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Use Cases for DC Network Virtualization Overlays

The information below is for an old version of the document.
Document Type
This is an older version of an Internet-Draft that was ultimately published as RFC 8151.
Authors Lucy Yong , Mehmet Toy , Aldrin Isaac , Vishwas Manral , Linda Dunbar
Last updated 2014-01-08
Replaces draft-mity-nvo3-use-case
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IESG IESG state Became RFC 8151 (Informational)
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Network Working Group                                           L. Yong
Internet Draft                                                   Huawei
Category: Informational                                          M. Toy
                                                               A. Isaac
                                                              V. Manral
                                                              L. Dunbar

Expires: July 2014                                   January 8, 2014

             Use Cases for DC Network Virtualization Overlays



   This document describes DC Network Virtualization (NVO3) use cases
   that may be potentially deployed in various data centers and apply
   to different applications.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on July, 2014.

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Table of Contents

   1. Introduction...................................................3
      1.1. Contributors..............................................4
      1.2. Terminology...............................................4
   2. Basic Virtual Networks in a Data Center........................5
   3. Interconnecting DC Virtual Network and External Networks.......6
      3.1. DC Virtual Network Access via Internet....................6
      3.2. DC VN and Enterprise Sites interconnected via SP WAN......7
   4. DC Applications Using NVO3.....................................9
      4.1. Supporting Multi Technologies and Applications in a DC....9
      4.2. Tenant Network with Multi-Subnets or across multi DCs.....9
      4.3. Virtualized Data Center (vDC)............................11
   5. OAM Considerations............................................13
   6. Summary.......................................................13
   7. Security Considerations.......................................14
   8. IANA Considerations...........................................14
   9. Acknowledgements..............................................14
   10. References...................................................14
      10.1. Normative References....................................14
      10.2. Informative References..................................15
   Authors' Addresses...............................................15

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1. Introduction

   Server Virtualization has changed IT industry in terms of efficiency,
   cost, and the speed in providing a new applications and/or services.
   However, today's data center networks have limited support for cloud
   applications and multi tenant networks.[NVO3PRBM] The goal of DC
   Network Virtualization Overlays, i.e. NVO3, is to decouple the
   communication among tenant systems from DC physical networks and to
   allow one physical network infrastructure to provide: 1) multi-
   tenant virtual networks and traffic isolation among the virtual
   networks over the same physical network; 2) independent address
   spaces in individual virtual networks such as MAC, IP, TCP/UDP etc;
   3) Flexible VM placement including the ability to move from one
   server to another without requiring VM address and configuration
   change and the ability doing a hot move in which no disruption to
   the live application on the VM. These characteristics will help
   address the issues in today's cloud applications [NVO3PRBM].

   Although NVO3 enables a true network virtualization environment, the
   NVO3 solution has to address the communication between a virtual
   network and a physical network. This is because 1) many DCs that
   need to provide network virtualization are currently running over
   physical networks, the migration will be in steps; 2) a lot of DC
   applications are served to Internet users which run directly on
   physical networks; 3) some applications are CPU bound like Big Data
   analytics and may not need the virtualization capability.

   This document is to describe general NVO3 use cases that apply to
   various data centers. Three types of the use cases described here

   o  Basic virtual networks in DC. A virtual network connects many
      tenant systems in a Data Center site (or more) and forms one L2
      or L3 communication domain. Many virtual networks are over same
      DC physical network. The case may be used for DC internal
      applications that constitute the DC East-West traffic.

   o  DC virtual network access from external. A DC provider offers a
      secure DC service to an enterprise customer and/or Internet users.
      An enterprise customer may use a traditional VPN provided by a
      carrier or an IPsec tunnel over Internet connecting to a virtual
      network within a provider DC site. This mainly constitutes DC
      North-South traffic.

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   o  DC applications or services that may use NVO3. Three scenarios
      are described: 1) use NVO3 and other network technologies to
      build a tenant network; 2) construct several virtual networks as
      a tenant network; 3) apply NVO3 to a virtualized DC (vDC).

