Softwire Mesh Management Information Base (MIB)
draft-ietf-softwire-mesh-mib-06

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Softwire                                                          Y. Cui
Internet-Draft                                                   J. Dong
Intended status: Standards Track                                   P. Wu
Expires: October 8, 2014                                           M. Xu
                                                     Tsinghua University
                                                           A. Yla-Jaaski
                                                        Aalto University
                                                           April 6, 2014

            Softwire Mesh Management Information Base (MIB)
                    draft-ietf-softwire-mesh-mib-06

Abstract

   This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB)
   for use with network management protocols in the Internet community.
   In particular it defines objects for managing softwire mesh.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on October 8, 2014.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2014 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of

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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  The Internet-Standard Management Framework  . . . . . . . . .   2
   3.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   5.  Structure of the MIB Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     5.1.  The swmSupportedTunnelTable Subtree . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     5.2.  The swmEncapsTable Subtree  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     5.3.  The swmBGPNeighborTable Subtree . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     5.4.  The swmConformance Subtree  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   6.  Relationship to Other MIB Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     6.1.  Relationship to the IF-MIB  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     6.2.  Relationship to the IP Tunnel MIB . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     6.3.  MIB modules required for IMPORTS  . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   7.  Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   8.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   10. Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   11. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     11.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     11.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15

1.  Introduction

   The Softwire mesh framework RFC 5565 [RFC5565] is a tunneling
   mechanism that enables the connectivity between islands of IPv4
   networks across a single IPv6 backbone and vice versa.  In softwire
   mesh, extended multiprotocol-BGP (MP-BGP)is used to set up tunnels
   and advertise prefixes among address family border routers (AFBRs).

   This memo defines a portion of the Management Information Base (MIB)
   for use with network management protocols in the Internet community.
   In particular it defines objects for managing softwire mesh
   [RFC5565].

2.  The Internet-Standard Management Framework

   For a detailed overview of the documents that describe the current
   Internet-Standard Management Framework, please refer to section 7 of
   RFC 3410 [RFC3410].

   Managed objects are accessed via a virtual information store, termed
   the Management Information Base or MIB.  MIB objects are generally
   accessed through the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP).  They

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   are defined using the mechanisms stated in the Structure of
   Management Information (SMI).  This memo specifies a MIB module that
   is compliant to the SMIv2, which is described in STD 58, RFC 2578
   [RFC2578], STD 58, RFC 2579 [RFC2579] and STD 58, RFC 2580 [RFC2580].

3.  Terminology

   This document uses terminology from the softwire problem statement
   RFC 4925 [RFC4925] and the softwire mesh framework RFC 5565
   [RFC5565].

4.  Conventions

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

5.  Structure of the MIB Module

   The softwire mesh MIB provides a method to configure and manage the
   softwire mesh objects through SNMP.

5.1.  The swmSupportedTunnelTable Subtree

   Since the AFBR needs to negotiate with a BGP peer what kind of tunnel
   they will use, it should first announce the types of tunnels it
   supports.  The swmSupportedTunnelTable subtree provides the
   information.  According to section 4 of RFC 5512 [RFC5512], current
   softwire mesh tunnel types include IP-IP, GRE and L2TPv3.

5.2.  The swmEncapsTable Subtree

   The swmEncapsTable subtree provides softwire mesh NLRI-NH information
   about the AFBR.  It keeps the mapping between the External-IP (E-IP)
   prefix and the Internal-IP (I-IP) address of the next hop.  The
   mappings determine which I-IP destination address will be used to
   encapsulate the received packet according to its E-IP destination
   address.  The definitions of E-IP and I-IP are explained in section
   4.1 of RFC 5565[RFC5565].

5.3.  The swmBGPNeighborTable Subtree

   The subtree provides the softwire mesh BGP neighbor information of an
   AFBR.  It includes the address of the softwire mesh BGP peer, and the
   kind of tunnel that the AFBR would use to communicate with this BGP
   peer.

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5.4.  The swmConformance Subtree

   The subtree provides the conformance information of MIB objects.

