         "RFC 9195: A File Format for YANG Instance Data.";
     }

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     import ietf-inet-types {
       prefix inet;
       reference
         "RFC 6991: Common YANG Data Types.";
     }

     organization
       "IETF NETMOD (Network Modeling) Working Group";
     contact
       "WG Web:   <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/netmod/>
        WG List:  <mailto:netmod@ietf.org>

        Author:   Rob Wilton
                  <mailto:rwilton@cisco.com>";
     description
       "The module augments ietf-yang-instance-data to allow package
        definitions to be used to define content schema in YANG instance data
        documents.

        Copyright (c) 2022 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Revised BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC XXXX; see
        the RFC itself for full legal notices.

        The key words 'MUST', 'MUST NOT', 'REQUIRED', 'SHALL', 'SHALL
        NOT', 'SHOULD', 'SHOULD NOT', 'RECOMMENDED', 'NOT RECOMMENDED',
        'MAY', and 'OPTIONAL' in this document are to be interpreted as
        described in BCP 14 (RFC 2119) (RFC 8174) when, and only when,
        they appear in all capitals, as shown here.";

     // RFC Ed.: update the date below with the date of RFC publication
     // and remove this note.
     // RFC Ed.: replace XXXX with actual RFC number and remove this
     // note.

     revision 2022-03-04 {
       rev:revision-label 0.3.0-draft-ietf-netmod-yang-packages-03;
       description
         "Initial revision";
       reference

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         "RFC XXXX: YANG Packages";
     }

     /*
      * Augmentations
      */
     sx:augment-structure "/yid:instance-data-set/yid:content-schema/yid:content-schema-spec" {
       description
         "Add package reference to instance data set schema
          specification";
       case pkg-schema {
         container pkg-schema {
           uses pkg-types:yang-pkg-identification-leafs;
           leaf-list location {
             type inet:uri;
             description
               "Contains a URL that represents where an instance data
                file for this YANG package can be found.

                This leaf will only be present if there is a URL
                available for retrieval of the schema for this entry.

                If multiple locations are provided, then the first
                location in the leaf-list MUST be the definitive
                location that uniquely identifies this package";
           }
         }
       }
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

11.  Security Considerations

   The YANG modules specified in this document defines a schema for data
   that is accessed by network management protocols such as NETCONF
   [RFC6241] or RESTCONF [RFC8040].  The lowest NETCONF layer is the
   secure transport layer, and the mandatory-to-implement secure
   transport is Secure Shell (SSH) [RFC6242].  The lowest RESTCONF layer
   is HTTPS, and the mandatory-to-implement secure transport is TLS
   [RFC5246].

   The NETCONF access control model [RFC6536] provides the means to
   restrict access for particular NETCONF or RESTCONF users to a
   preconfigured subset of all available NETCONF or RESTCONF protocol
   operations and content.

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   Similarly to YANG library [I-D.ietf-netconf-rfc7895bis], some of the
   readable data nodes in these YANG modules may be considered sensitive
   or vulnerable in some network environments.  It is thus important to
   control read access (e.g., via get, get-config, or notification) to
   these data nodes.

   One additional key different to YANG library, is that the 'ietf-yang-
   package' YANG module defines a schema to allow YANG packages to be
   defined in YANG instance data files, that are outside the security
   controls of the network management protocols.  Hence, it is important
   to also consider controlling access to these package instance data
   files to restrict access to sensitive information.

   As per the YANG library security considerations, the module, revision
   information in YANG packages may help an attacker identify the server
   capabilities and server implementations with known bugs since the set
   of YANG modules supported by a server may reveal the kind of device
   and the manufacturer of the device.  Server vulnerabilities may be
   specific to particular modules, module revisions, module features, or
   even module deviations.  For example, if a particular operation on a
   particular data node is known to cause a server to crash or
   significantly degrade device performance, then the YANG packages
   information will help an attacker identify server implementations
   with such a defect, in order to launch a denial-of-service attack on
   the device.