   The document uses the architecture reference model defined in
   [NVO3FRWK] to describe the use cases.

1.1. Contributors

      Vinay Bannai
      2211 N. First St,
      San Jose, CA 95131
      Phone: +1-408-967-7784

      Ram Krishnan
      Brocade Communications
      San Jose, CA 95134
      Phone: +1-408-406-7890

1.2.  Terminology

   This document uses the terminologies defined in [NVO3FRWK],
   [RFC4364]. Some additional terms used in the document are listed

   CPE: Customer Premise Equipment

   DMZ: Demilitarized Zone. A computer or small subnetwork that sits
   between a trusted internal network, such as a corporate private LAN,
   and an un-trusted external network, such as the public Internet.

   DNS: Domain Name Service

   NAT: Network Address Translation

   VIRB: Virtual Integrated Routing/Bridging

   Note that a virtual network in this document is an overlay virtual
   network instance.

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2. Basic Virtual Networks in a Data Center

   A virtual network may exist within a DC. The network enables a
   communication among Tenant Systems (TS). A TS may be a physical
   server/device or a virtual machine (VM) on a server. A network
   virtual edge (NVE) may be co-located with a TS, i.e. on a same end-
   device, or reside on a different device, e.g. a top of rack switch
   (ToR). A virtual network has a unique virtual network identifier
   (may be local or global unique) for an NVE to properly differentiate
   it from other virtual networks.

   Tenant Systems attached to the same NVE may belong to the same or
   different virtual network. The multiple virtual networks can be
   constructed in a way so that the policies are enforced when the TSs
   in one virtual network communicate with the TSs in other virtual
   networks.  An NVE provides tenant traffic forwarding/encapsulation
   and obtains tenant systems reachability information from Network
   Virtualization Authority (NVA)[NVO3ARCH]. Furthermore in a DC
   operators may construct many tenant networks that have no
   communication in between at all. In this case, each tenant network
   may use its own address spaces such as MAC and IP. One tenant
   network may have one or more virtual networks.

   A Tenant System may also be configured with one or multiple
   addresses and participate in multiple virtual networks, i.e. use the
   same or different address in different virtual networks. For
   examples, a TS may be a NAT GW or a firewall and connect to more
   than one virtual network.

   Network Virtualization Overlay in this context means that a virtual
   network is implemented with an overlay technology, i.e. traffic from
   an NVE to another is sent via a tunnel between a pair of
   NVEs.[NVO3FRWK] This architecture decouples tenant system address
   scheme and configuration from the infrastructure's, which brings a
   great flexibility for VM placement and mobility. This also makes the
   transit nodes in the infrastructure not aware of the existence of
   the virtual networks. One tunnel may carry the traffic belonging to
   different virtual networks; a virtual network identifier is used for
   traffic demultiplexing.

   A virtual network may be an L2 or L3 domain. The TSs attached to an
   NVE may belong to different virtual networks that may be in L2 or
   L3. A virtual network may carry unicast traffic and/or
   broadcast/multicast/unknown traffic from/to tenant systems. There
   are several ways to transport BUM traffic.[NVO3MCAST]

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  It is worth to mention two distinct cases here. The first is that
  TSs and NVE are co-located on a same end device, which means that
  the NVE can be made aware of the TS state at any time via internal
  API. The second is that TSs and NVE are remotely connected, i.e.
  connected via a switched network or point-to-point link. In this
  case, a protocol is necessary for NVE to know TS state.

  One virtual network may connect many TSs that attach to many
  different NVEs. TS dynamic placement and mobility results in
  frequent changes in the TS and NVE bindings. The TS reachbility
  update mechanism need be fast enough to not cause any service
  interruption.  The capability of supporting many TSs in a virtual
  network and many more virtual networks in a DC is critical for NVO3

   If a virtual network spans across multiple DC sites, one design is
   to allow the network seamlessly to span across the sites without DC
   gateway routers' termination. In this case, the tunnel between a
   pair of NVEs may in turn be tunneled over other intermediate tunnels
   over the Internet or other WANs, or the intra DC and inter DC
   tunnels are stitched together to form an end-to-end virtual network
   across DCs.

