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Enterprise Incremental IPv6

The information below is for an old version of the document.
Document Type
This is an older version of an Internet-Draft that was ultimately published as RFC 7381.
Authors KK Chittimaneni , Tim Chown , Lee Howard , Victor Kuarsingh , Yanick Pouffary , Éric Vyncke
Last updated 2012-08-08
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IESG IESG state Became RFC 7381 (Informational)
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v6ops                                                    K. Chittimaneni
Internet-Draft                                               Google Inc.
Intended status: Informational                                  T. Chown
Expires: February 8, 2013                      University of Southampton
                                                               L. Howard
                                                       Time Warner Cable
                                                            V. Kuarsingh
                                                   Rogers Communications
                                                             Y. Pouffary
                                                         Hewlett Packard
                                                               E. Vyncke
                                                           Cisco Systems
                                                             Aug 7, 2012

                      Enterprise Incremental IPv6


   Enterprise network administrators worldwide are in various stages of
   preparing for or deploying IPv6 into their networks.  The
   administrators face different challenges than operators of Internet
   access providers, and have reasons for different priorities.  The
   overall problem for many administrators will be to offer Internet-
   facing services over IPv6, while continuing to support IPv4, and
   while introducing IPv6 access within the enterprise IT network.  The
   overall transition will take most networks from an IPv4-only
   environment to a dual stack network environment and potentially an
   IPv6-only operating mode.  This document helps provide a framework
   for enterprise network architects or administrators who may be faced
   with many of these challenges as they consider their IPv6 support

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on February 8, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   ( in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.1.  Enterprise Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  IPv4-only Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     1.3.  Reasons for a Phased Approach  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
   2.  Requirements Language  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Preparation and Assessment Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  Inventory Phase  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
       3.1.1.  Network infrastructure readiness assessment  . . . . .  6
       3.1.2.  Applications readiness assessment  . . . . . . . . . .  7
       3.1.3.  Importance of readiness validation and testing . . . .  7
     3.2.  Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.3.  Routing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.4.  Security and Routing Policy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
       3.4.1.  Demystifying some IPv6 Security Myths  . . . . . . . .  8
       3.4.2.  Similarities between IPv6 and IPv4 security  . . . . .  9
       3.4.3.  Specific Security Issues for IPv6  . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.5.  Address Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.6.  Program Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.7.  Tools Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
   4.  External Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     4.1.  Connectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     4.2.  Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
     4.3.  Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     4.4.  Servers and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   5.  Internal Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.1.  Network Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     5.2.  End user devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.3.  Corporate Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.4.  Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   6.  Other Phases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     6.1.  Guest network  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     6.2.  IPv6-only  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   7.  Considerations For Specific Enterprises  . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     7.1.  Content Delivery Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     7.2.  Data Center Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     7.3.  Campus Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   8.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   10. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
     11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

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1.  Introduction

   An Enterprise Network as defined in [RFC4057] as: a network that has
   multiple internal links, one or more router connections to one or
   more Providers, and is actively managed by a network operations
   entity (the "administrator", whether a single person or department of
   administrators).  Adminstrators generally support an internal
   network, consisting of users' computers and related peripherals, a
   server network, consisting of accounting and business application
   servers, and an external network, consisting of Internet-accessible
   services such as web servers, email servers, VPN systems, and
   customer applications.  This document is intended as guidance for
   network architects and administrators in planning their IPv6

   The business reasons for spending time, effort, and money on IPv6
   will be unique to each enterprise.  The most common drivers are due
   to the fact that when Internet service providers, including mobile
   wireless carriers, run out of IPv4 addresses, they will provide
   native IPv6 and non-native IPv4.  The non-native IPv4 service may be
   NAT64, NAT444, Dual-stack Lite, or other transition technology, but
   whether tunneled or translated, the native traffic will be perform
   better and more reliably than non-native.  It is thus in the
   enterprise's interests to deploy native IPv6 itself.

1.1.  Enterprise Assumptions

   For the purposes of this document, assume:

   o  The administrator is considering deploying IPv6 (but see
      Section 1.2 below).

   o  The administrator has existing IPv4 networks and devices which
      will continue to exist.

   o  The administrator will want to minimize the level of disruption to
      the users and services by minimizing number of technologies and
      functions that are needed to mediate any given application.  In
      other words, provide native IP wherever possible.

   Based on these assumptions, an administrator will want to use
   technologies which minimize the number of flows being tunnelled,
   translated or intercepted at any given time.  The administrator will
   choose transition technologies or strategies which allow most traffic
   to be native, and will manage non-native traffic.  This will allow
   the administrator to minimize the cost of IPv6 transition
   technologies, by containing the number and scale of transition

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1.2.  IPv4-only Considerations

   As described in [RFC6302] administrators should take certain steps
   even if they are not considering IPv6.  Specifically, Internet-facing
   servers should log the source port number, timestamp (from a reliable
   source), and the transport protocol.  This will allow investigation
   of malefactors behind address-sharing technologies such as NAT44 or
   Dual-stack Lite.  Enabling this additional logging will take a few
   minutes on each server, and will probably require restarting the

   Other IPv6 considerations may impact ostensibly IPv4-only networks,
   e.g.  [RFC6104] describes the rogue IPv6 RA problem, which may cause
   problems in IPv4-only networks where IPv6 is enabled in end systems
   on that network.

1.3.  Reasons for a Phased Approach

   Given the challenges of migrating user workstations, corporate
   systems, and Internet-facing servers, a phased approach allows
   incremental deployment of IPv6, based on the administrator's own
   determination of priorities.  The Preparation Phases is highly
   recommended to all administrators, as it will save errors and
   complexity in later phases.  Each administrator must decide whether
   to begin with the External Phase (as recommended in [RFC5211]) or the
   Internal Phase.  There is no "correct" answer here; the decision is
   one for each enterprise to make.

   Some considerations:

   o  In many cases, customers outside the network will have IPv6 before
      the internal enterprise network.  For these customers, IPv6 may
      well perform better, especially for certain applications, than
      translated or tunneled IPv4, so the administrator may want to
      prioritize the External Phase.

   o  Employees who access internal systems by VPN may find that their
      ISPs provide translated IPv4, which does not support the required
      VPN protocols.  In these cases, the administrator may want to
      prioritize the External Phase, and any other remotely-accessible
      internal systems.

   o  Internet-facing servers cannot be managed over IPv6 unless the
      management systems are IPv6-capable.  These might be Network
      Management Systems (NMS), monitoring systems, or just remote
      management desktops.  Thus in some cases, the Internet-facing
      systems are dependent on IPv6-capable internal networks.  However,
      dual-stack Internet-facing systems can still be managed over IPv4.

