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RADIUS ALPN and removing MD5
draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11-07

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (radext WG)
Author Alan DeKok
Last updated 2024-06-14 (Latest revision 2024-06-12)
Replaces draft-dekok-radext-radiusv11
RFC stream Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Intended RFC status Experimental
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Additional resources GitHub Repository
Mailing list discussion
Stream WG state Submitted to IESG for Publication
Associated WG milestone
Aug 2023
ALPN negotiation
Document shepherd Jan-Frederik Rieckers
Shepherd write-up Show Last changed 2024-03-17
IESG IESG state In Last Call (ends 2024-06-26)
Action Holder
Consensus boilerplate Unknown
Telechat date (None)
Responsible AD Paul Wouters
Send notices to mrcullen42@gmail.com, rieckers@uni-bremen.de
IANA IANA review state IANA - Review Needed
IANA expert review state Expert Reviews OK
draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11-07
RADEXT Working Group                                            A. DeKok
Internet-Draft                                                FreeRADIUS
Updates: 5176, 6614, 7360 (if approved)                     12 June 2024
Intended status: Experimental                                           
Expires: 14 December 2024

                      RADIUS ALPN and removing MD5
                     draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11-07

Abstract

   This document defines Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation
   Extensions for use with RADIUS/TLS and RADIUS/DTLS.  These extensions
   permit the negotiation of an additional application protocol for
   RADIUS over (D)TLS.  No changes are made to RADIUS/UDP or RADIUS/TCP.
   The extensions allow the negotiation of a transport profile where the
   RADIUS shared secret is no longer used, and all MD5-based packet
   signing and attribute obfuscation methods are removed.  When this
   extension is used, the previous Authenticator field is repurposed to
   contain an explicit request / response identifier, called a Token.
   The Token also allows more than 256 packets to be outstanding on one
   connection.

   This extension can be seen as a transport profile for RADIUS, as it
   is not an entirely new protocol.  It uses the existing RADIUS packet
   layout and attribute format without change.  As such, it can carry
   all present and future RADIUS attributes.  Implementation of this
   extension requires only minor changes to the protocol encoder and
   decoder functionality.  The protocol defined by this extension is
   named "RADIUS version 1.1", or "RADIUS/1.1".

   This document updates RFC5176, RFC6614, and RFC 7360.

About This Document

   This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

   Status information for this document may be found at
   https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11/.

   Discussion of this document takes place on the RADEXT Working Group
   mailing list (mailto:radext@ietf.org), which is archived at
   https://mailarchive.ietf.org/arch/browse/radext/.  Subscribe at
   https://www.ietf.org/mailman/listinfo/radext/.

   Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
   https://github.com/radext-wg/draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11.git.

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Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on 14 December 2024.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2024 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
   extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as
   described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are
   provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   3.  The RADIUS/1.1 Transport profile for RADIUS . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.1.  ALPN Name for RADIUS/1.1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.2.  Operation of ALPN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     3.3.  Configuration of ALPN for RADIUS/1.1  . . . . . . . . . .  10
       3.3.1.  Using Protocol-Error for Signaling ALPN Failure . . .  14
       3.3.2.  Tabular Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     3.4.  Miscellaneous Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     3.5.  Session Resumption  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   4.  RADIUS/1.1 Packet and Attribute Formats . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     4.1.  RADIUS/1.1 Packet Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     4.2.  The Token Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       4.2.1.  Sending Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       4.2.2.  Receiving Packets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21

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   5.  Attribute handling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     5.1.  Obfuscated Attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
       5.1.1.  User-Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       5.1.2.  CHAP-Challenge  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
       5.1.3.  Tunnel-Password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
       5.1.4.  Vendor-Specific Attributes  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     5.2.  Message-Authenticator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     5.3.  Message-Authentication-Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     5.4.  CHAP, MS-CHAP, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     5.5.  Original-Packet-Code  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
   6.  Other Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     6.1.  Protocol-Error  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  27
     6.2.  Status-Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     6.3.  Proxies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  29
     6.4.  Crypto-Agility  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     6.5.  Error-Cause Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  30
     6.6.  Future Standards  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
   7.  Implementation Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   8.  Privacy Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   12. Changelog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
   13. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     13.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
     13.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
   Author's Address  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39

1.  Introduction

   The RADIUS protocol [RFC2865] uses MD5 [RFC1321] to sign packets, and
   to obfuscate certain attributes.  Decades of cryptographic research
   has shown that MD5 is insecure, and that MD5 should no longer be
   used.  These discussions are most notably in [RFC6151], and in
   [RFC6421], Section 3, among others.  In addition, the reliance on MD5
   for security makes it impossible to use RADIUS in a FIPS-140
   compliant system, as FIPS-140 forbids systems from relying on
   insecure cryptographic methods for security.

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   While RADIUS originally used UDP transport, additional transport
   protocols were defined for TCP ([RFC6613]), TLS ([RFC6614]), and DTLS
   ([RFC7360]).  However, those transport protocols still relied on MD5.
   That is, the shared secret was used along with MD5, even when the
   RADIUS packets were being transported in (D)TLS.  At the time, the
   consensus of the RADEXT working group was that this continued use of
   MD5 was acceptable.  TLS was seen as a simple "wrapper" around
   RADIUS, while using a fixed shared secret.  The intention at the time
   was to allow the use of (D)TLS while making essentially no changes to
   the basic RADIUS encoding, decoding, signing, and packet validation.

   The ensuing years have shown that it is important for RADIUS to
   remove its dependency on MD5.  The continued use of MD5 is no longer
   acceptable in a security-conscious environment.  The use of MD5 in
   [RFC6614] and [RFC7360] adds no security or privacy over that
   provided by TLS.  It is time to remove the use of MD5 from RADIUS.

   This document defines an Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation
   (ALPN) [RFC7301] extension for RADIUS over (D)TLS which removes their
   dependency on MD5.  Systems which implement this transport profile
   can be more easily verified to be FIPS-140 compliant, as those
   systems can operate without the use of MD5.  This extension can best
   be understood as a transport profile for RADIUS, rather than a whole-
   sale revision of the RADIUS protocol.  A preliminary implementation
   has shown that only minor code changes are required to support
   RADIUS/1.1 on top of an existing RADIUS server.

   While this document permits MD5 to be removed when using (D)TLS
   transports, it makes no changes to UDP or TCP transports.  It is
   therefore RECOMMENDED that those transports only be used within
   secure networks, and only used in situations where FIPS compliance is
   not an issue.

   In most cases, using ALPN requires only a few modifications to the
   RADIUS/TLS protocol implementation:

   *  A method to set the list of supported ALPN protocols before the
      TLS handshake starts

   *  After the TLS handshake has completed, a method to query if ALPN
      has chosen a protocol, and if yes, which protocol was chosen.

   *  Changes to the packet encoder and decoder, so that the individual
      packets are not signed, and no attribute is encoded with the
      historic obfuscation methods.

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   That is, the bulk of the ALPN protocol can be left to the underlying
   TLS implementation.  This document discusses the ALPN exchange in
   detail in order to give simplified descriptions for the reader, and
   so that the reader does not have to read or understand all of
   [RFC7301].

   The detailed list of changes from historic TLS-based transports to
   RADIUS/1.1 is as follows:

   *  ALPN is used for negotiation of this extension,

   *  TLS 1.3 or later is required,

   *  All uses of the RADIUS shared secret have been removed,

   *  The now-unused Request and Response Authenticator fields have been
      repurposed to carry an opaque Token which identifies requests and
      responses,

   *  The functionality of the Identifier field has been replaced by the
      Token field, and the space previously taken by the Identifier
      field is now reserved and unused,

   *  The Message-Authenticator attribute ([RFC3579], Section 3.2) is
      not sent in any packet, and if received is ignored,

   *  Attributes such as User-Password, Tunnel-Password, and MS-MPPE
      keys are sent encoded as "text" ([RFC8044], Section 3.4) or
      "octets" ([RFC8044], Section 3.5), without the previous MD5-based
      obfuscation.  This obfuscation is no longer necessary, as the data
      is secured and kept private through the use of TLS,

   *  The conclusion of the efforts stemming from [RFC6421] is that
      crypto-agility in RADIUS is best done via a TLS wrapper, and not
      by extending the RADIUS protocol.

   *  [RFC5176] is updated to allow the Error-Cause attribute to appear
      in Access-Reject packets.