3. Interconnecting DC Virtual Network and External Networks

   For customers (an enterprise or individuals) who utilize the DC
   provider's compute and storage resources to run their applications,
   they need to access their systems hosted in a DC through Internet or
   Service Providers' WANs. A DC provider may construct a virtual
   network that connect all the resources designated for a customer and
   allow the customer to access their resources via a virtual gateway
   (vGW). This, in turn, becomes the case of interconnecting a DC
   virtual network and the network at customer site(s) via Internet or
   WANs. Two cases are described here.

3.1. DC Virtual Network Access via Internet

   A customer can connect to a DC virtual network via Internet in a
   secure way. Figure 1 illustrates this case. A virtual network is
   configured on NVE1 and NVE2 and two NVEs are connected via an L3
   tunnel in the Data Center. A set of tenant systems are attached to
   NVE1 on a server. The NVE2 resides on a DC Gateway device. NVE2
   terminates the tunnel and uses the VNID on the packet to pass the
   packet to the corresponding vGW entity on the DC GW. A customer can
   access their systems, i.e. TS1 or TSn, in the DC via Internet by
   using IPsec tunnel [RFC4301]. The IPsec tunnel is configured between
   the vGW and the customer gateway at customer site. Either static

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   route or BGP may be used for peer routes. The vGW provides IPsec
   functionality such as authentication scheme and encryption. Note
   that: 1) some vGW functions such as firewall and load balancer may
   also be performed by locally attached network appliance devices; 2)
   The virtual network in DC may use different address space than
   external users, then vGW need to provide the NAT function; 3) more
   than one IPsec tunnels can be configured for the redundancy; 4) vGW
   may be implemented on a server or VM. In this case, IP tunnels or
   IPsec tunnels may be used over DC infrastructure.

         |   TS1 TSn     |
         |    |...|      |
         |  +-+---+-+    |             Customer Site
         |  |  NVE1 |    |               +-----+
         |  +---+---+    |               | CGW |
         +------+--------+               +--+--+
                |                           *
            L3 Tunnel                       *
                |                           *
   DC GW +------+---------+            .--.  .--.
         |  +---+---+     |           (    '*   '.--.
         |  |  NVE2 |     |        .-.'   *          )
         |  +---+---+     |       (    *  Internet    )
         |  +---+---+.    |        ( *               /
         |  |  vGW  | * * * * * * * * '-'          '-'
         |  +-------+ |   | IPsec       \../ \.--/'
         |   +--------+   | Tunnel

           DC Provider Site

             Figure 1 DC Virtual Network Access via Internet

3.2. DC VN and Enterprise Sites interconnected via SP WAN

   An enterprise company may lease the VM and storage resources hosted
   in the 3rd party DC to run its applications. For example, the                                                 rd        company may run its web applications at 3  party sites but run
   backend applications in own DCs. The Web applications and backend                                                         rd        applications need to communicate privately. The 3  party DC may
   construct one or more virtual networks to connect all VMs and
   storage running the Enterprise Web applications. The company may buy
   a p2p private tunnel such as VPWS from a SP to interconnect its site
   and the virtual network at the 3rd party site.  A protocol is

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   necessary for exchanging the reachability between two peering points
   and the traffic are carried over the tunnel. If an enterprise has
   multiple sites, it may buy multiple p2p tunnels to form a mesh
   interconnection among the sites and the third party site. This
   requires each site peering with all other sites for route