12.  IANA Considerations

   It is expected that a central registry of standard YANG package
   definitions is required to support this solution.

   It is unclear whether an IANA registry is also required to manage
   specific package versions.  It is highly desirable to have a specific
   canonical location, under IETF control, where the definitive YANG
   package versions can be obtained from.

   This document requests IANA to registers a URI in the "IETF XML
   Registry" [RFC3688].  Following the format in RFC 3688, the following
   registrations are requested.

      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-package-types.yang
      Registrant Contact: The IESG.
      XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-package-instance.yang
      Registrant Contact: The IESG.
      XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

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      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-packages.yang
      Registrant Contact: The IESG.
      XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yl-packages.yang
      Registrant Contact: The IESG.
      XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

      URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-inst-data-pkg.yang
      Registrant Contact: The IESG.
      XML: N/A, the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   This document requests that the following YANG modules are added in
   the "YANG Module Names" registry [RFC6020]:

      Name: ietf-yang-package-types.yang
      Namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-package-
      types.yang
      Prefix: pkg-types
      Reference: RFC XXXX

      Name: ietf-yang-package-instance.yang
      Namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-package-
      instance.yang
      Prefix: pkg-inst
      Reference: RFC XXXX

      Name: ietf-yang-packages.yang
      Namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-packages.yang
      Prefix: pkgs
      Reference: RFC XXXX

      Name: ietf-yl-packages.yang
      Namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yl-packages.yang
      Prefix: yl-pkgs
      Reference: RFC XXXX

      Name: ietf-yang-inst-data-pkg.yang
      Namespace: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-inst-data-
      pkg.yang
      Prefix: yid-pkg
      Reference: RFC XXXX

13.  Open Questions/Issues

   All issues, along with the draft text, are currently being tracked at
   https://github.com/rgwilton/YANG-Packages-Draft/issues/

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14.  Acknowledgements

   Feedback helping shape this document has kindly been provided by Andy
   Bierman, James Cumming, Mahesh Jethanandani, Balazs Lengyel, Ladislav
   Lhotka,and Jan Lindblad.

15.  References

15.1.  Normative References

   [I-D.ietf-netconf-rfc7895bis]
              Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Watsen, K.,
              and R. Wilton, "YANG Library", Work in Progress, Internet-
              Draft, draft-ietf-netconf-rfc7895bis-07, 17 October 2018,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-netconf-
              rfc7895bis-07.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-module-tags]
              Hopps, C., Berger, L., and D. Bogdanovic, "YANG Module
              Tags", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              netmod-module-tags-10, 29 February 2020,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-netmod-module-
              tags-10.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-data-ext]
              Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "YANG Data
              Structure Extensions", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-netmod-yang-data-ext-05, 9 December 2019,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-netmod-yang-
              data-ext-05.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-instance-file-format]
              Lengyel, B. and B. Claise, "A File Format for YANG
              Instance Data", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-
              ietf-netmod-yang-instance-file-format-21, 8 October 2021,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-netmod-yang-
              instance-file-format-21.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-module-versioning]
              Wilton, R., Rahman, R., Lengyel, B., Clarke, J., and J.
              Sterne, "Updated YANG Module Revision Handling", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-netmod-yang-module-
              versioning-05, 8 November 2021,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-netmod-yang-
              module-versioning-05.txt>.

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   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-semver]
              Clarke, J., Wilton, R., Rahman, R., Lengyel, B., Sterne,
              J., and B. Claise, "YANG Semantic Versioning", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-netmod-yang-semver-
              06, 30 November 2021, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/
              draft-ietf-netmod-yang-semver-06.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-solutions]
              Wilton, R., "YANG Versioning Solution Overview", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-netmod-yang-
              solutions-01, 2 November 2020,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-netmod-yang-
              solutions-01.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-ver-selection]
              Wilton, R., Rahman, R., Clarke, J., Sterne, J., and B. Wu,
              "YANG Schema Selection", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-ietf-netmod-yang-ver-selection-00, 17 March 2020,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-netmod-yang-
              ver-selection-00.txt>.