   The following items are left unchanged from traditional TLS-based
   transports for RADIUS:

   *  The RADIUS packet header is the same size, and the Code and Length
      fields ([RFC2865], Section 3) have the same meaning as before,

   *  The default 4K packet size is unchanged, although [RFC7930] can
      still be leveraged to use larger packets,

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   *  All attributes which have simple encodings (that is, attributes
      which do not use MD5 obfuscation) have the same encoding and
      meaning as before,

   *  As this extension is a transport profile for one "hop" (client to
      server connection), it does not impact any other connection used
      by a client or server.  The only systems which are aware that this
      transport profile is in use are the client and server who have
      negotiated the use of this extension on a particular shared
      connection,

   *  This extension uses the same ports (2083/tcp and 2083/udp) which
      are defined for RADIUS/TLS [RFC6614] and RADIUS/DTLS [RFC7360].

   A major benefit of this extension is that a home server which
   implements it can also be more easily verified for FIPS-140
   compliance.  That is, a home server can remove all uses of MD4 and
   MD5, which means that those algorithms are provably not used for
   security purposes.  In that case, however, the home server will not
   support CHAP, MS-CHAP, or any authentication method which uses MD4 or
   MD5.  The choice of which authentication method to accept is always
   left to the home server.  This specification does not change any
   authentication method carried in RADIUS, and does not mandate (or
   forbid) the use of any authentication method for any system.

   As for proxies, there was never a requirement that proxies implement
   CHAP or MS-CHAP authentication.  So far as a proxy is concerned,
   attributes relating to CHAP and MS-CHAP are simply opaque data that
   is transported unchanged to the next hop.  It is therefore possible
   for a FIPS-140 compliant proxy to transport authentication methods
   which depend on MD4 or MD5, so long as that data is forwarded to a
   home server which supports those methods.

   We reiterate that the decision to support (or not) any authentication
   method is entirely site local, and is not a requirement of this
   specification.  The contents or meaning of any RADIUS attribute other
   than Message-Authenticator (and similar attributes) are not modified.
   The only change to the Message-Authenticator attribute is that it is
   no longer used in RADIUS/1.1.

   Unless otherwise described in this document, all RADIUS requirements
   apply to this extension.  That is, this specification defines a
   transport profile for RADIUS.  It is not an entirely new protocol,
   and it defines only minor changes to the existing RADIUS protocol.
   It does not change the RADIUS packet format, attribute format, etc.
   This specification is compatible with all RADIUS attributes, past,
   present, and future.

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   This specification is compatible with existing implementations of
   RADIUS/TLS and RADIUS/DTLS.  Systems which implement this standard
   can fall back to historic RADIUS/TLS if no ALPN signaling is
   performed, and the local configuration permits such fallback.

   This specification is compatible with all past and future RADIUS
   specifications.  There is no need for any RADIUS specification to
   mention this transport profile by name, or to make provisions for
   this specification.  This document defines how to transform RADIUS
   into RADIUS/1.1, and no further discussion of that transformation is
   necessary.

   We note that this document makes no changes to previous RADIUS
   specifications.  Existing RADIUS implementations can continue to be
   used without modification.  Where previous specifications are
   explicitly mentioned and updated, those updates or changes apply only
   when the RADIUS/1.1 transport profile is being used.

   In short, when negotiated on a connection, the RADIUS/1.1 transport
   profile permits implementations to avoid MD5 when signing packets, or
   when obfuscating certain attributes.

2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

   The following list describes the terminology and abbreviations which
   are used in this document.

   *  ALPN

      Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation, as defined in [RFC7301].

   *  RADIUS

      The Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service protocol, as
      defined in [RFC2865], [RFC2866], and [RFC5176] among others.

      While this protocol can be viewed as "RADIUS/1.0", for simplicity
      and historical compatibility, we keep the name "RADIUS".

   *  RADIUS/UDP

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      RADIUS over the User Datagram Protocol [RFC2865], [RFC2866],
      [RFC5176], among others.

   *  RADIUS/TCP

      RADIUS over the Transmission Control Protocol [RFC6613].

   *  RADIUS/TLS

      RADIUS over the Transport Layer Security protocol [RFC6614].

   *  RADIUS/DTLS

      RADIUS over the Datagram Transport Layer Security protocol
      [RFC7360].

   *  RADIUS over TLS

      Any RADIUS packets transported over TLS or DTLS.  This terminology
      is used instead of alternatives such as "RADIUS/(D)TLS", or
      "either RADIUS/TLS or RADIUS/DTLS".  This term is generally used
      when referring to TLS-layer requirements for RADIUS packet
      transport.

   *  historic RADIUS/TLS

      RADIUS over (D)TLS as defined in [RFC6614] and [RFC7360].  This
      term does not include the protocol defined in this specification.

   *  RADIUS/1.1

      The transport profile defined in this document, which stands for
      "RADIUS version 1.1".  We use RADIUS/1.1 to refer interchangeably
      to TLS and DTLS transport.

   *  TLS

      The Transport Layer Security protocol.  Generally when we refer to
      TLS in this document, we are referring interchangeably to TLS or
      DTLS transport.

3.  The RADIUS/1.1 Transport profile for RADIUS

   This section describes the ALPN transport profile in detail.  It
   first gives the name used for ALPN, and then describes how ALPN is
   configured and negotiated by client and server.  It then concludes by
   discussing TLS issues such as what to do for ALPN during session
   resumption.

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3.1.  ALPN Name for RADIUS/1.1

   The ALPN name defined for RADIUS/1.1 is as follows:

      "radius/1.1"

         The protocol defined by this specification.

   Where ALPN is not configured or is not received in a TLS connection,
   systems supporting ALPN MUST NOT use RADIUS/1.1.

   Where ALPN is configured, the client signals support by sending ALPN
   strings signaling which protocols it supports..  The server can
   accept one of these proposals and reply with a matching ALPN string,
   or reject this proposal, and not reply with any ALPN string.  A full
   walk-through of the protocol negotiation is given below.

   Implementations MUST signal ALPN "radius/1.1" in order for it to be
   used in a connection.  Implementations MUST NOT have an
   administrative flag which causes a connection to use "radius/1.1",
   but which does not signal that protocol via ALPN.

   The next step in defining RADIUS/1.1 is to review how ALPN works.

3.2.  Operation of ALPN

   In order to provide a high-level description of ALPN for readers who
   are not familiar with the details of [RFC7301], we provide a brief
   overview here.

   Once a system has been configured to support ALPN, it is negotiated
   on a per-connection basis as per [RFC7301].  The negotiation proceeds
   as follows:

   1) The client sends an ALPN extension in the ClientHello.  This
   extension lists one or more application protocols by name.  These
   names are the protocols which the client is claiming to support.

   2) The server receives the extension, and validates the application
   protocol name(s) against the list it has configured.

      If the server finds no acceptable common protocols (ALPN or
      otherwise), it closes the connection.

   3) Otherwise, the server returns a ServerHello with either no ALPN
   extension, or an ALPN extension containing only one named application
   protocol, which needs to be one of the names proposed by the client.

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      If the client did not signal ALPN, or the server does not accept
      the ALPN proposal, the server does not reply with any ALPN name.

   4) The client receives the ServerHello, validates the received
   application protocol (if any) against the name(s) it sent, and
   records which application protocol was chosen.

      This check is necessary in order for the client to both know which
      protocol the server has selected, and to validate that the
      protocol sent by the server is one which is acceptable to the
      client.

   The next step in defining RADIUS/1.1 is to define how ALPN is
   configured on the client and server, and to give more detailed
   requirements on its configuration and operation.

3.3.  Configuration of ALPN for RADIUS/1.1

   Clients or servers supporting this specification can do so by
   extending their TLS configuration through the addition of a new
   configuration flag, called "Version" here.  The exact name given
   below does not need to be used, but it is RECOMMENDED that
   administrative interfaces or programming interfaces use a similar
   name in order to provide consistent terminology.  This flag controls
   how the implementation signals use of this protocol via ALPN.

   When set, this flag contains the list of permitted ALPN versions in
   humanly readable form.  The implementation may allow multiple values
   in one variable, or allow multiple variables, or instead use two
   configuration for "minimum" and "maximum" allowed versions.  We
   assume here that there is one variable, which can contain either no
   value, or else a list of one or more versions which the current
   implementation supports.  In this specification, the possible values
   are:

   *  unset,

   *  "1.0" - require historic RADIUS/TLS

   *  "1.0. 1.1" - allow either historic RADIUS/TLS or RADIUS/1.1.

   *  "1.1" - require RADIUS/1.1.

   This configuration is also extensible to future ALPN names if that
   extension becomes necessary.  New versions can simply be added to the
   list.  Implementations can then negotiate the highest version which
   is supported by both client and server.

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   Implementations SHOULD support both historic RADIUS/TLS and
   RADIUS/1.1.  Such implementations MUST set the default value for this
   configuratiun flag to "1.0, 1.1".  This setting ensures that both
   versions of RADIUS can be negotiated.