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   o  IPv6 is enabled by default on all modern operating systems, so it
      may be more urgent to manage and have visibility on the internal

   o  In many cases, the corporate accounting, payroll, human resource,
      and other internal systems may only need to be reachable from the
      internal network, so they may be a lower priority.  But more and
      more internal applications support IPv6 by default and it can be
      expected that new applications will only support IPv6.

   o  Some organizations (even when using private IPv4
      addresses[RFC1918]) are facing IPv4 address exhaustion because of
      the internal network growth (for example the vast number of
      virtual machines).

   o  IPv6 restores end to end reachability even for internal
      applications (of course security policies must still be enforced)
      which means that with IPv6 merging networks (after two
      organizations merged) is much easier and faster.  Yet, another
      reason to move the internal network to IPv6.

   These considerations are in conflict; each administrator must
   prioritize according to their local conditions.

2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119] when they
   appear in ALL CAPS.  These words may also appear in this document in
   lower case as plain English words, absent their normative meanings.

3.  Preparation and Assessment Phase

3.1.  Inventory Phase

   To comprehend the inventory phase spectrum we recommended dividing
   the problem space in two: network infrastructure readiness and
   applications readiness.

3.1.1.  Network infrastructure readiness assessment

   The network infrastructure readiness assessment for IPv6 as its name
   state is focused on the network.  The goal of this assessment is
   identify the level of readiness of network equipment.  This is an
   important step as it will help identify the effort required to move

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   to an infrastructure that supports IPv6 with the same features as the
   existing IPv4 network (for example MPLS-VPN [RFC4364] whose
   equivalent in IPv6 is 6VPE [RFC4659]).

   Be able to understand which network devices are already capable,
   which devices can be made IPv6 ready with a code/firmware upgrade,
   and which devices will need to be replaced.  The data collection
   consists of a network discovery to gain an understanding of the
   topology and inventory network infrastructure equipment and code
   versions with information gathered from static files and IP address
   management, DNS and DHCP tools.

   Remember understanding the starting point and what are the technical
   issues and challenges is critical as IPv6 might already be present in
   the environment thus creating inherent security risks.

3.1.2.  Applications readiness assessment

   Just like network equipment, application software needs to support
   IPv6.  This includes OS, firmware, middleware and applications
   (including internally developed applications).  Vendors will
   typically handle IPv6 enablement of off-the-shelf products.
   Enterprises need to request this support from vendors.  For
   internally developed applications it is the responsibility of the
   enterprise to enable them for IPv6.  Analyzing how a given
   application communicates of the network will dictate the steps
   required to support IPv6.  Applications should be made to use APIs
   which hide the specifics of a given IP address family.  Any
   applications that use APIs, such as the C language, which exposes the
   IP version specificity need to be modified to also work with IPv6.

   There are two ways to IPv6-enable your applications.  The first
   approach is to have separate logic for IPv4 and IPv6, thus leaving
   the IPv4 code path mainly untouched.  This approach causes the least
   disruption to the existing IPv4 logic flow, but introduces more
   complexity, since the application now has to deal with two logic
   loops with complex race conditions and error recovery mechanisms
   between these two logic loops.  The second approach is to create a
   combined IPv4/IPv6 logic, which ensures operation regardless of the
   IP version used on the network.  We recommend using industry IPv6-
   porting tools to locate the code that need to be updated.

3.1.3.  Importance of readiness validation and testing

   Lastly IPv6 introduces a completely new way of addressing endpoints,
   which can have ramifications at the network layer all the way up to
   the applications.  So to minimize disruption during the transition
   phase we recommend complete functionality, scalability and security

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   testing to understand how IPv6 impacts the services and networking
   infrastructure will be paramount.

3.2.  Training

   IPv6 planning and deployment in the enterprise is not an entirely
   network centric affair.  IPv6 adoption will be a multifaceted
   undertaking that will touch everyone in the organization.  While
   technology and process transformations are taking place is it
   critical that people training takes place as well.  Training will
   ensure that people and skill gaps are assessed proactively and
   managed accordingly.  We recommend that training needs be analyzed
   and defined in order to successfully inform, train, and prepare staff
   for the impacts of the system or process changes.

3.3.  Routing

   When deploying IPv6, we recommend initially choosing an IGP protocol
   you are familiar with.  That is to say if you are using OSPFv2 you
   should be using OSPFv3.  The main advantage of this approach is that
   staff do not need to be trained and existing processes can be

   Enterprises could also take the opportunity the introduction of IPv6
   brings to analyze your current environment and to identify which
   features you would like to change and what you would like to
   implement.  Then using the validation period as a way to validate
   your new approach and even applying them to your IPv4 environment.

   Either way IPv6 introduces the opportunity to rationalize the
   environment and to architect it for growth.

3.4.  Security and Routing Policy

   It is obvious that IPv6 network should be deployed in a secure way.
   The industry has learned a lot about network security with IPv4, so,
   network operators should leverage this knowledge and expertise when
   deploying IPv6.  IPv6 is not so different than IPv4: it is a
   connectionless network protocol using the same lower layer service
   and delivering the same service to the upper layer.  Therefore, the
   security issues and mitigation techniques are mostly identical with
   same exceptions that are described further.

3.4.1.  Demystifying some IPv6 Security Myths

   Some people believe that IPv6 is inherently more secure than IPv4
   because it is new.  Nothing can be more wrong.  Indeed, being a new
   protocol means that bugs in the implementations have yet to be

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   discovered and fixed and that few people have the operational
   security expertise needed to operate securely an IPv6 network.  This
   lack of operational expertise is the biggest threat when deploying
   IPv6: the importance of training is to be stressed again.

   One security myth is that thanks to its huge address space, a network
   cannot be scanned by enumerating all IPv6 address in a /64 LAN hence
   a malevolent person cannot find a victim.  [RFC5157] describes some
   alternate techniques to find potential targets on a network, for
   example enumerating all DNS names in a zone.

