Network Reconnaissance in IPv6 Networks
draft-ietf-opsec-ipv6-host-scanning-00

The information below is for an old version of the document
Document Type Active Internet-Draft (opsec WG)
Authors Fernando Gont  , Tim Chown 
Last updated 2012-12-12
Replaces draft-gont-opsec-ipv6-host-scanning
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Operational Security Capabilities for                            F. Gont
IP Network Infrastructure (opsec)                    Huawei Technologies
Internet-Draft                                                  T. Chown
Obsoletes: 5157 (if approved)                  University of Southampton
Intended status: Informational                         December 12, 2012
Expires: June 15, 2013

                Network Reconnaissance in IPv6 Networks
                 draft-ietf-opsec-ipv6-host-scanning-00

Abstract

   IPv6 offers a much larger address space than that of its IPv4
   counterpart.  The standard /64 IPv6 subnets can (in theory)
   accommodate approximately 1.844 * 10^19 hosts, thus resulting in a
   much lower host density (#hosts/#addresses) than their IPv4
   counterparts.  As a result, it is widely assumed that it would take a
   tremendous effort to perform address scanning attacks against IPv6
   networks, and therefore IPv6 address scanning attacks have long been
   considered unfeasible.  This document analyzes how traditional
   address scanning techniques apply to IPv6 networks, and also explores
   a number of other techniques that can be employed for IPv6 network
   reconnaissance.  Additionally, this document formally obsoletes RFC
   5157.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 15, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

Gont & Chown              Expires June 15, 2013                 [Page 1]
Internet-Draft             IPv6 Reconnaissance             December 2012

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Requirements for the Applicability of Network
       Reconnaissance Techniques  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  IPv6 Address Scanning  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Address Configuration in IPv6  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.2.  IPv6 Address Scanning of Remote Networks . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.3.  IPv6 Address Scanning of Local Networks  . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.4.  Existing IPv6 Address Scanning Tools . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.5.  Mitigations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   4.  Leveraging the Domain Name System (DNS) for Network
       Reconnaissance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.1.  DNS Advertised Hosts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.2.  DNS Zone Transfers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.3.  DNS Reverse Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
   5.  Leveraging Local Name Resolution and Service Discovery
       Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   6.  Public Archives  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   7.  Application Participation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   8.  Inspection of the IPv6 Neighbor Cache and Routing Table  . . . 20
   9.  Inspection of System Configuration and Log Files . . . . . . . 21
   10. Gleaning Information from Routing Protocols  . . . . . . . . . 22
   11. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   12. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   13. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   14. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     14.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     14.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
   Appendix A.  Implementation of a full-fledged IPv6
                address-scanning tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     A.1.  Host-probing considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     A.2.  Implementation of an IPv6 local address-scanning tool  . . 30
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