6.  Relationship to Other MIB Modules

6.1.  Relationship to the IF-MIB

   The Interfaces MIB [RFC2863] defines generic managed objects for
   managing interfaces.  Each logical interface (physical or virtual)
   has an ifEntry.  Tunnels are handled by creating logical interfaces
   (ifEntry).  Being a tunnel, softwire mesh has an entry in the
   Interface MIB, as well as an entry in IP Tunnel MIB.  Those
   corresponding entries are indexed by ifIndex.

   The ifOperStatus in the ifTable represents whether the mesh function
   of the AFBR has been triggered.  If the software mesh capability is
   negotiated during the BGP OPEN phase, the mesh function is considered
   to be started, and the ifOperStatus is "up".  Otherwise the
   ifOperStatus is "down".

   In the case of an IPv4-over-IPv6 softwire mesh tunnel, ifInUcastPkts
   counts the number of IPv6 packets which are sent to the virtual
   interface for decapsulation into IPv4.  The ifOutUcastPkts counts the
   number of IPv6 packets which are generated by encapsulating IPv4
   packets sent to the virtual interface.  Particularly, if these IPv4
   packets need fragmentation, ifOutUcastPkts counts the number of
   packets after fragmentation.

   In the case of an IPv6-over-IPv4 softwire mesh tunnel, ifInUcastPkts
   counts the number of IPv4 packets, which are sent to the virtual
   interface for decapsulation into IPv6.  The ifOutUcastPkts counts the
   number of IPv4 packets, which are generated by encapsulating IPv6
   packets sent to the virtual interface.  Particularly, if these IPv6
   packets need to be fragmented, tifOutUcastPkts counts the number of
   packets after fragmentation.  Similar definitions apply to other
   counter objects in the ifTable.

6.2.  Relationship to the IP Tunnel MIB

   The IP Tunnel MIB [RFC4087] contains objects applicable to all IP
   tunnels, including softwire mesh.  Meanwhile, the Softwire Mesh MIB
   extends the IP Tunnel MIB to further describe encapsulation-specific
   information.

   Running a point to multi-point tunnel, it is necessary for a softwire
   mesh AFBR to maintain an encapsulation table, used to perform correct
   "forwarding" among AFBRs.  This forwarding function on an AFBR is

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   performed by using the E-IP destination address to look up in the
   encapsulation table for the I-IP encapsulation destination address.
   An AFBR also needs to know the BGP peer information of the other
   AFBRs, so that it can negotiate the NLRI-NH information and the
   tunnel parameters with them.

   The Softwire mesh MIB requires the implementation of the IP Tunnel
   MIB.  The tunnelIfEncapsMethod in the tunnelIfEntry MUST be set to
   softwireMesh("xx"), and a corresponding entry in the softwire mesh
   MIB module will be presented for the tunnelIfEntry.  The
   tunnelIfRemoteInetAddress MUST be set to 0.0.0.0 for IPv4 or :: for
   IPv6 because it is a point to multi-point tunnel.

   -- RFC Ed.: Please replace "xx" with IANA assigned number here.

   The tunnelIfAddressType in the tunnelIfTable represents the type of
   address in the corresponding tunnelIfLocalInetAddress and
   tunnelIfRemoteInetAddress objects.  The tunnelIfAddressType is
   identical to swmEncapsIIPDstType in softwire mesh, which can support
   either IPv4-over-IPv6 or IPv6-over-IPv4.  When the
   swmEncapsEIPDstType is IPv6 and the swmEncapsIIPDstType is IPv4, the
   tunnel type is IPv6-over-IPv4; When the swmEncapsEIPDstType is IPv4
   and the swmEncapsIIPDstType is IPv6, the encapsulation mode would be
   IPv4-over-IPv6.

6.3.  MIB modules required for IMPORTS

   The following MIB module IMPORTS objects from SNMPv2-SMI [RFC2578],
   SNMPv2-CONF [RFC2580], IF-MIB [RFC2863] and INET-ADDRESS-MIB
   [RFC4001].