   Implementations MAY support only RADIUS/1.1.  In which case the
   default value for this configuration flag MUST be "1.1".  This
   behavior is NOT RECOMMENDED, as it is incompatible with historic
   RADIUS/TLS.  This behavior can only be a reasonable default when all
   (or nearly all) RADIUS clients have been updated to support
   RADIUS/1.1.

   A more detailed definition of the variable and the meaning of the
   values is given below.

   Configuration Flag Name

      Version

   Values

      When the flag is unset, ALPN is not used.

      Any connection MUST use historic RADIUS/TLS.

      This flag is included here only for logical completeness.
      Implementations of this specification SHOULD be configured to
      always send one or more ALPN strings.  This data signals that the
      implementation is capable performing ALPN negotiation, even if it
      is not currently configured to use RADIUS/1.1

         Client Behavior

            The client MUST NOT send any protocol name via ALPN.

         Server Behavior

            The server MUST NOT signal any protocol name via ALPN.

            If the server receives an ALPN name from the client, it MUST
            NOT close the connection.  Instead, it simply does not reply
            with ALPN, and finishes the TLS connection setup as defined
            for historic RADIUS/TLS.

            Note that if a client sends "radius/1.1", the client will
            see that the server failed to acknowledge this request, and
            will close the connection.  For any other client
            configuration, the connection will use historic RADIUS/TLS.

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      Other values ("1.0", "1.0, 1.1", "1.1", etc.)

         Client Behavior

            The client MUST send the ALPN string(s) associated with the
            configured version.  e.g.  For "1.0", send "radius/1.0".

            The client will receive either no ALPN response from the
            server, or an ALPN response of one version string with MUST
            match one of the strings it sent, or else a TLS alert of
            "no_application_protocol" (120).

            If the connection remains open, the client MUST treat the
            connection as using the matching ALPN version.

         Server Behavior

            If the server receives no ALPN name from the client, it MUST
            use historic RADIUS/TLS.

            If the server receives one or more ALPN names from the
            client, it MUST reply with the highest mutually supported
            version and then use the latest supported version for this
            connection.

            If the server receives one or more ALPN names from the
            client, but none of the names match the versions supported
            by (or configured on) the server, it MUST reply with a TLS
            alert of "no_application_protocol" (120), and then MUST
            close the TLS connection.

            These requirements for negotiation are not specific to
            RADIUS/1.1, and therefore can be used unchanged if any new
            version of RADIUS is defined.

   By requiring the default configuration to allow historic RADIUS/TLS,
   implementations will be able to negotiate both historic RADIUS/TLS
   connections, and also RADIUS/1.1 connections.  Any other recommended
   default setting would prevent either the negotiation of historic
   RADIUS/TLS, or prevent the negotiation of RADIUS/1.1.

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   Once administrators verify that both ends of a connection support
   RADIUS/1.1, and that it has been negotiated successfully, the
   configurations SHOULD be updated to require RADIUS/1.1.  The
   connections should be monitored after this change to ensure that the
   systems continue to remain connected.  If there are connection
   issues, then the configuration should be reverted to using allow both
   "radius/1.0" and "radius/1.1" ALPN strings, until such time as the
   connection problems have been resolved.

   We reiterate that systems implementing this specification, but which
   are configured with setting that forbid RADIUS/1.1, will behave
   largely the same as systems which do not implement this
   specification.  The only difference is that clients may send the ALPN
   name "radius/1.0".

   Systems implementing RADIUS/1.1 SHOULD NOT be configured by default
   to forbid that protocol.  That setting exists mainly for
   completeness, and to give administrators the flexibility to control
   their own deployments.

   While [RFC7301] does not discuss the possibility of the server
   sending a TLS alert of "no_application_protocol" (120) when the
   client does not use ALPN, we believe that this behavior is useful.
   As such, servers MAY send a a TLS alert of "no_application_protocol"
   (120) when the client does not use ALPN.

   However, some TLS implementations may not permit an application to
   send a TLS alert of its choice, at a time of its choice.  This
   limitation means that it is not always possible for an application to
   send the TLS alert as discussed in the previous section.  The impact
   is that an implementation may attempt to connect, and then see that
   the connection fails, but not be able to determine why that failure
   has occurred.  Implementers and administrators should be aware that
   unexplained connection failures may be due to ALPN negotiation
   issues.

   The server MAY send this alert during the ClientHello, if it requires
   ALPN but does not receive it.  That is, there may not always be a
   need to wait for the TLS connection to be fully established before
   realizing that no common ALPN protocol can be negotiated.

   Where the client does perform signaling via ALPN and the server
   determines that there is no compatible application protocol name,
   then as per [RFC7301], Section 3.2, it MUST send a TLS alert of
   "no_application_protocol" (120).

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   Whether or not the server sent a TLS alert for no compatible ALPN, it
   MUST close the connection.  The above requirements on ALPN apply to
   both new sessions, and to resumed sessions.

   In contrast, there is no need for the client to signal that there are
   no compatible application protocol names.  The client sends zero or
   more protocol names, and the server responds as above.  From the
   point of view of the client, the list it sent results in either a
   connection failure, or a connection success.

   It is RECOMMENDED that the server logs a descriptive error in this
   situation, so that an administrator can determine why a particular
   connection failed.  The log message SHOULD include information about
   the other end of the connection, such as IP address, certificate
   information, etc.  Similarly, when the client receives a TLS alert of
   "no_application_protocol" it SHOULD log a descriptive error message.
   Such error messages are critical for helping administrators to
   diagnose connectivity issues.

3.3.1.  Using Protocol-Error for Signaling ALPN Failure

   When it is not possible to send a TLS alert of
   "no_application_protocol" (120), then the only remaining method for
   one party to signal the other is to send application data inside of
   the TLS tunnel.  Therefore, for the situation when a one end of a
   connection determines that it requires ALPN while the other end does
   not support ALPN, the end requiring ALPN MAY send a Protocol-Error
   packet [RFC7930] inside of the tunnel, and then MUST close the
   connection.  If this is done, the Token field of the Protocol-Error
   packet cannot be copied from any request, and therefore that field
   MUST be set to all zeros.

   The Protocol-Error packet SHOULD contain a Reply-Message attribute
   with a textual string describing the cause of the error.  The packet
   SHOULD also contain an Error-Cause attribute, with value Unsupported
   Extension (406).  The packet SHOULD NOT contain other attributes.

   An implementation sending this packet could bypass any RADIUS
   encoder, and simply write this packet as a predefined, fixed set of
   data to the TLS connection.  That process would likely be simpler
   than trying to call the normal RADIUS packet encoder to encode a
   reply packet with no corresponding request packet.

   As this packet is an unexpected response packet, existing client
   implementations of RADIUS over TLS will ignore it.  They may either
   log an error and close the connection, or they may discard the packet
   and leave the connection open.  If the connection remains open, the
   end supporting ALPN will close the connection, so there will be no

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   side effects from sending this packet.  Therefore, while using a
   Protocol-Error packet in this way is unusual, it is both informative
   and safe.

   The purpose of this packet is not to have the other end of the
   connection automatically determine what went wrong, and fix it.
   Instead, the packet is intended to be (eventually) seen by an
   administrator, who can then take remedial action.

3.3.2.  Tabular Summary

   The preceding text gives a large number of recommendations.  In order
   to give a simpler description of the outcomes, a table of possible
   behaviors for client/server values of the Version flag is given
   below.  This table and the names given below are for informational
   and descriptive purposes only.

                                Server
                no ALPN  |   1.0    | 1.0, 1.1 |    1.1
   Client    |--------------------------------------------
   ----------|
   No ALPN   |   TLS        TLS        TLS        Close-S
             |
   1.0       |   TLS        TLS        TLS        Alert
             |
   1.0, 1.1  |   TLS        TLS        1.1        1.1
             |
   1.1       |   Close-C    Alert      1.1        1.1

              Figure 1: Possible outcomes for ALPN Negotiation

   The table entries above have the following meaning:

      Alert

         The client sends ALPN, and the server does not agree to the
         clients ALPN proposal.  The server replies with a TLS alert of
         "no_application_protocol" (120), and then closes the TLS
         connection.

         As the server replies with a TLS alert, the Protocol-Error
         packet is not used here.

      Close-C

         The client sends ALPN, but the server does not respond with
         ALPN.  The client closes the connection.

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         As noted in the previous section, the client MAY send a
         Protocol-Error packet to the server before closing the
         connection.

      Close-S

         The client does not send ALPN string(s), but the server
         requires ALPN.  The server closes the connection.

         As noted in the previous section, the server MAY send a
         Protocol-Error packet to the client before closing the
         connection.  The server MAY also send a TLS alert of
         "no_application_protocol" (120) before closing the connection.