   Another way to achieve multi-site interconnection is to use Service
   Provider (SP) VPN services, in which each site only peers with SP PE
   site. A DC Provider and VPN SP may build a DC virtual network (VN)
   and VPN independently. The VPN interconnects several enterprise
   sites and the DC virtual network at DC site, i.e. VPN site. The DC
   VN and SP VPN interconnect via a local link or a tunnel. The control
   plan interconnection options are described in RFC4364 [RFC4364]. In
   Option A with VRF-LITE [VRF-LITE], both DC GW and SP PE maintain a
   routing/forwarding table, and perform the table lookup in forwarding.
   In Option B, DC GW and SP PE do not maintain the forwarding table,
   it only maintains the VN and VPN identifier mapping, and swap the
   identifier on the packet in the forwarding process. Both option A
   and B requires tunnel termination. In option C, DC GW and SP PE use
   the same identifier for VN and VPN, and just perform the tunnel
   stitching, i.e. change the tunnel end points. Each option has
   pros/cons (see RFC4364) and has been deployed in SP networks
   depending on the applications. The BGP protocols may be used in
   these options for route distribution. Note that if the provider DC
   is the SP Data Center, the DC GW and PE in this case may be on one

   This configuration allows the enterprise networks communicating to
   the tenant systems attached to the VN in a provider DC without
   interfering with DC provider underlying physical networks and other
   virtual networks in the DC. The enterprise may use its own address
   space on the tenant systems in the VN. The DC provider can manage
   which VM and storage attachment to the VN. The enterprise customer
   manages what applications to run on the VMs in the VN. See Section 4
   for more.

   The interesting feature in this use case is that the VN and compute
   resource are managed by the DC provider. The DC operator can place
   them at any server without notifying the enterprise and WAN SP
   because the DC physical network is completely isolated from the
   carrier and enterprise network. Furthermore, the DC operator may
   move the VMs assigned to the enterprise from one sever to another in
   the DC without the enterprise customer awareness, i.e. no impact on
   the enterprise 'live' applications running these resources. Such
   advanced features bring DC providers great benefits in serving cloud
   applications but also add some requirements for NVO3 [NVO3PRBM].

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4. DC Applications Using NVO3

   NVO3 brings DC operators the flexibility in designing and deploying
   different applications in an end-to-end virtualization overlay
   environment, where the operators no longer need to worry about the
   constraints of the DC physical network configuration when creating
   VMs and configuring a virtual network. DC provider may use NVO3 in
   various ways and also use it in the conjunction with physical
   networks in DC for many reasons. This section just highlights some
   use cases.

4.1. Supporting Multi Technologies and Applications in a DC

   Most likely servers deployed in a large data center are rolled in at
   different times and may have different capacities/features. Some
   servers may be virtualized, some may not; some may be equipped with
   virtual switches, some may not. For the ones equipped with
   hypervisor based virtual switches, some may support VxLAN [VXLAN]
   encapsulation, some may support NVGRE encapsulation [NVGRE], and
   some may not support any types of encapsulation. To construct a
   tenant network among these servers and the ToR switches, it may
   construct one virtual network and one traditional VLAN network; or
   two virtual networks that one uses VxLAN encapsulation and another
   uses NVGRE.

   In these cases, a gateway device or virtual GW is used to
   participate in multiple virtual networks. It performs the packet
   encapsulation/decapsulation and may also perform address mapping or
   translation, and etc.

   A data center may be also constructed with multi-tier zones. Each
   zone has different access permissions and run different applications.
   For example, the three-tier zone design has a front zone (Web tier)
   with Web applications, a mid zone (application tier) with service
   applications such as payment and booking, and a back zone (database
   tier) with Data. External users are only able to communicate with
   the Web application in the front zone. In this case, the
   communication between the zones must pass through the security
   GW/firewall. One virtual network may be configured in each zone and
   a GW is used to interconnect two virtual networks. If individual
   zones use the different implementations, the GW needs to support
   these implementations as well.

4.2. Tenant Network with Multi-Subnets or across multi DCs

   A tenant network may contain multiple subnets. The DC physical
   network needs support the connectivity for many tenant networks. The

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   inter-subnets policies may be placed at some designated gateway
   devices only. Such design requires the inter-subnet traffic to be
   sent to one of the gateways first for the policy checking, which may
   cause traffic hairpin at the gateway in a DC. It is desirable that
   an NVE can hold some policies and be able to forward inter-subnet
   traffic directly. To reduce NVE burden, the hybrid design may be
   deployed, i.e. an NVE can perform forwarding for the selected inter-
   subnets and the designated GW performs for the rest. For example,
   each NVE performs inter-subnet forwarding for a tenant, and the
   designated GW is used for inter-subnet traffic from/to the different
   tenant networks.