7.  Definitions

SOFTWIRE-MESH-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

IMPORTS
    MODULE-IDENTITY, OBJECT-TYPE, transmission  FROM SNMPv2-SMI

    OBJECT-GROUP, MODULE-COMPLIANCE             FROM SNMPv2-CONF

    InetAddress, InetAddressType, InetAddressPrefixLength    FROM INET-ADDRESS-MIB

    ifIndex                     FROM IF-MIB

    IANAtunnelType              FROM IANAifType-MIB;

swmMIB MODULE-IDENTITY
    LAST-UPDATED "201404060000Z"        -- April 6, 2014

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    ORGANIZATION "Softwire Working Group"
    CONTACT-INFO "

             Yong Cui
             Email:  yong@csnet1.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn

             Jiang Dong
             Email:  dongjiang@csnet1.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn

             Peng Wu
             Email:  weapon@csnet1.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn

             Mingwei Xu
             Email:  xmw@cernet.edu.cn

                 Antti Yla-Jaaski
                 Email:  antti.yla-jaaski@aalto.fi

             Email comments directly to the softwire WG Mailing
             List at softwires@ietf.org
    "

    DESCRIPTION
           "This MIB module contains managed object definitions for
            the softwire mesh framework.

            Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2014).  This version
          of this MIB module is part of RFC yyyy; see the RFC
          itself for full legal notices."

    -- RFC Ed.: please replace yyyy with actual RFC number & remove this note.

    REVISION    "201404060000Z"
    DESCRIPTION
           "The MIB module is defined for management of object in
            the Softwire mesh framework."
    ::= { transmission XXX }

    --RFC Ed.: Please replace "XXX" with IANA assigned number here.

swmObjects OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { swmMIB 1 }

-- swmSupportedTunnelTable
swmSupportedTunnelTable OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      SEQUENCE OF SwmSupportedTunnelEntry
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current

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    DESCRIPTION
        "A table of objects that shows what kind of tunnels
        can be supported by the AFBR."
    ::= { swmObjects 1 }

swmSupportedTunnelEntry  OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      SwmSupportedTunnelEntry
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "A set of objects that show what kind of tunnels
        can be supported in the AFBR. If the AFBR supports
        multiple tunnel types, the swmSupportedTunnelTable
        would have several entries."
    INDEX { swmSupportedTunnelType }
    ::= { swmSupportedTunnelTable 1 }

SwmSupportedTunnelEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
    swmSupportedTunnelType              IANAtunnelType
}

swmSupportedTunnelType OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      IANAtunnelType
    MAX-ACCESS  read-only
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "Represents the tunnel type that the AFBR supports,
        such as MPLS, L2TPv3, GRE, and IP-in-IP. There is
        no restriction of tunnel type the Softwire mesh can use."
    ::= { swmSupportedTunnelEntry 1 }
-- end of swmSupportedTunnelTable

--swmEncapsTable
swmEncapsTable OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      SEQUENCE OF SwmEncapsEntry
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "A table of objects that display and control the
        softwire mesh encapsulation information."
    ::= { swmObjects 2 }

swmEncapsEntry  OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      SwmEncapsEntry
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "A table of objects that manage the softwire mesh I-IP

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         encapsulation destination based on the E-IP destination prefix."
    INDEX { ifIndex,
            swmEncapsEIPDstType,
            swmEncapsEIPDst,
            swmEncapsEIPPrefixLength
          }
    ::= { swmEncapsTable 1 }

SwmEncapsEntry ::=  SEQUENCE {
    swmEncapsEIPDstType       InetAddressType,
    swmEncapsEIPDst           InetAddress,
    swmEncapsEIPPrefixLength  InetAddressPrefixLength,
    swmEncapsIIPDstType       InetAddressType,
    swmEncapsIIPDst           InetAddress
}

swmEncapsEIPDstType OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      InetAddressType
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "This object specifies the address type used for
         swmEncapsEIPDst. It is different from the tunnelIfAddressType
         in the tunnelIfTable."
    ::= { swmEncapsEntry 1 }

swmEncapsEIPDst OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      InetAddress
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "The E-IP destination prefix, which is
        used for I-IP encapsulation destination looking up."
    ::= { swmEncapsEntry 2 }

swmEncapsEIPPrefixLength OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      InetAddressPrefixLength
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "The prefix length of the E-IP destination prefix."
    ::= { swmEncapsEntry 3 }

swmEncapsIIPDstType OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      InetAddressType
    MAX-ACCESS  read-only
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION

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        "This object specifies the address type used for
         swmEncapsIIPDst. It is the same as the tunnelIfAddressType
         in the tunnelIfTable."
    ::= { swmEncapsEntry 4 }

swmEncapsIIPDst OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      InetAddress
    MAX-ACCESS  read-only
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "The I-IP destination address, which is used as the encapsulation
         destination for the corresponding E-IP prefix. Since the
         tunnelIfRemoteInetAddress in the tunnelIfTable should be 0.0.0.0 or ::,
         swmEncapIIPDst should be the destination address used in the outer
         IP header."
    ::= { swmEncapsEntry 5 }
-- End of swmEncapsTable

-- swmBGPNeighborTable
swmBGPNeighborTable OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      SEQUENCE OF SwmBGPNeighborEntry
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "A table of objects that display the softwire mesh
        BGP neighbor information."
    ::= { swmObjects 3 }

swmBGPNeighborEntry  OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      SwmBGPNeighborEntry
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "A set of objects that display the softwire mesh
        BGP neighbor information."
    INDEX {
            ifIndex,
            swmBGPNeighborInetAddressType,
            swmBGPNeighborInetAddress
          }
    ::= { swmBGPNeighborTable 1 }

SwmBGPNeighborEntry ::= SEQUENCE {
        swmBGPNeighborInetAddressType    InetAddressType,
        swmBGPNeighborInetAddress        InetAddress,
        swmBGPNeighborTunnelType         IANAtunnelType
}

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swmBGPNeighborInetAddressType OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      InetAddressType
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "This object specifies the address type used for
         swmBGPNeighborInetAddress."
    ::= { swmBGPNeighborEntry 1 }

swmBGPNeighborInetAddress OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      InetAddress
    MAX-ACCESS  not-accessible
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "The address of the AFBR's BGP neighbor. The
        address type is the same as the tunnelIfAddressType
        in the tunnelIfTable."
    ::= { swmBGPNeighborEntry 2 }

swmBGPNeighborTunnelType OBJECT-TYPE
    SYNTAX      IANAtunnelType
    MAX-ACCESS  read-only
    STATUS      current
    DESCRIPTION
        "Represents the type of tunnel that the
        AFBR chooses to transmit traffic with another AFBR/BGP neighbor."
    ::= { swmBGPNeighborEntry 3 }
-- End of swmBGPNeighborTable

-- conformance information
swmConformance
                    OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { swmMIB 2 }
swmCompliances
                    OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { swmConformance 1 }
swmGroups
                    OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { swmConformance 2 }

 -- compliance statements
swmCompliance MODULE-COMPLIANCE
   STATUS current
   DESCRIPTION
       "Describes the requirements for conformance to the softwire
       mesh MIB.

       The following index objects cannot be added as OBJECT
       clauses but nevertheless have compliance requirements:
       "
       -- OBJECT  swmEncapsEIPDstType

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       -- SYNTAX  InetAddressType { ipv4(1), ipv6(2) }
       -- DESCRIPTION
       -- "An implementation is required to support
       --  global IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses, depending
       --  on its support for IPv4 and IPv6."

       -- OBJECT  swmEncapsEIPDst
       -- SYNTAX  InetAddress (SIZE(4|16))
       -- DESCRIPTION
       -- "An implementation is required to support
       --  global IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses, depending
       --  on its support for IPv4 and IPv6."

       -- OBJECT  swmEncapsEIPPrefixLength
       -- SYNTAX  InetAddressPrefixLength (Unsigned32 (0..128))
       -- DESCRIPTION
       -- "An implementation is required to support
       --  global IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses, depending
       --  on its support for IPv4 and IPv6."

       -- OBJECT  swmBGPNeighborInetAddressType
       -- SYNTAX  InetAddressType { ipv4(1), ipv6(2) }
       -- DESCRIPTION
       -- "An implementation is required to support
       --  global IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses, depending
       --  on its support for IPv4 and IPv6."