      TLS

         Historic RADIUS/TLS is used.  The client either sends no ALPN
         string, or sends "radius/1.0".  The server either replies with
         no ALPN string, or with "radius/1.0".  The connection MUST use
         historic RADIUS/TLS.

      1.1

         The client sends the ALPN string "radius/1.1.  The server
         acknowledges this negotiation with a reply of "radius/1.1", and
         then RADIUS/1.1 is used.

   Implementations should note that this table may be extended in future
   specifications.  The above text is informative, and does not mandate
   that only the above ALPN strings are used.  The actual ALPN
   negotiation takes place as defined in the preceding sections of this
   document, and in [RFC7301].

3.4.  Miscellaneous Items

   Implementations of this specification MUST require TLS version 1.3 or
   later.

   The use of the ALPN string "radius/1.0" is technically unnecessary,
   as it is largely equivalent to not sending any ALPN string.  However,
   that value is useful for RADIUS administrators.  A system which sends
   the ALPN string "radius/1.0" is explicitly signaling that it supports
   ALPN negotiation, but that it is not currently configured to support
   RADIUS/1.1.  That information can be used by administrators to
   determine which devices are capable of ALPN.

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   The use of the ALPN string "radius/1.0" also permits server
   implementations to send a TLS alert of "no_application_protocol"
   (120) when it cannot find a matching ALPN string.  Experiments with
   TLS library implementations suggest that in some cases it is possible
   to send that TLS alert when ALPN is not used.  However, such a
   scenario is not discussed on [RFC7301], and is likely not universal.
   As a result, ALPN as defined in [RFC7301] permits servers to send
   that TLS alert in situations where it would be otherwise forbidden,
   or perhaps unsupported.

   Finally, defining ALPN strings for all known RADIUS versions will
   make it easier to support additional ALPN strings if that
   functionality is ever needed.

3.5.  Session Resumption

   [RFC7301], Section 3.1 states that ALPN is negotiated on each
   connection, even if session resumption is used:

      When session resumption or session tickets [RFC5077] are used, the
      previous contents of this extension are irrelevant, and only the
      values in the new handshake messages are considered.

   In order to prevent down-bidding attacks, RADIUS systems which
   negotiate the "radius/1.1" protocol MUST associate that information
   with the session ticket, and enforce the use of "radius/1.1" on
   session resumption.  That is, if "radius/1.1" was negotiated for a
   session, both clients and servers MUST behave as if the RADIUS/1.1
   flag was set to "require" for that session.

   A client which is resuming a "radius/1.1" connection MUST advertise
   only the capability to do "radius/1.1" for the resumed session.  That
   is, even if the client configuration allows historic RADIUS/TLS for
   new connections, it MUST signal "radius/1.1" when resuming a session
   which had previously negotiated "radius/1.1".

   Similarly, when a server does resumption for a session which had
   previously negotiated "radius/1.1".  If the client attempts to resume
   the sessions without signaling the use of RADIUS/1.1, the server MUST
   close the connection.  The server MUST send an appropriate TLS error,
   and also SHOULD log a descriptive message as described above.

   In contrast, there is no requirement for a client or server to force
   the use of [RFC6614] RADIUS/TLS on session resumption.  Clients are
   free to signal support for "radius/1.1" on resumed sessions, even if
   the original session did not negotiate "radius/1.1".  Servers are
   free to accept this request, and to negotiate the use of "radius/1.1"
   for such sessions.

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4.  RADIUS/1.1 Packet and Attribute Formats

   This section describes the application-layer data which is sent
   inside of (D)TLS when using the RADIUS/1.1 protocol.  Unless
   otherwise discussed herein, the application-layer data is unchanged
   from traditional RADIUS.  This protocol is only used when
   "radius/1.1" has been negotiated by both ends of a connection.

4.1.  RADIUS/1.1 Packet Format

   When RADIUS/1.1 is used, the RADIUS header is modified from standard
   RADIUS.  While the header has the same size, some fields have
   different meaning.  The Identifier and the Request / Response
   Authenticator fields are no longer used in RADIUS/1.1.  Any
   operations which depend on those fields MUST NOT be performed.  As
   packet signing and security are handled by the TLS layer, RADIUS-
   specific cryptographic primitives are no longer in RADIUS/1.1.

   A summary of the RADIUS/1.1 packet format is shown below.  The fields
   are transmitted from left to right.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Code      |  Reserved-1   |            Length             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                             Token                             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                           Reserved-2                          |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |  Attributes ...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

                   Figure 2: The RADIUS/1.1 Packet Format

   Code

      The Code field is one octet, and identifies the type of RADIUS
      packet.

      The meaning of the Code field is unchanged from previous RADIUS
      specifications.

   Reserved-1

      The Reserved-1 field is one octet.

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      This field was previously used as the "Identifier" in historic
      RADIUS/TLS.  It is now unused, as the Token field replaces it both
      as the way to identify requests, and to associate responses with
      requests.

      When sending packets, the Reserved-1 field MUST be set to zero.
      The Reserved-1 field MUST be ignored when receiving a packet.

   Length

      The Length field is two octets.

      The meaning of the Length field is unchanged from previous RADIUS
      specifications.

   Token

      The Token field is four octets, and aids in matching requests and
      replies, as a replacement for the Identifier field.  The RADIUS
      server can detect a duplicate request if it receives the same
      Token value for two packets on a particular connection.

      All values are possible for the Token field.  Implementations MUST
      treat the Token as an opaque blob when comparing Token values.

      Further requirements are given below in Section 4.2.1 for sending
      packets, and in Section 4.2.2 for receiving packets.

   Reserved-2

      The Reserved-2 field is twelve (12) octets in length.

      These octets MUST be set to zero when sending a packet.

      These octets MUST be ignored when receiving a packet.

      These octets are reserved for future protocol extensions.

4.2.  The Token Field

   This section describes in more detail how the Token field is used.

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4.2.1.  Sending Packets

   The Token field MUST change for every new unique packet which is sent
   on the same connection.  For DTLS transport, it is possible to
   retransmit duplicate packets, in which case the Token value MUST NOT
   be changed when a duplicate packet is (re)sent.  When the contents of
   a retransmitted packet change for any reason (such changing Acct-
   Delay-Time as discussed in [RFC2866], Section 5.2), the Token value
   MUST be changed.  Note that on reliable transports, packets are never
   retransmitted, and therefore every new packet which is sent has a
   unique Token value.

   We note that in previous RADIUS specifications, the Identifier field
   could have the same value for different packets on the same
   connection.  For example, Access-Request (Code 1) and Accounting-
   Request (Code 4) packets could both use ID 3, and still be treated as
   different packets.  This overlap required that RADIUS clients and
   servers track the Identifier field, not only on a per-connection
   basis, but also on a per-Code basis.  This behavior adds complexity
   to implementations.

   In contrast, the Token values MUST be generated from a 32-bit counter
   which is unique to each connection.  Such a counter SHOULD be
   initialized to a random value, taken from a random number generator,
   whenever a new connection is opened.  The counter MUST then be
   incremented for every unique new packet which is sent by the client.
   Retransmissions of the same packet MUST use the same unchanged Token
   value.  As the Token value is mandated to be unique per packet, a
   duplicate Token value is the only way that a server can detect
   duplicate transmissions.

   This counter method ensures that the Tokens are unique, and are also
   independent of any Code value in the RADIUS packet header.  This
   method is mandated because any other method of generating unique and
   non-conflicting Token values is more complex, with no additional
   benefit and only the likelihood of increased bugs and
   interoperability issues.  Any other method for generating Token
   values would require substantially more resources to track
   outstanding Token values and their associated expiry times.

   The purpose for initializing the Token to a random counter is to aid
   administrators in debugging systems.  If the Token values always used
   the same sequence, then it would easier for a person to confuse
   different packets which have the same Token value.  By instead
   starting with a random value, those values are more evenly
   distributed across the set of allowed values, and are therefore more
   likely to be unique.

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   As there is no special meaning for the Token, there is no meaning
   when a counter "wraps" around from a high value back to zero.  The
   originating system can simply continue to increment the Token value
   without taking any special action in that situation.

   Once a RADIUS response to a request has been received and there is no
   need to track the packet any longer, the Token value can be reused.
   This reuse happens only when the counter "wraps around" after 2^32
   packets have been sent over one connection.  This method of managing
   the counter automatically ensures a long delay (i.e. 2^32 packets)
   between multiple uses of the same Token value.  This large number of
   packets ensures that the only possible situation where there may be
   conflict is when a client sends billions of packets a second across
   one connection, or when a client sends billions of packets without
   receiving replies.  We suggest that such situations are vanishingly
   rare.  The best solution to those situations would be to limit the
   number out outstanding packets over one connection to a number much
   lower than billions.