   A tenant network may span across multiple Data Centers in distance.
   DC operators may configure an L2 VN within each DC and an L3 VN
   between DCs for a tenant network. For this configuration, the
   virtual L2/L3 gateway can be implemented on DC GW device. Figure 2
   illustrates this configuration.

   Figure 2 depicts two DC sites. The site A constructs one L2 VN, say
   L2VNa, on NVE1, NVE2, and NVE3. NVE1 and NVE2 reside on the servers
   which host multiple tenant systems. NVE3 resides on the DC GW device.
   The site Z has similar configuration with L2VNz on NVE3, NVE4, and
   NVE6. One L3 VN, say L3VNx, is configured on the NVE5 at site A and
   the NVE6 at site Z. An internal Virtual Interface of Routing and
   Bridging (VIRB) is used between L2VNI and L3VNI on NVE5 and NVE6,
   respectively. The L2VNI is the MAC/NVE mapping table and the L3VNI
   is the IP prefix/NVE mapping table. A packet to the NVE5 from L2VNa
   will be decapsulated and converted into an IP packet and then
   encapsulated and sent to the site Z. The policies can be checked at

   Note that the L2VNa, L2VNz, and L3VNx in Figure 2 are overlay
   virtual networks.

   NVE5/DCGW+------------+                  +-----------+ NVE6/DCGW
            | +-----+    | '''''''''''''''' |   +-----+ |
            | |L3VNI+----+'    L3VNx       '+---+L3VNI| |
            | +--+--+    | '''''''''''''''' |   +--+--+ |
            |    |VIRB   |                  |  VIRB|    |
            | +--+---+   |                  |  +---+--+ |
            | |L2VNIs|   |                  |  |L2VNIs| |
            | +--+---+   |                  |  +---+--+ |
            +----+-------+                  +------+----+
             ''''|''''''''''                 ''''''|'''''''
            '     L2VNa     '               '     L2VNz    '
      NVE1/S ''/'''''''''\'' NVE2/S    NVE3/S'''/'''''''\'' NVE4/S

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        +-----+---+  +----+----+        +------+--+ +----+----+
        | +--+--+ |  | +--+--+ |        | +---+-+ | | +--+--+ |
        | |L2VNI| |  | |L2VNI| |        | |L2VNI| | | |L2VNI| |
        | ++---++ |  | ++---++ |        | ++---++ | | ++---++ |
        +--+---+--+  +--+---+--+        +--+---+--+ +--+---+--+
           |...|        |...|              |...|       |...|

             Tenant Systems                  Tenant Systems

                DC Site A                    DC Site Z

          Figure 2 Tenant Virtual Network with Bridging/Routing

4.3. Virtualized Data Center (vDC)

   Enterprise DC's today may deploy routers, switches, and network
   appliance devices to construct its internal network, DMZ, and
   external network access and have many servers and storage running
   various applications. A DC Provider may construct a virtualized DC
   over its DC infrastructure and offer a virtual DC service to
   enterprise customers. A vDC provides the same capability as a
   physical DC. A customer manages what and how applications to run in
   the vDC. Instead of using many hardware devices to do it, with the
   network virtualization overlay technology, DC operators may build
   such vDCs on top of a common DC infrastructure for many such
   customers and offer network service functions to a vDC. The network
   service functions may include firewall, DNS, load balancer, gateway,
   etc. The network virtualization overlay further enables potential
   for vDC mobility when a customer moves to different locations
   because vDC configuration is decouple from the infrastructure

   Figure 3 below illustrates one scenario. For the simple
   illustration, it only shows the L3 VN or L2 VN as virtual routers or
   switches. In this case, DC operators create several L2 VNs (L2VNx,
   L2VNy, L2VNz) in Figure 3 to group the tenant systems together per
   application basis, create one L3 VN, e.g. VNa for the internal
   routing. A net device (may be a VM or server) runs firewall/gateway
   applications and connects to the L3VNa and Internet. A load balancer
   (LB) is used in L2 VNx. A VPWS p2p tunnel is also built between the
   gateway and enterprise router. Enterprise customer runs
   Web/Mail/Voice applications at the provider DC site; lets the users
   at Enterprise site to access the applications via the VPN tunnel and
   Internet via a gateway at the Enterprise site; let Internet users
   access the applications via the gateway in the provider DC.