   Another security myth is that IPv6 is more secure because it mandates
   the use of IPsec everywhere.  [RFC6434] clearly states that the IPv6
   support is a SHOULD only.  Moreover, if all the intra-enterprise
   traffic is encrypted, then this renders all the network security
   tools (IPS, firewall, ACL, IPFIX, etc) blind and pretty much useless.
   Therefore, IPsec should be used in IPv6 pretty much like in IPv4 (for
   example to establish a VPN overlay over a non-trusted network or
   reserve to some specific applications).

   The last security myth is that amplification attacks (such as do not exist in IPv6
   because there is no more broadcast.  Alas, this is not true as ICMP
   error (in some cases) or information messages can be generated by
   routers and hosts when forwarding or receiving a multicast message
   (section 2.4 of [RFC4443]).  Therefore, the generation and the
   forwarding rate of ICMPv6 messages must be rate limited as in IPv4.

3.4.2.  Similarities between IPv6 and IPv4 security

   As mentioned earlier, IPv6 is quite similar to IPv4, therefore
   several attacks apply for both protocol family:

   o  Application layer attacks: such as cross-site scripting or SQL

   o  Rogue device: such as a rogue WiFi Access Point

   o  Flooding and all traffic based denial of services (including the
      use of control plane policing for IPv6 traffic see [RFC6192])

   o  Etc

   A specific case of congruence is the IPv6 ULA [RFC4193] and IPv4
   private addressing [RFC1918] that do not provide any security by
   'magic'.  In both case, the edge router must apply strict data plane
   and routing policy to block those private addresses to leave and
   enter the network.  This filtering can be done by the enterprise or

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   by the ISP.

   IPv6 addresses can be spoofed as easily as IPv4 addresses and there
   are packets with bogons IPv6 addresses (see  The anti-bogon
   filtering must be done in the data and routing planes.  It can be
   done by the enterprise or by the ISP.

3.4.3.  Specific Security Issues for IPv6

   Even if IPv6 is similar to IPv4, there are some differences that
   create some IPv6-only vulnerabilities or issues.

   Privacy extension addresses [RFC4941] are usually to protect
   individual privacy by changing periodically the interface identifier
   part of the IPv6 address to avoid tracking a host by its always
   identical and unique EUI-64.  While this presents a real advantage on
   the Internet, it complicates the task of audit trail when a security
   officer or network operator wants to trace back a log entry to a host
   in their network because when the tracing is done the searched IPv6
   address could have disappeared from the network.  A good way to
   prevent the use of privacy extension addresses without host
   configuration is to send the Router Advertisement with the M-bit set
   (to force the use of DHCPv6 to get an address) and with all
   advertized prefixes without the A-bit set (to prevent the use of
   stateless auto-configuration).

   Extension headers complicate the task of stateless packet filters
   such as ACL.  If ACL are used to enforce a security policy, then the
   enterprise must verify whether its ACL (but also stateful firewalls)
   are able to process extension headers (this means understand them
   enough to parse them to find the upper layers payloads) and to block
   unwanted extension headers (e.g. to implement [RFC5095]).

   Fragmentation is different in IPv6 because it is done only by source
   host and never during a forwarding operation.  This means that ICMPv6
   packet-too-big must be allowed [RFC4890] through all filters.
   Fragments can also be used to evade some security mechanisms such as
   RA-guard [RFC6105], see also [RFC5722]which appears to be widely
   implemented in 2012.

   But, the biggest difference is the replacement of ARP (RFC 826) by
   Neighbor Discovery Protocol [RFC4861].  NDP runs over ICMPv6 (this
   means that security policies MUST allow some ICMPv6 messages see RFC
   4890) but has the same lack of security as ARP (SeND [RFC3971] and
   CGA [RFC3972] are not widely implemented).  ARP can be made secure
   with the help of techniques known as DHCPv4 snooping and dynamic ARP
   inspection by access switches.  Therefore, enterprises using those

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   techniques for IPv4 should use the equivalent techniques for IPv6:
   this is RA-guard (RFC 6105) and all work in progress from the SAVI WG
   ([I-D.ietf-savi-threat-scope] and others).  Another DoS
   vulnerabilities are related to NDP cache exhaustion
   ([I-D.gashinsky-v6ops-v6nd-problems]) and they can be mitigated by
   careful tuning of the NDP cache.  In 2012, there are already several
   vendors offering those features on their switches.

   Running a dual-stack network doubles the attack exposure as a
   malevolent person has now two attack vectors: IPv4 and IPv6.  This
   simply means that all routers and hosts operating in a dual-stack
   environment with both protocol families enabled (even if by default)
   must have a congruent security policy for both protocol version.  For
   example, permit TCP ports 80 and 443 to all web servers and deny all
   other ports to the same servers must be implemented both for IPv4 and

3.5.  Address Plan

   The most common problem encountered in IPv6 networking is in applying
   the same principles of conservation that are so important in IPv4.
   IPv6 addresses do not need to be assigned conservatively.  In fact, a
   single larger allocation is considered more conservative than
   multiple discountiguous small blocks, because a single block occupies
   only a single entry in a routing table.  The advice in [RFC5375] is
   still sound, and is recommended to the reader.  If considering ULAs,
   give careful consideration to how well it is supported, especially in
   multiple address and multicast scenarios, and assess the strength of
   the requirement for ULA.

   The enterprise administrator will want to evaluate whether the
   enterprise will request address space from its ISP (or Local Internet
   Registry (LIR)), or whether to request address space from the local
   Internet Registry (whether a Regional Internet Registry such as
   AfriNIC, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC, or RIPE-NCC, or a National Internet
   Registry, operated in some countries).  There may be a registration
   fee for requesting provider-independent (PI) space from and NIR/RIR,
   but the enterprise will avoid some complexity if renumbering is
   required after changing ISPs (it should be noted that renumbering
   caused by outgrowing the space, merger, or other internal reason
   might not be avoided with PI space).