   If a RADIUS client has multiple independent subsystems which send
   packets to a server, each subsystem MAY open a new connection which
   is unique to that subsystem.  There is no requirement that all
   packets go over one particular connection.  That is, despite the use
   of a 32-bit Token field, RADIUS/1.1 clients are still permitted to
   open multiple source ports as discussed in [RFC2865] Section 2.5.

   While multiple connections from client to server are allowed, We
   reiterate the suggestion of [RFC3539], Section 3.3 that a single
   connection is preferred to multiple connections.  The use of a single
   connection can improve throughput and latency, while simplifying the
   clients efforts to determine server status.

4.2.2.  Receiving Packets

   A server which receives RADIUS/1.1 packets MUST perform packet
   deduplication for all situations where it is required by RADIUS.
   Where RADIUS does not require deduplication (e.g.  TLS transport),
   the server SHOULD NOT do deduplication.  However, DTLS transport is
   UDP-based, and therefore still requires deduplication.

   When using RADIUS/1.1, implementations MUST do deduplication only on
   the Token field, and not on any other field or fields in the packet
   header.  A server MUST treat the Token as being an opaque field with
   no intrinsic meaning.  This requirement makes the receiver behavior
   independent of the methods by which the Counter is generated.

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   Where Token deduplication is done, it MUST be done on a per-
   connection basis.  If two packets which are received on different
   connections contain the same Token value, then those packets MUST be
   treated as distinct (i.e. different) packets.  Systems performing
   deduplication MAY still track the packet Code, Length, and Attributes
   which is associated with a Token value.  If it determines that the
   sender is re-using Token values for distinct outstanding packets,
   then an error should be logged, and the connection MUST be closed.
   There is no way to negotiate correct behavior in the protocol.
   Either the parties both operate normally and can communicate, or one
   end misbehaves, and no communication is possible.

   Once a reply has been sent, a system doing deduplication SHOULD cache
   the replies as discussed in [RFC5080], Section 2.2.2:

      Each cache entry SHOULD be purged after a period of time.  This
      time SHOULD be no less than 5 seconds, and no more than 30
      seconds.  After about 30 seconds, most RADIUS clients and end
      users will have given up on the authentication request.
      Therefore, there is little value in having a larger cache timeout.

   This change from RADIUS means that the Identifier field is no longer
   useful for RADIUS/1.1.  The Reserved-1 field (previously used as the
   Identifier) MUST be set to zero when encoding all RADIUS/1.1 packets.
   Implementations of RADIUS/1.1 which receive packets MUST ignore this
   field.

5.  Attribute handling

   Most attributes in RADIUS have no special encoding "on the wire", or
   any special meaning between client and server.  Unless discussed in
   this section, all RADIUS attributes are unchanged in this
   specification.  This requirement includes attributes which contain a
   tag, as defined in [RFC2868].

5.1.  Obfuscated Attributes

   Since the (D)TLS layer provides for connection authentication,
   integrity checks, and confidentiality, there is no need to hide the
   contents of an attribute on a hop-by-hop basis.  As a result, all
   attributes defined as being obfuscated via the shared secret no
   longer have the obfuscation step applied when RADIUS/1.1 is used.
   Instead, those attributes MUST be encoded using the encoding for the
   underlying data type, with any encryption / obfuscation step omitted.
   For example, the User-Password attribute is no longer obfuscated, and
   is instead sent as data type "text".

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   There are risks from sending passwords over the network, even when
   they are protected by TLS.  One such risk comes from the common
   practice of multi-hop RADIUS routing.  As all security in RADIUS is
   on a hop-by-hop basis, every proxy which receives a RADIUS packet can
   see (and modify) all of the information in the packet.  Sites wishing
   to avoid proxies SHOULD use dynamic peer discovery [RFC7585], which
   permits clients to make connections directly to authoritative servers
   for a realm.

   There are others ways to mitigate these risks.  The simplest is to
   follow the requirements of [RFC6614], Section 2.4 item (3) and
   [RFC7360], Section 10.4, which mandates that RADIUS over TLS
   implementations validate the peer before sending any RADIUS traffic.

   Another way to mitigate these risks is for the system being
   authenticated to use an authentication protocol which never sends
   passwords (e.g.  EAP-pwd [RFC5931]), or which sends passwords
   protected by a TLS tunnel (e.g.  EAP-TTLS [RFC5281]).  The processes
   to choose and configuring an authentication protocol are strongly
   site-dependent, so further discussion of these issues are outside of
   the scope of this document.  The goal here is to ensure that the
   reader has enough information to make an informed decision.

   We note that as the RADIUS shared secret is no longer used in this
   specification, it is no longer possible or necessary for any
   attribute to be obfuscated on a hop-by-hop basis using the previous
   methods defined for RADIUS.

5.1.1.  User-Password

   The User-Password attribute ([RFC2865], Section 5.2) MUST be encoded
   the same as any other attribute of data type 'string' ([RFC8044],
   Section 3.5).

   The contents of the User-Password field MUST be at least one octet in
   length, and MUST NOT be more than 128 octets in length.  This
   limitation is maintained from [RFC2865], Section 5.2 for
   compatibility with historic transports.

   Note that the User-Password attribute is not of data type 'text'.
   The original reason in [RFC2865] was because the attribute was
   encoded as an opaque and obfuscated binary blob.  We maintain that
   data type here, even though the attribute is no longer obfuscated.
   The contents of the User-Password attribute do not have to be
   printable text, or UTF-8 data as per the definition of the 'text'
   data type in [RFC8044], Section 3.4.

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   However, implementations should be aware that passwords are often
   printable text, and where the passwords are printable text, it can be
   useful to store and display them as printable text.  Where
   implementations can process non-printable data in the 'text' data
   type, they MAY use the data type 'text' for User-Password.

5.1.2.  CHAP-Challenge

   [RFC2865], Section 5.3 allows for the CHAP challenge to be taken from
   either the CHAP-Challenge attribute ([RFC2865], Section 5.40), or the
   Request Authenticator field.  Since RADIUS/1.1 connections no longer
   use a Request Authenticator field, it is no longer possible to use
   the Request Authenticator field as the CHAP-Challenge when this
   transport profile is used.

   Clients which send CHAP-Password attribute ([RFC2865], Section 5.3)
   in an Access-Request packet over a RADIUS/1.1 connection MUST also
   include a CHAP-Challenge attribute ([RFC2865], Section 5.40).

   Proxies may need to receive Access-Request packets over a non-
   RADIUS/1.1 transport and then forward those packets over a RADIUS/1.1
   connection.  In that case, if the received Access-Request packet
   contains a CHAP-Password attribute but no CHAP-Challenge attribute,
   the proxy MUST create a CHAP-Challenge attribute in the proxied
   packet using the contents from the incoming Request Authenticator of
   the received packet.

5.1.3.  Tunnel-Password

   The Tunnel-Password attribute ([RFC2868], Section 3.5) MUST be
   encoded the same as any other attribute of data type 'string' which
   contains a tag, such as Tunnel-Client-Endpoint ([RFC2868],
   Section 3.3).  Since the attribute is no longer obfuscated in
   RADIUS/1.1, there is no need for a Salt field or Data-Length fields
   as described in [RFC2868], Section 3.5, and the textual value of the
   password can simply be encoded as-is.

   Note that the Tunnel-Password attribute is not of data type 'text'.
   The original reason in [RFC2868] was because the attribute was
   encoded as an opaque and obfuscated binary blob.  We maintain that
   data type here, even though the attribute is no longer obfuscated.
   The contents of the Tunnel-Password attribute do not have to be
   printable text, or UTF-8 data as per the definition of the 'text'
   data type in [RFC8044], Section 3.4.

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   However, implementations should be aware that passwords are often
   printable text, and where the passwords are printable text, it can be
   useful to store and display them as printable text.  Where
   implementations can process non-printable data in the 'text' data
   type, they MAY use the data type 'text' for Tunnel-Password.

5.1.4.  Vendor-Specific Attributes

   Any Vendor-Specific attribute which uses similar obfuscation MUST be
   encoded as per their base data type.  Specifically, the MS-MPPE-Send-
   Key and MS-MPPE-Recv-Key attributes ([RFC2548], Section 2.4) MUST be
   encoded as any other attribute of data type 'string' ([RFC8044],
   Section 3.4).

5.2.  Message-Authenticator

   The Message-Authenticator attribute ([RFC3579], Section 3.2) MUST NOT
   be sent over a RADIUS/1.1 connection.  That attribute is not used or
   needed in RADIUS/1.1.