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   The customer decides which applications are accessed by intranet
   only and which by both intranet and extranet and configures the
   proper security policy and gateway function. Furthermore a customer
   may want multi-zones in a vDC for the security and/or set different
   QoS levels for the different applications.

   This use case requires the NVO3 solution to provide the DC operator
   an easy way to create a VN and NVEs for any design and to quickly
   assign TSs to VNIs on a NVE they attach to, easily to set up virtual
   topology and place or configure policies on an NVE or VMs that run
   net services, and support VM mobility. Furthermore a DC operator
   and/or customer should be able to view the vDC topology and access
   individual virtual components in the vDC. Either DC provider or
   tenant can provision virtual components in the vDC. It is desirable
   to automate the provisioning process and have programmability.

                           Internet                    ^ Internet
                              ^                     +--+---+
                              |                     |  GW  |
                              |                     +--+---+
                              |                        |
                      +-------+--------+            +--+---+
                      |Firewall/Gateway+--- VPN-----+router|
                      +-------+--------+            +-+--+-+
                              |                       |  |
                           ...+....                   |..|
                  +-------: L3 VNa :---------+        LANs
                +-+-+      ........          |
                |LB |          |             |     Enterprise Site
                +-+-+          |             |
               ...+...      ...+...       ...+...
              : L2VNx :    : L2VNy :     : L2VNx :
               .......      .......       .......
                 |..|         |..|          |..|
                 |  |         |  |          |  |
               Web Apps     Mail Apps      VoIP Apps

                        Provider DC Site

    firewall/gateway and Load Balancer (LB) may run on a server or VMs

                Figure 3 Virtual Data Center by Using NVO3

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5. OAM Considerations

   NVO3 brings the ability for a DC provider to segregate tenant
   traffic. A DC provider needs to manage and maintain NVO3 instances.
   Similarly, the tenant needs to be informed about underlying network
   failures impacting tenant applications or the tenant network is able
   to detect both overlay and underlay network failures and builds some
   resiliency mechanisms.

   Various OAM and SOAM tools and procedures are defined in [IEEE
   802.1ag], [ITU-T Y.1731], [RFC4378], [RFC5880], [ITU-T Y.1564] for
   L2 and L3 networks, and for user, including continuity check,
   loopback, link trace, testing, alarms such as AIS/RDI, and on-demand
   and periodic measurements. These procedures may apply to tenant
   overlay networks and tenants not only for proactive maintenance, but
   also to ensure support of Service Level Agreements (SLAs).

   As the tunnel traverses different networks, OAM messages need to be
   translated at the edge of each network to ensure end-to-end OAM.

6. Summary

   The document describes some general potential use cases of NVO3 in
   DCs. The combination of these cases should give operators
   flexibility and capability to design more sophisticated cases for
   various purposes.

   DC services may vary from infrastructure as a service (IaaS),
   platform as a service (PaaS), to software as a service (SaaS), in
   which the network virtualization overlay is just a portion of an
   application service. NVO3 decouples the service
   construction/configurations from the DC network infrastructure
   configuration, and helps deployment of higher level services over
   the application.

   NVO3's underlying network provides the tunneling between NVEs so
   that two NVEs appear as one hop to each other. Many tunneling
   technologies can serve this function. The tunneling may in turn be
   tunneled over other intermediate tunnels over the Internet or other
   WANs. It is also possible that intra DC and inter DC tunnels are
   stitched together to form an end-to-end tunnel between two NVEs.