       -- OBJECT  swmBGPNeighborInetAddress
       -- SYNTAX  InetAddress (SIZE(4|16))
       -- DESCRIPTION
       -- "An implementation is required to support
       --  global IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses, depending
       --  on its support for IPv4 and IPv6."

   MODULE -- this module
   MANDATORY-GROUPS    {
                         swmSupportedTunnelGroup,
                         swmEncapsGroup,
                         swmBGPNeighborGroup
                       }
   ::= { swmCompliances 1 }

swmSupportedTunnelGroup    OBJECT-GROUP
   OBJECTS {
       swmSupportedTunnelType
   }
   STATUS  current
   DESCRIPTION

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       "The collection of objects which are used to show
       what kind of tunnel the AFBR supports."
   ::= { swmGroups 1 }

swmEncapsGroup    OBJECT-GROUP
   OBJECTS {
        swmEncapsIIPDst,
        swmEncapsIIPDstType
   }
   STATUS  current
   DESCRIPTION
       "The collection of objects which are used to display
       softwire mesh encapsulation information."
   ::= { swmGroups 2 }

swmBGPNeighborGroup    OBJECT-GROUP
   OBJECTS {
        swmBGPNeighborTunnelType
   }
   STATUS  current
   DESCRIPTION
       "The collection of objects which are used to display
        softwire mesh BGP neighbor information."
   ::= { swmGroups 3 }

END

8.  Security Considerations

   The swmMIB module can be used for configuration of certain objects,
   and anything that can be configured can be incorrectly configured,
   with potentially disastrous results.  Because this MIB module reuses
   the IP tunnel MIB, the security considerations of the IP tunnel MIB
   is also applicable to the Softwire mesh MIB.

   There are no management objects defined in this MIB module that have
   a MAX-ACCESS clause of read-write and/or read-create.  So, if this
   MIB module is implemented correctly, then there is no risk that an
   intruder can alter or create any management objects of this MIB
   module via direct SNMP SET operations.

   Some of the readable objects in this MIB module (i.e., objects with a
   MAX-ACCESS other than not-accessible) may be considered sensitive or
   vulnerable in some network environments.  It is thus important to
   control even GET and/or NOTIFY access to these objects and possibly
   to even encrypt the values of these objects when sending them over

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   the network via SNMP.  These are the tables and objects and their
   sensitivity/vulnerability:

   swmSupportedTunnelType
   swmEncapsIIPDstType
   swmEncapsIIPDst
   swmBGPNeighborTunnelType

   SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 did not include adequate security.
   Even if the network itself is secure (for example by using IPsec),
   there is no control as to who on the secure network is allowed to
   access and GET/SET (read/change/create/delete) the objects in this
   MIB module.

   Implementations SHOULD provide the security features described by the
   SNMPv3 framework (see [RFC3410]), and implementations claiming
   compliance to the SNMPv3 standard MUST include full support for
   authentication and privacy via the User-based Security Model (USM)
   [RFC3414] with the AES cipher algorithm [RFC3826].  Implementations
   MAY also provide support for the Transport Security Model
   (TSM)[RFC5591] in combination with a secure transport such as SSH
   [RFC5592] or TLS/DTLS [RFC6353].

   Further, deployment of SNMP versions prior to SNMPv3 is NOT
   RECOMMENDED.  Instead, it is RECOMMENDED to deploy SNMPv3 and to
   enable cryptographic security.  It is then a customer/operator
   responsibility to ensure that the SNMP entity giving access to an
   instance of this MIB module is properly configured to give access to
   the objects only to those principals (users) that have legitimate
   rights to indeed GET or SET (change/create/delete) them.

9.  IANA Considerations

   The MIB module in this document uses the following IANA-assigned
   OBJECT IDENTIFIER values recorded in the SMI Numbers registry, and
   the following IANA-assigned tunnelType values recorded in the
   IANAtunnelType-MIB registry:

           Descriptor        OBJECT IDENTIFIER value
           ----------        -----------------------
           swmMIB            { transmission XXX }

          IANAtunnelType ::= TEXTUAL-CONVENTION
              SYNTAX     INTEGER {

                         softwireMesh ("xx")        -- softwire Mesh tunnel

                         }

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   Editor's Note (to be removed prior to publication): the IANA is
   requested to assign a value for "XXX" under the 'mib-2' subtree and
   to record the assignment in the SMI Numbers registry.  When the
   assignment has been made, the RFC Editor is asked to replace "XXX"
   (here and in the MIB module) with the assigned value and to remove
   this note.