   [I-D.ietf-netmod-yang-versioning-reqs]
              Clarke, J., "YANG Module Versioning Requirements", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-netmod-yang-
              versioning-reqs-06, 6 January 2022,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-netmod-yang-
              versioning-reqs-06.txt>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.

   [RFC6020]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for
              the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6020, October 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6020>.

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   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC6242]  Wasserman, M., "Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure
              Shell (SSH)", RFC 6242, DOI 10.17487/RFC6242, June 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6242>.

   [RFC6536]  Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration
              Protocol (NETCONF) Access Control Model", RFC 6536,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6536, March 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6536>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.

   [RFC8040]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF
              Protocol", RFC 8040, DOI 10.17487/RFC8040, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

   [RFC8342]  Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Shafer, P., Watsen, K.,
              and R. Wilton, "Network Management Datastore Architecture
              (NMDA)", RFC 8342, DOI 10.17487/RFC8342, March 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8342>.

   [RFC8525]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J., Watsen, K.,
              and R. Wilton, "YANG Library", RFC 8525,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8525, March 2019,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8525>.

   [RFC8791]  Bierman, A., Björklund, M., and K. Watsen, "YANG Data
              Structure Extensions", RFC 8791, DOI 10.17487/RFC8791,
              June 2020, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8791>.

15.2.  Informative References

   [I-D.bierman-netmod-yang-package]
              Bierman, A., "The YANG Package Statement", Work in
              Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-bierman-netmod-yang-
              package-00, 6 July 2015, <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/
              draft-bierman-netmod-yang-package-00.txt>.

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   [I-D.ietf-netmod-artwork-folding]
              Watsen, K., Auerswald, E., Farrel, A., and Q. Wu,
              "Handling Long Lines in Content of Internet-Drafts and
              RFCs", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-ietf-
              netmod-artwork-folding-12, 20 January 2020,
              <https://www.ietf.org/archive/id/draft-ietf-netmod-
              artwork-folding-12.txt>.

   [openconfigsemver]
              "Semantic Versioning for OpenConfig Models",
              <http://www.openconfig.net/docs/semver/>.

   [RFC8199]  Bogdanovic, D., Claise, B., and C. Moberg, "YANG Module
              Classification", RFC 8199, DOI 10.17487/RFC8199, July
              2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8199>.

Appendix A.  Examples

   This section provides various examples of YANG packages, and as such
   this text is non-normative.  The purpose of the examples is to only
   illustrate the file format of YANG packages, and how package
   dependencies work.  It does not imply that such packages will be
   defined by IETF, or which modules would be included in those packages
   even if they were defined.  For brevity, the examples exclude
   namespace declarations, and use a shortened URL of "tiny.cc/ietf-
   yang" as a replacement for
   "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/YangModels/yang/master/standard/
   ietf/RFC".

A.1.  Example IETF Network Device YANG package

   This section provides an instance data file example of an IETF
   Network Device YANG package formatted in JSON.

   This example package is intended to represent the standard set of
   YANG modules, with import dependencies, to implement a basic network
   device without any dynamic routing or layer 2 services.  E.g., it
   includes functionality such as system information, interface and
   basic IP configuration.

   As for all YANG packages, all import dependencies are fully resolved.
   Because this example uses YANG modules that have been standardized
   before YANG semantic versioning, the modules are referenced by
   revision date rather than revision number.