   Each location, no matter how small, should get at least a /48.  In
   addition to allowing for simple planning, this can allow a site to
   use its prefix for local connectivity, should the need arise, and if
   the local ISP supports it.  Generally, workstations managed by the
   enterprise will use stateful DHCPv6 for addressing on corporate LAN
   segments.  DHCPv6 allows for the additional configuration options

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   often employed by enterprise administrators, and by using stateful
   DHCPv6, administrators correlating system logs know which system had
   which address at any given time.

   In the data center or server room, assume a /64 per VLAN.  This
   applies even if each individual system is on a separate VLAN; in a
   /48 assignment, typical for a site, there are 65,535 /64 blocks.
   Addresses are either configured manually on the server, or reserved
   on a DHCPv6 server, which may also synchronize forward and reverse

   All user access networks MUST be a /64.  Point-to-point links without
   MAC addresses (this is where Neighbor Discovery Protocol does not
   run) SHOULD be a /127 (see also [RFC6164]).

   Plan to aggregate at every layer of network hierarchy.  Where
   multiple VLANs or other layer two domains converge, allow some room
   for expansion.  Renumbering due to outgrowing the network plan is a
   nuisance, so allow room within it.  Generally, grow to about twice
   the current size can be accomodated; where rapid growth is planned,
   allow for twice that growth.  Also, for any part of the network where
   DNS (or reverse DNS) zones may be delegated, it is important to
   delegate addresses on nibble boundaries (this is on a multiple of 4
   bits), to ensure propose name delegation.

3.6.  Program Planning

   As with any project, an IPv6 deployment project will have its own
   phases.  Generally, one person is identified as the project sponsor
   or champion, who will make sure time and talent resources are
   prioritized appropriately for the project.  Because enabling IPv6 can
   be a project with many interrelated tasks, identifying a project
   manager is also recommended.  The project manager and sponsor can
   initiate the project, determining the scope of work and identifying
   whose input is required, and who will be affected by work.  The scope
   will generally include the Preparation Phase, and may include the
   Internal Phase, the External Phase, or both, and may include any or
   all of the Other Phases identified.

   The project manager will need to spend some time planning.  It is
   often useful for the sponsor to communicate with stakeholders at this
   time, to explain why IPv6 is important to the enterprise.  Then, as
   the project manager is assessing what systems and elements will be
   affected, the stakeholders will understand why it is important for
   them to support the effort.  Well-informed project participants can
   help significantly by explaining the relationships between
   components.  For a large enterprise, it may take several iterations
   to really understand the level of effort required; some systems will

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   require additional development, some might require software updates,
   and others might need new versions or alternate vendors.  Once the
   projects are understood, the project manager can develop a schedule
   and a budget, and work with the project sponsor to determine what
   constraints can be adjusted, if necessary.

   It is tempting to roll IPv6 projects into other architectural
   upgrades - this can be an excellent way to improve the network and
   reduce costs.  Project participants are advised that by increasing
   the scope of projects, the schedule is often affected.  For instance,
   a major systems upgrade may take a year to complete, where just
   patching existing systems may take only a few months.  Understanding
   and evaluating these trade-offs are why a project manager is

   It is very common for assessments to continue in some areas even as
   execution of the project begins in other areas.  This is fine, as
   long as recommendations in other parts of this document are
   considered, especially regarding security (for instance, one should
   not deploy IPv6 on a system before security has been evaluated).  The
   project manager will need to continue monitoring the progress of
   discrete projects and tasks, to be aware of changes in schedule,
   budget, or scope.  "Feature creep" is common, where engineers or
   management wish to add other features while IPv6 development or
   deployment is ongoing; each feature will need to be individually
   evaluated for its effect on the schedule and budget, and whether
   expanding the scope increases risk to any other part of the project.

   As projects are completed, the project manager will confirm that work
   has been completed, often by means of seeing a completed test plan,
   and will report back to the project sponsor on completed parts of the
   project.  A good project manager will remember to thank the people
   who executed the project.

3.7.  Tools Assessment

   Enterprises will often have a number of operational tools and support
   systems which are used to provision, monitor, manage and diagnose the
   network and systems within their environment.  These tools and
   systems will need to be assessed for compatibility with IPv6
   operation.  The compatibility may be related to actual addressing and
   connectivity of various devices as well as IPv6 awareness in many of
   tools and processing logic.

   The tools within the organization fall into two general categories,
   those which focus on managing the network, and those which are
   focused on managing systems and applications on the network.  In
   either instance, the tools will run on platforms which may or may not

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   be capable of operating in an IPv6 network.  This lack in
   functionality may be related to Operating system version, or based on
   some hardware constraint.  Those systems which are found to be
   incapable of utilizing a IPv6 connection may need to be replaced or

   In addition to devices working on an IPv6 network natively, or via a
   tunnel, many tools and support systems may require additional updates
   to be IPv6 aware or even a hardware upgrade (mainly because of the
   memory utilization by IPv6 as the addresses are larger and because,
   for a while, IPv4 and IPv6 addresses will coexist in the tool).  This
   awareness may include the ability to manage IPv6 elements and/or
   applications in addition to the ability to store and utilize IPv6

   Considerations when assessing the tools and support systems may
   include the fact that IPv6 addresses are significantly larger then
   IPv4 requiring datastores to support the increased size.  Such issues
   are among those discussed in [RFC5952].  Many organizations may also
   run dual stack networks, therefore the tools need not only support
   IPv6 operation, but may also need to support the monitoring,
   management and intersection with both IPv6 and IPv4 simultaneously.
   It is important to note that managing IPv6 is not just constrained to
   using large IPv6 addresses, but also that IPv6 interfaces and nodes
   may use two or more addresses as part of normal operation.  Updating
   management systems to deal with these additional nuances will likely
   time and considerable effort.

   For networking focus systems, like node management systems, it is not
   always necessary to support local IPv6 addressing and connectivity.
   Operation, such as SNMP MIB polling can occur over IPv4 transport
   while seeking responses related to IPv6 information.  Where this may
   seem advantageous to some, it should be noted that without local IPv6
   connectivity, the management system may not be able to perform all
   expected functions - such as reachability and service checks.

   Organizations should be aware of changes to older IPv4-Only SNMP MIB
   specifications have been made by the IETF related to legacy operation
   in [RFC2096] and [RFC2011].  Updated specifications are now available
   in [RFC4296] and [RFC4293] which modified the older MIB framework to
   be IP protocol agnostic supporting IPv4 and IPv6.  Polling systems
   will need to be upgraded to support these updates as well as the end
   stations which are polled.