   A DC virtual network may be accessed by external users in a secure
   way. Many existing technologies can help achieve this.

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   NVO3 implementations may vary. Some DC operators prefer to use
   centralized controller to manage tenant system reachbility in a
   tenant network, other prefer to use distributed protocols to
   advertise the tenant system location, i.e. associated NVEs. For the
   migration and special requirement, the different solutions may apply
   to one tenant network in a DC. When a tenant network spans across
   multiple DCs and WANs, each network administration domain may use
   different methods to distribute the tenant system locations. Both
   control plane and data plane interworking are necessary.

7. Security Considerations

   Security is a concern. DC operators need to provide a tenant a
   secured virtual network, which means one tenant's traffic isolated
   from the other tenant's traffic and non-tenant's traffic; they also
   need to prevent DC underlying network from any tenant application
   attacking through the tenant virtual network or one tenant
   application attacking another tenant application via DC networks.
   For example, a tenant application attempts to generate a large
   volume of traffic to overload DC underlying network. The NVO3
   solution has to address these issues.

8. IANA Considerations

   This document does not request any action from IANA.

9. Acknowledgements

   Authors like to thank Sue Hares, Young Lee, David Black, Pedro
   Marques, Mike McBride, David McDysan, Randy Bush, Uma Chunduri, and
   Eric Gray for the review, comments, and suggestions.

10. References

10.1. Normative References

   [RFC4364] Rosen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private
             Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4364, February 2006.

   [IEEE 802.1ag]  "Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks - Amendment 5:
             Connectivity Fault Management", December 2007.

   [ITU-T G.8013/Y.1731] OAM Functions and Mechanisms for Ethernet
             based Networks, 2011.

   [ITU-T Y.1564] "Ethernet service activation test methodology", 2011.

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   [RFC4378] Allan, D., Nadeau, T., "A Framework for Multi-Protocol
             Label Switching (MPLS) Operations and Management (OAM)",
             RFC4378, February 2006

   [RFC4301] Kent, S., "Security Architecture for the Internet
             Protocol", rfc4301, December 2005

   [RFC5880] Katz, D. and Ward, D., "Bidirectional Forwarding Detection
             (BFD)", rfc5880, June 2010.

10.2. Informative References

   [NVGRE]  Sridharan, M., "NVGRE: Network Virtualization using Generic
             Routing Encapsulation", draft-sridharan-virtualization-
             nvgre-03, work in progress.

   [NVO3ARCH] Black, D., et al, "An Architecture for Overlay Networks
             (NVO3)", draft-ietf-nvo3-arch-00, work in progress.

   [NVO3PRBM] Narten, T., et al "Problem Statement: Overlays for
             Network Virtualization", draft-ietf-nvo3-overlay-problem-
             statement-04, work in progress.

   [NVO3FRWK] Lasserre, M., Motin, T., and et al, "Framework for DC
             Network Virtualization", draft-ietf-nvo3-framework-04,
             work in progress.

   [NVO3MCAST] Ghanwani, A., "Multicast Issues in Networks Using NVO3",
             draft-ghanwani-nvo3-mcast-issues-00, work in progress.

   [VRF-LITE] Cisco, "Configuring VRF-lite",

   [VXLAN]  Mahalingam,M., Dutt, D., etc "VXLAN: A Framework for
             Overlaying Virtualized Layer 2 Networks over Layer 3
             Networks", draft-mahalingam-dutt-dcops-vxlan-06.txt, work
             in progress.

 Authors' Addresses

   Lucy Yong

   Phone: +1-918-808-1918

   Mehmet Toy
   1800 Bishops Gate Blvd.,

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   Mount Laurel, NJ 08054

   Phone : +1-856-792-2801
   E-mail :

   Aldrin Isaac

   Vishwas Manral
   Hewlett-Packard Corp.
   3000 Hanover Street, Building 20C
   Palo Alto, CA  95014

   Phone: 650-857-5501

   Linda Dunbar
   Huawei Technologies,
   5340 Legacy Dr.
   Plano, TX 75025 US

   Phone: +1-469-277-5840

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