   If the Message-Authenticator attribute is received over a RADIUS/1.1
   connection, the attribute MUST be silently discarded, or treated as
   an "invalid attribute", as defined in [RFC6929], Section 2.8.  That
   is, the Message-Authenticator attribute is no longer used to sign
   packets for the RADIUS/1.1 transport.  Its existence (or not) in this
   transport is meaningless.

   A system which receives a Message-Authenticator attribute in a packet
   MUST treat it as an "invalid attribute" as defined in [RFC6929],
   Section 2.8.  That is, the packet can still be processed, even if the
   Message-Authenticator attribute is ignored.

   For proxies, the Message-Authenticator attribute has always been
   defined as being created and consumed on a "hop by hop" basis.  That
   is, a proxy which received a Message-Authenticator attribute from a
   client would never forward that attribute as-is to another server.
   Instead, the proxy would either suppress, or re-create, the Message-
   Authenticator attribute in the outgoing request.  This existing
   behavior is leveraged in RADIUS/1.1 to suppress the use of Message-
   Authenticator over a RADIUS/1.1 connection.

   A proxy may receive an Access-Request packet over a RADIUS/1.1
   connection, and then forward that packet over a RADIUS/UDP or a
   RADIUS/TCP connection.  In that situation, the proxy SHOULD add a
   Message-Authenticator attribute to every Access-Request packet which
   is sent over an insecure transport protocol.

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   The original text in [RFC3579], Section 3.3, "Note 1" paragraph
   required that the Message-Authenticator attribute be present for
   certain Access-Request packets.  It also required the use of Message-
   Authenticator when the Access-Request packet contained an EAP-Message
   attribute.  Experience has shown that some RADIUS clients never use
   the Message-Authenticator, even for the situations where its use is
   suggested.

   When the Message-Authenticator attribute is missing from Access-
   Request packets, it is often possible to trivially forge or replay
   those packets.  As such, this document RECOMMENDS that RADIUS clients
   always include Message-Authenticator in Access-Request packets when
   using UDP or TCP transport.  As the scope of this document is limited
   to defining RADIUS/1.1, we cannot mandate that behavior here.
   Instead, we can note that there are no known negatives to this
   behavior, and there are definite positives, such as increased
   security.

5.3.  Message-Authentication-Code

   Similarly, the Message-Authentication-Code attribute defined in
   [RFC6218], Section 3.3 MUST NOT be sent over a RADIUS/1.1 connection.
   If it is received in a packet, it MUST be treated as "invalid
   attribute" as defined in [RFC6929], Section 2.8.

   As the Message-Authentication-Code attribute is no longer used in
   RADIUS/1.1, the related MAC-Randomizer attribute [RFC6218],
   Section 3.2 MUST NOT be sent over a RADIUS/1.1 connection.  If it is
   received in a packet, it MUST be treated as "invalid attribute" as
   defined in [RFC6929], Section 2.8.

5.4.  CHAP, MS-CHAP, etc.

   While some attributes such as CHAP-Password, etc. depend on insecure
   cryptographic primitives such as MD5, these attributes are treated as
   opaque blobs when sent between a RADIUS client and server.  The
   contents of the attributes are not obfuscated, and they do not depend
   on the RADIUS shared secret.  As a result, these attributes are
   unchanged in RADIUS/1.1.

   A server implementing this specification can proxy CHAP, MS-CHAP,
   etc. without any issue.  A home server implementing this
   specification can authenticate CHAP, MS-CHAP, etc. without any issue.

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5.5.  Original-Packet-Code

   [RFC7930], Section 4 defines an Original-Packet-Code attribute.  This
   attribute is needed because otherwise it is impossible to correlate
   the Protocol-Error response packet with a particular request packet.
   The definition in [RFC7930], Section 4 describes the reasoning behind
   this need:

      The Original-Packet-Code contains the code from the request that
      generated the protocol error so that clients can disambiguate
      requests with different codes and the same ID.

   This attribute is no longer needed in RADIUS/1.1.  The Identifier
   field is unused, so it impossible for two requests to have the "same"
   ID.  Instead, the Token field permits clients and servers to
   correlate requests and responses, independent of the Code value being
   used.

   Therefore, the Original-Packet-Code attribute ([RFC7930], Section 4)
   MUST NOT be sent over a RADIUS/1.1 connection.  If it is received in
   a packet, it MUST be treated as "invalid attribute" as defined in
   [RFC6929], Section 2.8.

6.  Other Considerations

   Most of the differences between RADIUS and RADIUS/1.1 are in the
   packet header and attribute handling, as discussed above.  The
   remaining issues are a small set of unrelated topics, and are
   discussed here.

6.1.  Protocol-Error

   There are a number of situations where a RADIUS server is unable to
   respond to a request.  One situation is where the server depends on a
   database, and the database is down.  While arguably the server should
   close all incoming connections when it is unable to do anything, this
   action is not always effective.  A client may aggressively try to
   open new connections, or send packets to an unconnected UDP
   destination where the server is not listening.  Another situation
   where the server is unable to respond is when the server is proxying
   packets, and the outbound connections are either full or failed.

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   In all RADIUS spercifications prior to this one, there is no way for
   the server to send a client the positive signal that it received a
   request, but is unable to send a response.  Instead, the server
   usually just discards the request, which to the client is
   indistinguishable from the situation where the server is down.  This
   failure case is made worse by the fact that perhaps some proxied
   packets succeed while others fail.  The client can only conclude then
   that the server is randomly dropping packets, and is unreliable.

   It would be very useful for servers to signal to clients that they
   have received a request, but are unable to process it.  This
   specification uses the Protocol-Error packet [RFC7930], Section 4 as
   that signal.  The use of Protocol-Error allows for both hop-by-hop
   signaling in the case of proxy forwarding errors, and also for end-
   to-end signaling of server to client.  Such signaling should greatly
   improve the robustness of the RADIUS protocol.

   When a RADIUS/1.1 server determines that it is unable to process an
   Access-Request or Accounting-Request packet, it MUST respond with a
   Protocol-Error packet containing an Error-Cause attribute.  A proxy
   which cannot forward the packet MUST respond with either 502 (Request
   Not Routable (Proxy)), or 505 (Other Proxy Processing Error).  This
   requirement is to help distinguish failures in the proxy chain from
   failures at the home server,

   For a home server, if none of the Error-Cause values match the reason
   for the failure, then the value 506 (Resources Unavailable) MUST be
   used.

   When a RADIUS proxy receives a Protocol-Error reply, it MUST examine
   the value of the Error-Cause attribute.  If there is no Error-Cause
   attribute, or its value is something other than 502 (Request Not
   Routable (Proxy)), 505 (Other Proxy Processing Error), or 506
   (Resources Unavailable), the proxy MUST return the Protocol-Error
   response packet to the client, and include the Error-Cause attribute
   from the response it received.  This process allows for full "end to
   end" signaling of servers to clients.

   In all situations other then outlined in the preceding paragraph, a
   client which receives a Protocol-Error reply MUST re-process the
   original outgoing packet through the client forwarding algorithm.
   This requirement includes both clients which originate RADIUS
   traffic, and proxies which see an Error-Cause attribute of 502
   (Request Not Routable (Proxy)), or 505 (Other Proxy Processing
   Error).

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   The expected result of this processing is that the client forwards
   the packet to a different server.  Clients MUST NOT forward the
   packet over the same connection, and SHOULD NOT forward it to over a
   different connection to the same server.

   This process may continue over multiple connections and multiple
   servers, until the client either times out the request, or fails to
   find a forwarding destination for the packet.  A proxy which is
   unable to forward a packet MUST reply with a Protocol-Error packet
   containing Error-Cause, as defined above.  A client which originates
   packets MUST treat such a request as if it had received no response.

   This behavior is intended to improve the stability of the RADIUS
   protocol by addressing issues first raised in [RFC3539], Section 2.8.

6.2.  Status-Server

   [RFC6613], Section 2.6.5, and by extension [RFC7360], suggest that
   the Identifier value zero (0) be reserved for use with Status-Server
   as an application-layer watchdog.  This practice MUST NOT be used for
   RADIUS/1.1, as the Identifier field is not used in this transport
   profile.

   The rationale for reserving one value of the Identifier field was the
   limited number of Identifiers available (256), and the overlap in
   Identifiers between Access-Request packets and Status-Server packets.
   If all 256 Identifier values had been used to send Access-Request
   packets, then there would be no Identifier value available for
   sending a Status-Server packet.

   In contrast, the Token field allows for 2^32 outstanding packets on
   one RADIUS/1.1 connection.  If there is a need to send a Status-
   Server packet, it is nearly always possible to allocate a new value
   for the Token field.  If instead there are 2^32 outstanding packets
   for one connection, then it is likely that something has gone
   catastrophically wrong.  In that case, the safest way forward is
   likely to just close the connection.