4.  External Phase

   The external phase for Enterprise IPv6 adoption covers topics which

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   deal with how an organization connects their infrastructure to the
   external world.  These external connections may be toward the
   Internet at larges, or other networks.  The external phase covers
   connectivity, security, monitoring of various elements and outward
   facing or accessible services.

   How an organization connects to the outside worlds is very important
   as it is often a critical part of how a business functions, therefore
   must be dealt accordingly.

4.1.  Connectivity

   The Enterprise will need to work with one or more Service Providers
   to gain connectivity to the Internet or transport service
   infrastructure such as a BGP/MPLS IP VPN as described in [RFC4364]
   and [RFC4659].  On significant factor guiding how an organization may
   need to communist with the outside world will involve the use of PI
   (Provider Independent) and/or PA (Provider Aggregatable) IPv6 space.

   In the case of PI, the organization will need to support BGP based
   connectivity for the most part since the address space is assigned
   direction from the Regional Registry to the local network.  In this
   case, the local network would act as an Autonomous System on the
   Internet and must advertise routes accordingly.  PA space is
   delegated form the upstream service provider and can then be assigned
   to the local network.  If PA space is used, other forms of route
   exchange may be possible such as RIPng, OSPFv3 and static.  PA
   assigned space would normally be routed to the general Internet via
   the upstream providers infrastructure lightening the burden on the
   local network administrations.

   PI and PA space have additional contrasting behaviours when use such
   as how dual homing may work.  Should an operator choose to dual home,
   PI space would be routed to both upstream providers and then passed
   on to other networks.  Utilizing more then one upstream Service
   Provider may introduce challenges since traffic utilizing a given PA
   assign block would be expected to flow through the assigning provider
   for entry to the Internet.  Should traffic flow using sources
   addresses which are not delegated form a given provider, reverse path
   forwarding rules on the operator side may reject some traffic.  These
   considerations are quite different then those of IPv4 which relied on
   NAT in most cases.

   When seeking IPv6 connectivity to a Service Provider, the Enterprise
   will want to attempt to use Native IPv6 connectivity.  Native IPv6
   connectivity is preferred since it provides the most rebuts form of
   connectivity.  If Native IPv6 connectivity is not possible due to
   technical or business limitations, the Enterprise may utilize readily

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   available tunnelled IPv6 connectivity.  There are IPv6 transit
   providers which provide tunnelled IPv6 connectivity which can operate
   over IPv4 networks.  A Enterprise need not need to wait for their
   local Service Provider to support IPv6, as tunnelled connectivity can
   be used.

4.2.  Security

   The most important part of security for external IPv6 deployment is
   filtering.  Filtering can be done by stateless ACL or stateful
   firewall.  As described in section 2.4.3, the security policies must
   be congruent for IPv4 and IPv6 except that ICMPv6 messages must be
   allowed through and to the filtering device (see [RFC4890]):

   o  unreachable packet-too-big

   o  unreachable parameter-problem

   o  neighbor solicitation

   o  neighbor advertisement

   ** Add some comment about setting MTU to 1280 to avoid tunnel pMTUd
   black holes? **

   It could also be safer to block all fragments where the transport
   layer header is not in the first fragment to avoid attack as
   described in [RFC5722].  Some filtering devices allow this filtering.
   To be fully compliant with [RFC5095], it can be useful to drop all
   packet containing the routing extension header type 0.

   If Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS) are used for IPv4 traffic, then
   the same IPS should also be used for IPv6 traffic.  This is just a
   generalization of the dual-stack deployment: do for IPv6 what you do
   for IPv4.  This also include all email content protection (anti-spam,
   content filtering, data leakage prevention, etc).

   The peering router must also implement anti-spoofing technique based
   on [RFC2827].

   In order to protect the networking device, it is advised to implement
   control plane policing as per [RFC6192].

   The NDP cache exhaustion (see [I-D.gashinsky-v6ops-v6nd-problems])
   attack can be mitigated by two techniques:

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   o  good NDP implementation with memory utilization limits as well as
      rate-limiters and prioritization of requests.

   o  else, as the external deployment usually involves just a couple of
      exposed IPv6 statically configured addresses (virtual address of
      web, email servers, DNS server), then it is straightforward to
      build an ingress ACL allowing traffic for those addresses and
      denying traffic to any other addresses.  This actually prevents
      the attack as packet for random destination will be dropped and
      will never trigger a neighbor resolution.

4.3.  Monitoring

   Monitoring the use of the Internet connectivity should be done for
   IPv6 if it is done for IPv4.  This includes the use of IP flow export
   [RFC5102] to detect abnormal traffic pattern (such as port scanning,
   SYN-flooding) and SNMP MIB [RFC4293] (another way to detect abnormal
   bandwidth utilization).

4.4.  Servers and Applications

5.  Internal Phase

   This phase deals with the delivery of IPv6 to the internal user
   facing side of the IT infrastructure, which comprises of various
   components such as network devices (routers, switches, etc.), end
   user devices and peripherals (workstations, printers, etc.), and
   internal corporate systems.

   An important design paradigm to consider during this phase is "Dual
   Stack when you can, tunnel when you must".  Dual stacking allows you
   to build a more robust IPv6 network that is of production quality as
   opposed to tunnels that are harder to troubleshoot and support.
   Tunnels however do provide operators with a quick and easy way to
   play with IPv6 and gain some operational experience with the
   protocol.  [RFC4213] describes various transition mechanisms in more
   detail.  [I-D.templin-v6ops-isops] suggests operational guidance when
   using ISATAP tunnels [RFC5214].

5.1.  Network Infrastructure

   The typical enterprise network infrastructure comprises of a
   combination of the following network elements - wired access
   switches, wireless access points, and routers.  Although, it is
   fairly common to find hardware that collapses switching and routing
   functionality into a single device.  Basic wired access switches and
   access points that operate only at the physical and link layer, don't

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   really have any special IPv6 considerations other than being able to
   support IPv6 addresses themselves for management purposes, if the
   same exists for IPv4.  In many instances, these devices possess a lot
   more intelligence than simply switching packets.  For example, some
   of these devices help assist with link layer security by
   incorporating features such as ARP inspection and DHCP Snooping.