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   <CODE BEGINS> file "example-ietf-network-device-pkg.json"
   ========= NOTE: '\' line wrapping per BCP XX (RFC XXXX) ===========

   {
     "ietf-yang-instance-data:instance-data-set": {
       "name": "example-ietf-network-device-pkg",
       "content-schema": {
         "pkg-schema": {
            "name": "ietf-yang-package-defn-pkg",
            "version": "0.1.0"
         }
       },
       "description": "YANG package definition",
       "content-data": {
         "ietf-yang-package-instance:yang-package": {
           "name": "example-ietf-network-device-pkg",
           "version": "1.1.2",
           "timestamp": "2018-12-13T17:00:00Z",
           "organization": "IETF NETMOD Working Group",
           "contact" : "WG Web:   <http://tools.ietf.org/wg/netmod/>, \
                        WG List:  <mailto:netmod@ietf.org>",
           "description": "Example IETF network device YANG package.\
              \
              This package defines a small sample set of \
              YANG modules that could represent the basic set of \
              modules that a standard network device might be expected \
              to support.",
           "reference": "XXX, draft-rwilton-netmod-yang-packages",
           "location": [ "file://example.org/yang/packages/\
                                     ietf-network-device@v1.1.2.json" ],
           "module": [
             {
               "name": "iana-crypt-hash",
               "revision": "2014-08-06",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                                   iana-crypt-hash%402014-08-06.yang" ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-system",
               "revision": "2014-08-06",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                                       ietf-system%402014-08-06.yang" ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-interfaces",
               "revision": "2018-02-20",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                                   ietf-interfaces%402018-02-20.yang" ],

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             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-netconf-acm",
               "revision": "2018-02-14",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                                  ietf-netconf-acm%402018-02-14.yang" ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-key-chain",
               "revision": "2017-06-15",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                                      ietf-key-chain@2017-06-15.yang" ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-ip",
               "revision": "2018-02-22",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                                           ietf-ip%402018-02-22.yang" ],
           }
           ],
           "import-only-module": [
             {
               "name": "ietf-yang-types",
               "revision": "2013-07-15",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                                   ietf-yang-types%402013-07-15.yang" ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-inet-types",
               "revision": "2013-07-15",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                                   ietf-inet-types%402013-07-15.yang" ],
             }
           ]
         }
       }
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

A.2.  Example IETF Basic Routing YANG package

   This section provides an instance data file example of a basic IETF
   Routing YANG package formatted in JSON.

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   This example package is intended to represent the standard set of
   YANG modules, with import dependencies, that builds upon the example-
   ietf-network-device YANG package to add support for basic dynamic
   routing and ACLs.

   As for all YANG packages, all import dependencies are fully resolved.
   Because this example uses YANG modules that have been standardized
   before YANG semantic versioning, they modules are referenced by
   revision date rather than revision number.  Locations have been
   excluded where they are not currently known, e.g., for YANG modules
   defined in IETF drafts.  In a normal YANG package, locations would be
   expected to be provided for all YANG modules.

   <CODE BEGINS> file "example-ietf-routing-pkg.json"
   ========== NOTE: '\' line wrapping per BCP XX (RFC XXXX) ===========

   {
     "ietf-yang-instance-data:instance-data-set": {
       "name": "example-ietf-routing-pkg",
       "content-schema": {
         "pkg-schema": {
            "name": "ietf-yang-package-defn-pkg",
            "version": "0.1.0"
         }
       },
       "description": "YANG package definition",
       "content-data": {
         "ietf-yang-package-instance:yang-package": {
           "name": "example-ietf-routing",
           "version": "1.3.1",
           "timestamp": "2018-12-13T17:00:00Z",
           "description": "This package defines a small sample set of \
             IETF routing YANG modules that could represent the set of \
             IETF routing functionality that a basic IP network device \
             might be expected to support.",
           "reference": "XXX, draft-rwilton-netmod-yang-packages",
           "imported-packages": [
             {
               "name": "ietf-network-device",
               "version": "1.1.2",
               "location": [ "http://example.org/yang/packages/\
                                     ietf-network-device@v1.1.2.json" ],
             }
           ],
           "module": [
             {
               "name": "ietf-routing",
               "revision": "2018-03-13",