6.3.  Proxies

   A RADIUS proxy normally decodes and then re-encodes all attributes,
   included obfuscated ones.  A RADIUS proxy will not generally rewrite
   the content of the attributes it proxies (unless site-local policy
   requires such a rewrite).  While some attributes may be modified due
   to administrative or policy rules on the proxy, the proxy will
   generally not rewrite the contents of attributes such as User-
   Password, Tunnel-Password, CHAP-Password, MS-CHAP-Password, MS-MPPE
   keys, etc.  All attributes are therefore transported through a

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   RADIUS/1.1 connection without changing their values or contents.

   A proxy may negotiate RADIUS/1.1 (or not) with a particular client or
   clients, and it may negotiate RADIUS/1.1 (or not) with a server or
   servers it connect to, in any combination.  As a result, this
   specification is fully compatible with all past, present, and future
   RADIUS attributes.

6.4.  Crypto-Agility

   The crypto-agility requirements of [RFC6421] are addressed in
   [RFC6614], Appendix C, and in [RFC7360], Section 10.1.  This
   specification makes no changes from, or additions to, those
   specifications.  The use of ALPN, and the removal of MD5 has no
   impact on security or privacy of the protocol.

   RADIUS/TLS has been widely deployed in at least eduroam [RFC7593] and
   [EDUROAM] and in OpenRoaming [OPENROAMING].  RADIUS/DTLS has seen
   less adoption, but it is known to be supported in many RADIUS clients
   and servers.

   It is RECOMMENDED that all implementations of historic RADIUS/TLS be
   updated to support this specification.  Where a system already
   implements RADIUS over TLS, the additional effort to implement this
   specification is minimal.  Once implementations support it,
   administrators can gain the benefit of it with little or no
   configuration changes.  This specification is backwards compatible
   with [RFC6614] and [RFC7360].  It is only potentially subject to
   down-bidding attacks if implementations do not enforce ALPN
   negotiation correctly on session resumption.

   All crypto-agility needed or used by this specification is
   implemented in TLS.  This specification also removes all
   cryptographic primitives from the application-layer protocol (RADIUS)
   being transported by TLS.  As discussed in the following section,
   this specification also bans the development of all new cryptographic
   or crypto-agility methods in the RADIUS protocol.

6.5.  Error-Cause Attribute

   The Error-Cause attribute is defined in [RFC5176].  The "Table of
   Attributes" section given in [RFC5176], Section 3.6 permits that
   attribute to appear in CoA-NAK and Disconnect-NAK packets.  As no
   other packet type is listed, the implication is that the Error-Cause
   attribute cannot appear in any other packet.  [RFC7930] also permits
   Error-Cause to appear in Protocol-Error packets.

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   However, [RFC5080], Section 2.6.1 suggests that Error-Cause may
   appear in Access-Reject packets.  No explanation is given for this
   change from [RFC5176].  There is not even an acknowledgment that this
   suggestion is a change from any previous specification.  We correct
   that issue here.

   This specification updates [RFC5176] to allow the Error-Cause
   attribute to appear in Access-Reject packets.  It is RECOMMENDED that
   implementations include the Error-Cause attribute in Access-Reject
   packets where appropriate.

   That is, the reason for sending the Access-Reject packet (or
   Protocol-Error packet) may match a defined Error-Cause value.  In
   that case, it is useful for implementations to send an Error-Cause
   attribute with that value.  This behavior can help RADIUS system
   administrators debug issues in complex proxy chains.

   For example, a proxy may normally forward Access-Request packets
   which contain EAP-Message attributes.  The proxy can determine if the
   contents of the EAP-Message are invalid, for example if the first
   octet has value larger than 4.  In that case, there may be no benefit
   to forwarding the packet, as the home server will reject it.  It may
   then then possible for the proxy (with the knowledge and consent of
   involved parties) to immediately reply with an Access-Reject
   containing an Error-Cause attribute with value 202 for "Invalid EAP
   Packet (Ignored)".

   Another possibility is that if a proxy is configured to forward
   packets for a particular realm, but it has determined that there are
   no available connections to the next hop for that realm.  In that
   case, it may be possible for the proxy (again with the knowledge and
   consent of involved parties) to reply with an Access-Reject
   containing an Error-Cause attribute with value 502 for "Request Not
   Routable (Proxy)"

   These examples are given only for illustrative and informational
   purposes.  While it is useful to return an informative value for the
   Error-Cause attribute, proxies can only modify the traffic they
   forward with the explicit knowledge and consent of all involved
   parties.

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6.6.  Future Standards

   Future work may define new attributes, packet types, etc.  It is
   important to be able to do such work without requiring that every new
   standard mention RADIUS/1.1 explicitly.  Instead, this document
   defines a mapping from RADIUS to RADIUS/1.1 which covers all RADIUS
   practices and cryptographic primitives in current use.  As a result,
   any new standard which uses the existing RADIUS practices can simply
   inherit that mapping, and they do not need to mention RADIUS/1.1
   explicitly.

   We reiterate that this specification defines a new transport profile
   for RADIUS.  It does not define a completely new protocol.  Any
   future specification which defines a new attribute MUST define it for
   RADIUS/UDP first, after which those definitions can be applied to
   this transport profile.

   New specifications MAY define new attributes which use the
   obfuscation methods for User-Password as defined in [RFC2865],
   Section 5.2, or for Tunnel-Password as defined in [RFC2868],
   Section 3.5.  There is no need for those specifications to describe
   how those new attributes are transported in RADIUS/1.1.  Since
   RADIUS/1.1 does not use MD5, any obfuscated attributes will by
   definition be transported as their underlying data type, "text"
   ([RFC8044], Section 3.4) or "string" ([RFC8044], Section 3.5).

   New RADIUS specifications MUST NOT define attributes which can only
   be transported via RADIUS over TLS.  The RADIUS protocol has no way
   to signal the security requirements of individual attributes.  Any
   existing implementation will handle these new attributes as "invalid
   attributes" ([RFC6929], Section 2.8), and could forward them over an
   insecure link.  As RADIUS security and signaling is hop-by-hop, there
   is no way for a RADIUS client or server to even know if such
   forwarding is taking place.  For these reasons and more, it is
   therefore inappropriate to define new attributes which are only
   secure if they use a secure transport layer.

   The result is that specifications do not need to mention this
   transport profile, or make any special provisions for dealing with
   it.  This specification defines how RADIUS packet encoding, decoding,
   signing, and verification are performed when using RADIUS/1.1.  So
   long as any future specification uses the existing encoding, etc.
   schemes defined for RADIUS, no additional text in future documents is
   necessary in order to be compatible with RADIUS/1.1.

   We note that it is theoretically possible for future standards to
   define new cryptographic primitives for use with RADIUS/UDP.  In that
   case, those documents would likely have to describe how to transport

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   that data in RADIUS/1.1.  We believe that such standards are unlikely
   to be published, as other efforts in the RADEXT working group are
   forbidding such updates to RADIUS.

7.  Implementation Status

   (This section to be removed by the RFC editor.)

   This specification is being implemented (client and server) in the
   FreeRADIUS project which is hosted on GitHub at
   https://github.com/FreeRADIUS/freeradius-server/tree/v3.2.x The code
   implementation "diff" is approximately 1,000 lines, including build
   system changes and changes to configuration parsers.

8.  Privacy Considerations

   This specification requires secure transport for RADIUS, and this has
   all of the privacy benefits of RADIUS/TLS [RFC6614] and RADIUS/DTLS
   [RFC7360].  All of the insecure uses of RADIUS have been removed.

9.  Security Considerations

   The primary focus of this document is addressing security
   considerations for RADIUS.

10.  IANA Considerations

   IANA is requested to update the "TLS Application-Layer Protocol
   Negotiation (ALPN) Protocol IDs" registry with two new entries:

   Protocol: RADIUS/1.0
   Id. Sequence: 0x72 0x61 0x64 0x69 0x75 0x73 0x2f 0x31 0x2e 0x30
       ("radius/1.0")
   Reference:  This document

   Protocol: RADIUS/1.1
   Id. Sequence: 0x72 0x61 0x64 0x69 0x75 0x73 0x2f 0x31 0x2e 0x31
       ("radius/1.1")
   Reference:  This document

11.  Acknowledgments

   In hindsight, the decision to retain MD5 for historic RADIUS/TLS was
   likely wrong.  It was an easy decision to make in the short term, but
   it has caused ongoing problems which this document addresses.