   An important design choice to be made is what IGP to use inside the
   network.  A variety of IGPs (IS-IS, OSPFv3 and RIPng) support IPv6
   today and picking one over the other is purely a design choice that
   will be dictated mostly by existing operational policies in an
   enterprise network.  As mentioned earlier, it would be beneficial to
   maintain operational parity between IPv4 and IPv6 and therefore it
   might make sense to continue using the same protocol family that is
   being used for IPv4.  For example, if you use OSPFv2 for IPv4, it
   might make sense to use OSPFv3 now.

   Another important consideration in enterprise networks is first hop
   router redundancy.  This directly ties into network reachability from
   an end host's point of view.  IPv6 Neighbor Discovery (ND),
   [RFC4861], provides a node with the capability to maintain a list of
   available routers on the link, in order to be able to switch to a
   backup path should the primary be unreachable.  By default, ND will
   detect a router failure in 38 seconds and cycle onto the next default
   router listed in its cache.  While this feature does provide with a
   basic level of first hop router redundancy, most enterprise IPv4
   networks are designed to fail over much faster.  Although this delay
   can be improved by adjusting the default timers, care must be taken
   to protect against transient failures and to account for increased
   traffic on the link.  Another option to provide robust first hop
   redundancy is to use the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol for IPv6
   (VRRPv3), [RFC5798].  This protocol provides a much faster switchover
   to an alternate default router than default ND parameters.  Using
   VRRP, a backup router can take over for a failed default router in
   around three seconds (using VRRP default parameters).  This is done
   without any interaction with the hosts and a minimum amount of VRRP

   Last but not the least, one of the most important design choices to
   make while deploying IPv6 on the internal network is whether to use
   Stateless Automatic Address Configuration (SLAAC), [RFC4862], or
   Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6), [RFC3315], or
   a combination thereof (possible when using a /64 subnet).  Each
   option has its own unique set of pros and cons and the choice will
   ultimately depend on the operational policies that guide each
   enterprise's network design.  For example, if an enterprise is
   looking for ease of use, rapid deployments, and less administrative
   overhead, then SLAAC makes more sense.  However, if the operational

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   policies call for precise control over IP address assignment for
   auditing then DHCPv6 would be the way to go.  DHCPv6 also allows you
   tie into DNS systems for host entry updates and gives you the ability
   to send other options information to clients.  In the long term,
   DHCPv6 makes most sense for use in a managed environment.

5.2.  End user devices

   Most operating systems (OS) that are loaded on workstations and
   laptops in a typical enterprise support IPv6 today.  However, there
   are various out-of-the-box nuances that one should be mindful about.
   For example, the default behavior of OSes vary, some may have IPv6
   turned off entirely by default, some may only have certain features
   such as privacy addresses turned off while others have IPv6 fully
   enabled.  It is important to note that most operating systems will,
   by default, prefer to use native IPv6 over IPv4 when enabled.
   Therefore, it is advised that enterprises investigate the default
   behavior of their installed OS base and account for it during the
   implementation of IPv6.  Furthermore, some OSes may have tunneling
   mechanisms turned on by default and in such cases, it is recommended
   to administratively shut down such interfaces unless required.  It is
   recommended that IPv6 be deployed at the network infrastructure level
   before it is rolled out to end user devices.

   Smartphones and tablets are poised to become one of the major
   consumers of IP addresses and enterprises should be ready to deploy
   and support IPv6 on various networks that serve such devices.  In
   general, support for IPv6 in these devices, albeit in its infancy,
   has been steadily rising.  Most of the leading smartphone OSes have
   some level of support for IPv6.  However, the level of configurable
   options are mostly at a minimum and are not consistent across all
   platforms.  Also, it is fairly common to find IPv6 support on the
   wifi connection alone and not on the radio interface in these
   devices.  This is sometimes due to the radio network not being ready
   or device related.  An IPv6 enabled enterprise wifi network will
   allow the majority of these devices to connect via IPv6.  Much work
   is still being done to bring the full IPv6 feature set across all
   interfaces (802.11, 3G, LTE, etc.) and platforms.

   IPv6 support in peripheral equipment such as printers, IP Cameras,
   etc. has been steadily rising as well, although at a much slower pace
   than traditional OSes and Smartphones.  Most newer devices are coming
   out with IPv6 support but there is still a large installed base of
   legacy peripheral devices that might need IPv4 for sometime to come.
   The audit phase mentioned earlier will make it easier for enterprises
   to plan for equipment upgrades, in line with their corporate
   equipment refresh cycle.

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5.3.  Corporate Systems

   No IPv6 deployment will be successful without ensuring that all the
   corporate systems that enterprise uses as part of their IT
   infrastructure, support IPv6.  Examples of such systems include, but
   are not limited to, Email, Video Conferencing, Telephony (VoIP), DNS,
   Radius, etc.  All these systems must have their own detailed IPv6
   rollout plan in conjunction with the network IPv6 rollout.  It is
   important to note that DNS is one of the main anchors in an
   enterprise deployment, since most end hosts decide whether or not use
   IPv6 based on the presence of AAAA records in a reply to a DNS query.
   It is recommended that system administrators selectively turn on AAAA
   records for various systems as and when they are IPv6 enabled.
   Additionally, all monitoring and reporting tools across the
   enterprise would need to be modified to support IPv6.

5.4.  Security

   IPv6 must be deployed in a secure way.  This means that all existing
   IPv4 security policies must be extended to support IPv6; IPv6
   security policies will be the IPv6 equivalent of the existing IPv4
   ones (taking into account the difference for ICMPv6 [RFC4890]).  As
   in IPv4, security policies for IPv6 will be enforced by firewalls,
   ACL, IPS, VPN, ...

   Privacy extension addresses [RFC4941] pose a real challenge for audit
   trail.  Therefore, it is recommended not to use them within the
   enterprise network by using the configuration described previously.

   But, the biggest problem is probably linked to all threats against
   Neighbor Discovery.  This means that the internal network at the
   access layer (i.e. where hosts connect to the network over wired or
   wireless) must implement RA-guard [RFC6105] and the techniques being
   specified by SAVI WG [I-D.ietf-savi-threat-scope].