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               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                                        ietf-routing@2018-03-13.yang" ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-ipv4-unicast-routing",
               "revision": "2018-03-13",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           ietf-ipv4-unicast-routing@2018-03-13.yang" ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-ipv6-unicast-routing",
               "revision": "2018-03-13",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           ietf-ipv6-unicast-routing@2018-03-13.yang" ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-isis",
               "revision": "2018-12-11",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           " ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-interfaces-common",
               "revision": "2018-07-02",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           " ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-if-l3-vlan",
               "revision": "2017-10-30",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           " ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-routing-policy",
               "revision": "2018-10-19",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           " ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-bgp",
               "revision": "2018-05-09",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           " ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-access-control-list",
               "revision": "2018-11-06",

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               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           " ],
             }
           ],
           "import-only-module": [
             {
               "name": "ietf-routing-types",
               "revision": "2017-12-04",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           ietf-routing-types@2017-12-04.yang" ],
             },
             {
               "name": "iana-routing-types",
               "revision": "2017-12-04",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           iana-routing-types@2017-12-04.yang" ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-bgp-types",
               "revision": "2018-05-09",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           " ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-packet-fields",
               "revision": "2018-11-06",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           " ],
             },
             {
               "name": "ietf-ethertypes",
               "revision": "2018-11-06",
               "location": [ "https://tiny.cc/ietf-yang/\
                           " ],
             }
           ]
         }
       }
     }
   }
   <CODE ENDS>

A.3.  Package import conflict resolution example

   This section provides an example of how a package can resolve
   conflicting module revisions from imported packages.

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   In this example, YANG package 'example-3-pkg' imports both 'example-
   import-1' and 'example-import-2' packages.  However, the two imported
   packages implement different revisions of 'example-module-A' so the
   'example-3-pkg' package selects version '1.2.3' to resolve the
   conflict.  Similarly, for import-only modules, the 'example-3-pkg'
   package does not require both revisions of example-types-module-C to
   be imported, so it indicates that it only imports revision
   '2018-11-26' and not '2018-01-01'.

   {
     "ietf-yang-instance-data:instance-data-set": {
       "name": "example-import-1-pkg",
       "content-schema": {
         "pkg-schema": {
            "name": "ietf-yang-package-defn-pkg",
            "version": "0.1.0"
         }
       },
       "description": "First imported example package",
       "content-data": {
         "ietf-yang-package-instance:yang-package": {
           "name": "example-import-1",
           "version": "1.0.0",
           "reference": "XXX, draft-rwilton-netmod-yang-packages",
           "revision-date": "2018-01-01",
           "module": [
             {
               "name": "example-module-A",
               "revision": "1.0.0"
             },
             {
               "name": "example-module-B",
               "revision": "1.0.0"
             }
           ],
           "import-only-module": [
             {
               "name": "example-types-module-C",
               "revision": "2018-01-01"
             },
             {
               "name": "example-types-module-D",
               "revision": "2018-01-01"
             }
           ]
         }
       }

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     }
   }

   {
     "ietf-yang-instance-data:instance-data-set": {
       "name": "example-import-2-pkg",
       "content-schema": {
         "pkg-schema": {
            "name": "ietf-yang-package-defn-pkg",
            "version": "0.1.0"
         }
       },
       "description": "Second imported example package",
       "content-data": {
         "ietf-yang-package:yang-package": {
           "name": "example-import-2",
           "version": "2.0.0",
           "reference": "XXX, draft-rwilton-netmod-yang-packages",
           "revision-date": "2018-11-26",
           "module": [
             {
               "name": "example-module-A",
               "revision": "1.2.3"
             },
             {
               "name": "example-module-E",
               "revision": "1.1.0"
             }
           ],
           "import-only-module": [
             {
               "name": "example-types-module-C",
               "revision": "2018-11-26"
             },
             {
               "name": "example-types-module-D",
               "revision": "2018-11-26"
             }
           ]
         }
       }
     }
   }