10.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Dave Thaler, Jean-Philippe Dionne, Qi
   Sun, Sheng Jiang, Yu Fu for their valuable comments.

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2578]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Structure of Management Information
              Version 2 (SMIv2)", STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

   [RFC2579]  McCloghrie, K., Ed., Perkins, D., Ed., and J.
              Schoenwaelder, Ed., "Textual Conventions for SMIv2", STD
              58, RFC 2579, April 1999.

   [RFC2580]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D., and J. Schoenwaelder,
              "Conformance Statements for SMIv2", STD 58, RFC 2580,
              April 1999.

   [RFC3414]  Blumenthal, U. and B. Wijnen, "User-based Security Model
              (USM) for version 3 of the Simple Network Management
              Protocol (SNMPv3)", STD 62, RFC 3414, December 2002.

   [RFC3826]  Blumenthal, U., Maino, F., and K. McCloghrie, "The
              Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Cipher Algorithm in the
              SNMP User-based Security Model", RFC 3826, June 2004.

   [RFC4925]  Li, X., Dawkins, S., Ward, D., and A. Durand, "Softwire
              Problem Statement", RFC 4925, July 2007.

   [RFC5512]  Mohapatra, P. and E. Rosen, "The BGP Encapsulation
              Subsequent Address Family Identifier (SAFI) and the BGP
              Tunnel Encapsulation Attribute", RFC 5512, April 2009.

   [RFC5565]  Wu, J., Cui, Y., Metz, C., and E. Rosen, "Softwire Mesh
              Framework", RFC 5565, June 2009.

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   [RFC5591]  Harrington, D. and W. Hardaker, "Transport Security Model
              for the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", RFC
              5591, June 2009.

   [RFC5592]  Harrington, D., Salowey, J., and W. Hardaker, "Secure
              Shell Transport Model for the Simple Network Management
              Protocol (SNMP)", RFC 5592, June 2009.

   [RFC6353]  Hardaker, W., "Transport Layer Security (TLS) Transport
              Model for the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)",
              RFC 6353, July 2011.

11.2.  Informative References

   [RFC2223]  Postel, J. and J. Reynolds, "Instructions to RFC Authors",
              RFC 2223, October 1997.

   [RFC2863]  McCloghrie, K. and F. Kastenholz, "The Interfaces Group
              MIB", RFC 2863, June 2000.

   [RFC3410]  Case, J., Mundy, R., Partain, D., and B. Stewart,
              "Introduction and Applicability Statements for Internet-
              Standard Management Framework", RFC 3410, December 2002.

   [RFC2629]  Rose, M., "Writing I-Ds and RFCs using XML", RFC 2629,
              June 1999.

   [RFC4087]  Thaler, D., "IP Tunnel MIB", RFC 4087, June 2005.

   [RFC4181]  Heard, C., "Guidelines for Authors and Reviewers of MIB
              Documents", BCP 111, RFC 4181, September 2005.

Authors' Addresses

   Yong Cui
   Tsinghua University
   Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86-10-6260-3059
   EMail: yong@csnet1.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn

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   Jiang Dong
   Tsinghua University
   Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86-10-6278-5822
   EMail: dongjiang@csnet1.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn

   Peng Wu
   Tsinghua University
   Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86-10-6278-5822
   EMail: weapon@csnet1.cs.tsinghua.edu.cn

   Mingwei Xu
   Tsinghua University
   Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University
   Beijing  100084
   P.R.China

   Phone: +86-10-6278-5822
   EMail: xmw@cernet.edu.cn

   Antti Yla-Jaaski
   Aalto University
   Konemiehentie 2
   Espoo  02150
   Finland

   Phone: +358-40-5954222
   EMail: antti.yla-jaaski@aalto.fi

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