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   Thanks to Bernard Aboba, Karri Huhtanen, Heikki Vatiainen, Alexander
   Clouter, Michael Richardson, Hannes Tschofenig, Matthew Newton, and
   Josh Howlett for reviews and feedback.

12.  Changelog

   (This section to be removed by the RFC editor.)

   draft-dekok-radext-sradius-00

      Initial Revision

   draft-dekok-radext-radiusv11-00

      Use ALPN from RFC 7301, instead of defining a new port.  Drop the
      name "SRADIUS".

      Add discussion of Original-Packet-Code

   draft-dekok-radext-radiusv11-01

      Update formatting.

   draft-dekok-radext-radiusv11-02

      Add Flag field and description.

      Minor rearrangements and updates to text.

   draft-dekok-radext-radiusv11-03

      Remove Flag field and description based on feedback and expected
      use-cases.

      Use "radius/1.0" instead of "radius/1"

      Consistently refer to the specification as "RADIUSv11", and
      consistently quote the ALPN name as "radius/1.1"

      Add discussion of future attributes and future crypto-agility
      work.

   draft-dekok-radext-radiusv11-04

      Remove "radius/1.0" as it is unnecessary.

      Update Introduction with more historical background, which
      motivates the rest of the section.

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      Change Identifier field to be reserved, as it is entirely unused.

      Update discussion on clear text passwords.

      Clarify discussion of Status-Server, User-Password, and Tunnel-
      Password.

      Give high level summary of ALPN, clear up client / server roles,
      and remove "radius/1.0" as it is unnecessary.

      Add text on RFC6421.

   draft-dekok-radext-radiusv11-05

      Clarify naming.  "radius/1.1" is the ALPN name.  "RADIUS/1.1" is
      the transport profile.

      Clarify that future specifications do not need to make provisions
      for dealing with this transport profile.

      Typos and word smithing.

      Define and use "RADIUS over TLS" instead of RADIUS/(D)TLS.

      Many cleanups and rework based on feedback from Matthew Newton.

   draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11-00

      No changes from previous draft.

   draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11-01

      Move to "experimental" based on WG feedback.

      Many cleanups based on review from Matthew Newton

      Removed requirement for supporting TLS-PSK.

      This document does not deprecate new cryptographic work in RADIUS.
      The "deprecating insecure transports" document does that.

   draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11-02

      Note that we also update RFC 7930

      Minor updates to text.

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      Add text explaining why "allow" is the default, and how to upgrade
      to "require"

      Discuss the use of the TLS alert "no_application_protocol" (120),
      and its limitations.

      Suggest the use of Protocol-Error as an application signal when it
      is not possible to send a "no_application_protocol" TLS alert.

      Update discussion of Message-Authenticator, and suggest that
      RADIUS/1.1 proxies always add Message-Authenticator to Access-
      Request packets being sent over UDP or TCP.

      Add term "historic RADIUS/TLS" as it is simpler than more awkward
      "6614 or 7360".

      Re-add ALPN "radius/1.0" based on comments from Heikki.  It
      signals that the system is ALPN-capable, among other.

   draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11-03

      Rename to "RADIUS ALPN and removing MD5"

      Add a few things missed when re-adding "radius/1.0"

      Clarify wording in a number of places.

   draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11-04

      Address github issues 3..9

   draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11-05

      Add discussion of Protocol-Error as per-link signalling.

   draft-ietf-radext-radiusv11-06

      Review from Paul Wouters

      Clarify client handling of Protocol-Error

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [BCP14]    Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8174>.

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   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119>.

   [RFC2865]  Rigney, C., Willens, S., Rubens, A., and W. Simpson,
              "Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)",
              RFC 2865, DOI 10.17487/RFC2865, June 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2865>.

   [RFC6421]  Nelson, D., Ed., "Crypto-Agility Requirements for Remote
              Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 6421,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6421, November 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6421>.

   [RFC6614]  Winter, S., McCauley, M., Venaas, S., and K. Wierenga,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Encryption for RADIUS",
              RFC 6614, DOI 10.17487/RFC6614, May 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6614>.

   [RFC6929]  DeKok, A. and A. Lior, "Remote Authentication Dial In User
              Service (RADIUS) Protocol Extensions", RFC 6929,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6929, April 2013,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6929>.

   [RFC7301]  Friedl, S., Popov, A., Langley, A., and E. Stephan,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Application-Layer Protocol
              Negotiation Extension", RFC 7301, DOI 10.17487/RFC7301,
              July 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7301>.

   [RFC7360]  DeKok, A., "Datagram Transport Layer Security (DTLS) as a
              Transport Layer for RADIUS", RFC 7360,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7360, September 2014,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7360>.

   [RFC8044]  DeKok, A., "Data Types in RADIUS", RFC 8044,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8044, January 2017,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8044>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc8174>.

13.2.  Informative References

   [EDUROAM]  eduroam, "eduroam", n.d., <https://eduroam.org>.

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   [OPENROAMING]
              Alliance, W. B., "OpenRoaming: One global Wi-Fi network",
              n.d., <https://wballiance.com/openroaming/>.

   [RFC1321]  Rivest, R., "The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm", RFC 1321,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC1321, April 1992,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc1321>.

   [RFC2548]  Zorn, G., "Microsoft Vendor-specific RADIUS Attributes",
              RFC 2548, DOI 10.17487/RFC2548, March 1999,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2548>.

   [RFC2866]  Rigney, C., "RADIUS Accounting", RFC 2866,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2866, June 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2866>.

   [RFC2868]  Zorn, G., Leifer, D., Rubens, A., Shriver, J., Holdrege,
              M., and I. Goyret, "RADIUS Attributes for Tunnel Protocol
              Support", RFC 2868, DOI 10.17487/RFC2868, June 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2868>.

   [RFC3539]  Aboba, B. and J. Wood, "Authentication, Authorization and
              Accounting (AAA) Transport Profile", RFC 3539,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3539, June 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3539>.

   [RFC3579]  Aboba, B. and P. Calhoun, "RADIUS (Remote Authentication
              Dial In User Service) Support For Extensible
              Authentication Protocol (EAP)", RFC 3579,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3579, September 2003,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc3579>.

   [RFC5077]  Salowey, J., Zhou, H., Eronen, P., and H. Tschofenig,
              "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Session Resumption without
              Server-Side State", RFC 5077, DOI 10.17487/RFC5077,
              January 2008, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5077>.

   [RFC5080]  Nelson, D. and A. DeKok, "Common Remote Authentication
              Dial In User Service (RADIUS) Implementation Issues and
              Suggested Fixes", RFC 5080, DOI 10.17487/RFC5080, December
              2007, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5080>.

   [RFC5176]  Chiba, M., Dommety, G., Eklund, M., Mitton, D., and B.
              Aboba, "Dynamic Authorization Extensions to Remote
              Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS)", RFC 5176,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5176, January 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5176>.

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Internet-Draft                  RADIUSv11                      June 2024

   [RFC5281]  Funk, P. and S. Blake-Wilson, "Extensible Authentication
              Protocol Tunneled Transport Layer Security Authenticated
              Protocol Version 0 (EAP-TTLSv0)", RFC 5281,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5281, August 2008,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5281>.

   [RFC5931]  Harkins, D. and G. Zorn, "Extensible Authentication
              Protocol (EAP) Authentication Using Only a Password",
              RFC 5931, DOI 10.17487/RFC5931, August 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc5931>.

   [RFC6151]  Turner, S. and L. Chen, "Updated Security Considerations
              for the MD5 Message-Digest and the HMAC-MD5 Algorithms",
              RFC 6151, DOI 10.17487/RFC6151, March 2011,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6151>.

   [RFC6218]  Zorn, G., Zhang, T., Walker, J., and J. Salowey, "Cisco
              Vendor-Specific RADIUS Attributes for the Delivery of
              Keying Material", RFC 6218, DOI 10.17487/RFC6218, April
              2011, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6218>.

   [RFC6613]  DeKok, A., "RADIUS over TCP", RFC 6613,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6613, May 2012,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc6613>.

   [RFC7585]  Winter, S. and M. McCauley, "Dynamic Peer Discovery for
              RADIUS/TLS and RADIUS/DTLS Based on the Network Access
              Identifier (NAI)", RFC 7585, DOI 10.17487/RFC7585, October
              2015, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7585>.

   [RFC7593]  Wierenga, K., Winter, S., and T. Wolniewicz, "The eduroam
              Architecture for Network Roaming", RFC 7593,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7593, September 2015,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7593>.

   [RFC7930]  Hartman, S., "Larger Packets for RADIUS over TCP",
              RFC 7930, DOI 10.17487/RFC7930, August 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc7930>.

Author's Address

   Alan DeKok
   FreeRADIUS
   Email: aland@freeradius.org

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