6.  Other Phases

   To be added.

6.1.  Guest network

   To be added.

6.2.  IPv6-only

   Although IPv4 and IPv6 networks will coexist for a long time to come,
   the long term enterprise network roadmap should include steps on

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   gradually deprecating IPv4 from the dual-stack network.  In some
   extreme cases, deploying dual-stack networks may not even be a viable
   option for very large enterprises due to lack of availability of RFC
   1918 addresses.  In such cases, deploying IPv6-only networks might be
   the only choice available to sustain network growth.

   If nodes in the network don't need to talk to an IPv4-only node, then
   deploying IPv6-only networks should fe fairly trivial.  However, in
   the current environment, given that IPv4 is the dominant protocol on
   the Internet, an IPv6-only node most likely needs to talk to an IPv4-
   only node on the Internet.  It is therefore important to provide such
   nodes with a translation mechanism to ensure communication between
   nodes configured with different address families.  As [RFC6144]
   points out, it is important to look at address translation as a
   transition strategy that will get you to an IPv6-only network.

   There are various stateless and stateful IPv4/IPv6 translation
   methods available today that help IPv4 to IPv6 communication.  RFC
   6144 provides a framework for IPv4/IPv6 translation and describes in
   detail various scenarios in which such translation mechanisms could
   be used.  [RFC6145] describes stateless address translation.  In this
   mode, a specific IPv6 address range will represent IPv4 systems
   (IPv4-converted addresses), and the IPv6 systems have addresses
   (IPv4-translateable addresses) that can be algorithmically mapped to
   a subset of the service provider's IPv4 addresses.  [RFC6146], NAT64,
   describes stateful address translation.  As the name suggests, the
   translation state is maintained between IPv4 address/port pairs and
   IPv6 address/port pairs, enabling IPv6 systems to open sessions with
   IPv4 systems.  [RFC6147], DNS64, describes a mechanism for
   synthesizing AAAA resource records (RRs) from A RRs.  Together, RFCs
   6146 and RFC 6147 provide a viable method for an IPv6-only client to
   initiate communications to an IPv4-only server.

   The address translation mechanisms for the stateless and stateful
   translations are defined in [RFC6052].  It is important to note that
   both of these mechanisms have limitations as to which protocols they
   support.  For example, RFC 6146 only defines how stateful NAT64
   translates unicast packets carrying TCP, UDP, and ICMP traffic only.
   The ultimate choice of which translation mechanism to chose will be
   dictated mostly by existing operational policies pertaining to
   application support, logging requirements, etc.

   There is additional work being done in the area of address
   translation to enhance and/or optimize current mechanisms.  For
   example, [I-D.xli-behave-divi] describes limitations with the current
   stateless translation, such as IPv4 address sharing and application
   layer gateway (ALG) problems, and presents the concept and
   implementation of dual-stateless IPv4/IPv6 translation (dIVI) to

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   address those issues.

7.  Considerations For Specific Enterprises

7.1.  Content Delivery Networks

   To be added.

7.2.  Data Center Virtualization

   Another document ([I-D.lopez-v6ops-dc-ipv6]) describes in details the
   specifics about IPv6 Data Center.

7.3.  Campus Networks

   A number of campus networks have made some initial IPv6 deployment.
   There are generally three areas in which such deployments may be
   made, which correspond to the Internal Phase, External Phase and
   Other Phase (Guest Network) descrobed above.

   In particular the areas commonly approached are:

   o  External-facing services.  Typically the campus web presence and
      commonly also external-facing DNS and MX services.

   o  Computer science department.  This is where IPv6-related research
      and/or teaching is most likely to occur, so enabling some or all
      of the campus compauter science department network is a sensible
      first step.

   o  The eduroam wireless network.  Eduroam is the defacto wireless
      roaming system for academic networks, and uses 802.1X based
      authentication, which is agnostic to the IP version used (unlike
      web-redirection gateway systems).

8.  Security Considerations

9.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank Chris Grundemann, Ray Hunter, Brian
   Carpenter, Tina Tsou for their comments on the mailing list.

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10.  IANA Considerations

   There are no IANA considerations or implications that arise from this

11.  References

11.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

11.2.  Informative References

   [RFC1918]  Rekhter, Y., Moskowitz, R., Karrenberg, D., Groot, G., and
              E. Lear, "Address Allocation for Private Internets",
              BCP 5, RFC 1918, February 1996.

   [RFC2011]  McCloghrie, K., "SNMPv2 Management Information Base for
              the Internet Protocol using SMIv2", RFC 2011,
              November 1996.

   [RFC2096]  Baker, F., "IP Forwarding Table MIB", RFC 2096,
              January 1997.

   [RFC2827]  Ferguson, P. and D. Senie, "Network Ingress Filtering:
              Defeating Denial of Service Attacks which employ IP Source
              Address Spoofing", BCP 38, RFC 2827, May 2000.

   [RFC3315]  Droms, R., Bound, J., Volz, B., Lemon, T., Perkins, C.,
              and M. Carney, "Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
              IPv6 (DHCPv6)", RFC 3315, July 2003.

   [RFC3971]  Arkko, J., Kempf, J., Zill, B., and P. Nikander, "SEcure
              Neighbor Discovery (SEND)", RFC 3971, March 2005.

   [RFC3972]  Aura, T., "Cryptographically Generated Addresses (CGA)",
              RFC 3972, March 2005.

   [RFC4057]  Bound, J., "IPv6 Enterprise Network Scenarios", RFC 4057,
              June 2005.

   [RFC4193]  Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast
              Addresses", RFC 4193, October 2005.

   [RFC4213]  Nordmark, E. and R. Gilligan, "Basic Transition Mechanisms
              for IPv6 Hosts and Routers", RFC 4213, October 2005.

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   [RFC4293]  Routhier, S., "Management Information Base for the
              Internet Protocol (IP)", RFC 4293, April 2006.

   [RFC4296]  Bailey, S. and T. Talpey, "The Architecture of Direct Data
              Placement (DDP) and Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) on
              Internet Protocols", RFC 4296, December 2005.

   [RFC4364]  Rosen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private
              Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4364, February 2006.

   [RFC4443]  Conta, A., Deering, S., and M. Gupta, "Internet Control
              Message Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol
              Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 4443, March 2006.