   {
     "ietf-yang-instance-data:instance-data-set": {
       "name": "example-3-pkg",
       "content-schema": {

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         "pkg-schema": {
            "name": "ietf-yang-package-defn-pkg",
            "version": "0.1.0"
         }
       },
       "description": "Importing example package",
       "content-data": {
         "ietf-yang-package:yang-package": {
           "name": "example-3",
           "version": "1.0.0",
           "reference": "XXX, draft-rwilton-netmod-yang-packages",
           "revision-date": "2018-11-26",
           "included-package": [
             {
               "name": "example-import-1",
               "version": "1.0.0"
             },
             {
               "name": "example-import-2",
               "version": "2.0.0"
             }
           ],
           "module": [
             {
               "name": "example-module-A",
               "revision": "1.2.3"
             }
           ],
           "import-only-module": [
             {
               "name": "example-types-module-C",
               "revision": "2018-11-26",
               "replaces-revision": [ "2018-01-01 "]
             }
           ]
         }
       }
     }
   }

Appendix B.  Possible alternative solutions

   This section briefly describes some alternative solutions.  It can be
   removed if this document is adopted as a WG draft.

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B.1.  Using module tags

   Module tags have been suggested as an alternative solution, and
   indeed that can address some of the same requirements as YANG
   packages but not all of them.

   Module tags can be used to group or organize YANG modules.  However,
   this raises the question of where this tag information is stored.
   Module tags either require that the YANG module files themselves are
   updated with the module tag information (creating another versioning
   problem), or for the module tag information to be hosted elsewhere,
   perhaps in a centralize YANG Catalog, or in instance data files
   similar to how YANG packages have been defined in this draft.

   One of the principle aims of YANG packages is to be a versioned
   object that defines a precise set of YANG modules versions that work
   together.  Module tags cannot meet this aim without an explosion of
   module tags definitions (i.e. a separate module tag must be defined
   for each package version).

   Module tags cannot support the hierachical scheme to construct schema
   that is proposed in this draft.

B.2.  Using YANG library

   Another question is whether it is necessary to define new YANG
   modules to define YANG packages, and whether YANG library could just
   be reused in an instance data file.  The use of YANG packages offers
   several benefits over just using YANG library:

   1.  Packages allow schema to be built in a hierarchical fashion.
       [I-D.ietf-netconf-rfc7895bis] only allows one layer of hierarchy
       (using module sets), and there must be no conflicts between
       module revisions in different module-sets.

   2.  Packages can be made available off the box, with a well defined
       unique name, avoiding the need for clients to download, and
       construct/check the entire schema for each datastore.  YANG
       library's use of a 'content-id' is unique only to the device that
       generated them.

   3.  Packages may be versioned using a semantic versioning scheme,
       YANG library does not provide a schema level semantic version
       number.

   4.  For a YANG library instance data file to contain the necessary
       information, it probably needs both YANG library and various
       augmentations (e.g. to include each module's semantic version

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       number), unless a new version of YANG library is defined
       containing this information.  The module definition for a YANG
       package is specified to contain all of the ncessary information
       to solve the problem without augmentations

   5.  YANG library is designed to publish information about the
       modules, datastores, and datastore schema used by a server.  The
       information required to construct an off box schema is not
       precisely the same, and hence the definitions might deviate from
       each other over time.

Authors' Addresses

   Robert Wilton (editor)
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Email: rwilton@cisco.com

   Reshad Rahman
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Email: rrahman@cisco.com

   Joe Clarke
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   Email: jclarke@cisco.com

   Jason Sterne
   Nokia
   Email: jason.sterne@nokia.com

   Bo Wu (editor)
   Huawei
   Email: lana.wubo@huawei.com

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