   [RFC4659]  De Clercq, J., Ooms, D., Carugi, M., and F. Le Faucheur,
              "BGP-MPLS IP Virtual Private Network (VPN) Extension for
              IPv6 VPN", RFC 4659, September 2006.

   [RFC4861]  Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W., and H. Soliman,
              "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861,
              September 2007.

   [RFC4862]  Thomson, S., Narten, T., and T. Jinmei, "IPv6 Stateless
              Address Autoconfiguration", RFC 4862, September 2007.

   [RFC4890]  Davies, E. and J. Mohacsi, "Recommendations for Filtering
              ICMPv6 Messages in Firewalls", RFC 4890, May 2007.

   [RFC4941]  Narten, T., Draves, R., and S. Krishnan, "Privacy
              Extensions for Stateless Address Autoconfiguration in
              IPv6", RFC 4941, September 2007.

   [RFC5095]  Abley, J., Savola, P., and G. Neville-Neil, "Deprecation
              of Type 0 Routing Headers in IPv6", RFC 5095,
              December 2007.

   [RFC5102]  Quittek, J., Bryant, S., Claise, B., Aitken, P., and J.
              Meyer, "Information Model for IP Flow Information Export",
              RFC 5102, January 2008.

   [RFC5157]  Chown, T., "IPv6 Implications for Network Scanning",
              RFC 5157, March 2008.

   [RFC5211]  Curran, J., "An Internet Transition Plan", RFC 5211,
              July 2008.

   [RFC5214]  Templin, F., Gleeson, T., and D. Thaler, "Intra-Site
              Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol (ISATAP)", RFC 5214,

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              March 2008.

   [RFC5375]  Van de Velde, G., Popoviciu, C., Chown, T., Bonness, O.,
              and C. Hahn, "IPv6 Unicast Address Assignment
              Considerations", RFC 5375, December 2008.

   [RFC5722]  Krishnan, S., "Handling of Overlapping IPv6 Fragments",
              RFC 5722, December 2009.

   [RFC5798]  Nadas, S., "Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
              Version 3 for IPv4 and IPv6", RFC 5798, March 2010.

   [RFC5952]  Kawamura, S. and M. Kawashima, "A Recommendation for IPv6
              Address Text Representation", RFC 5952, August 2010.

   [RFC6052]  Bao, C., Huitema, C., Bagnulo, M., Boucadair, M., and X.
              Li, "IPv6 Addressing of IPv4/IPv6 Translators", RFC 6052,
              October 2010.

   [RFC6104]  Chown, T. and S. Venaas, "Rogue IPv6 Router Advertisement
              Problem Statement", RFC 6104, February 2011.

   [RFC6105]  Levy-Abegnoli, E., Van de Velde, G., Popoviciu, C., and J.
              Mohacsi, "IPv6 Router Advertisement Guard", RFC 6105,
              February 2011.

   [RFC6144]  Baker, F., Li, X., Bao, C., and K. Yin, "Framework for
              IPv4/IPv6 Translation", RFC 6144, April 2011.

   [RFC6145]  Li, X., Bao, C., and F. Baker, "IP/ICMP Translation
              Algorithm", RFC 6145, April 2011.

   [RFC6146]  Bagnulo, M., Matthews, P., and I. van Beijnum, "Stateful
              NAT64: Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6
              Clients to IPv4 Servers", RFC 6146, April 2011.

   [RFC6147]  Bagnulo, M., Sullivan, A., Matthews, P., and I. van
              Beijnum, "DNS64: DNS Extensions for Network Address
              Translation from IPv6 Clients to IPv4 Servers", RFC 6147,
              April 2011.

   [RFC6164]  Kohno, M., Nitzan, B., Bush, R., Matsuzaki, Y., Colitti,
              L., and T. Narten, "Using 127-Bit IPv6 Prefixes on Inter-
              Router Links", RFC 6164, April 2011.

   [RFC6192]  Dugal, D., Pignataro, C., and R. Dunn, "Protecting the
              Router Control Plane", RFC 6192, March 2011.

Chittimaneni, et al.    Expires February 8, 2013               [Page 25]
Internet-Draft         enterprise-incremental-ipv6              Aug 2012

   [RFC6302]  Durand, A., Gashinsky, I., Lee, D., and S. Sheppard,
              "Logging Recommendations for Internet-Facing Servers",
              BCP 162, RFC 6302, June 2011.

   [RFC6434]  Jankiewicz, E., Loughney, J., and T. Narten, "IPv6 Node
              Requirements", RFC 6434, December 2011.

              Shang, W., Li, X., Zhai, Y., and C. Bao, "dIVI: Dual-
              Stateless IPv4/IPv6 Translation", draft-xli-behave-divi-04
              (work in progress), October 2011.

              Jaeggli, J., Kumari, W., and I. Gashinsky, "Operational
              Neighbor Discovery Problem",
              draft-gashinsky-v6ops-v6nd-problems-00 (work in progress),
              October 2011.

              McPherson, D., Baker, F., and J. Halpern, "SAVI Threat
              Scope", draft-ietf-savi-threat-scope-05 (work in
              progress), April 2011.

              Chen, Z., Lopez, D., Tsou, T., and C. Zhou, "A Reference
              Framework for DC Migration to IPv6",
              draft-lopez-v6ops-dc-ipv6-02 (work in progress),
              June 2012.

              Templin, F., "Operational Guidance for IPv6 Deployment in
              IPv4 Sites using ISATAP", draft-templin-v6ops-isops-17
              (work in progress), May 2012.

Authors' Addresses

   Kiran K. Chittimaneni
   Google Inc.
   1600 Amphitheater Pkwy
   Mountain View, California  CA 94043


Chittimaneni, et al.    Expires February 8, 2013               [Page 26]
Internet-Draft         enterprise-incremental-ipv6              Aug 2012

   Tim Chown
   University of Southampton
   Southampton, Hampshire  SO17 1BJ
   United Kingdom


   Lee Howard
   Time Warner Cable
   13820 Sunrise Valley Drive
   Herndon, VA  20171

   Phone: +1 703 345 3513

   Victor Kuarsingh
   Rogers Communications
   8200 Dixie Road
   Brampton, Ontario


   Yanick Pouffary
   Hewlett Packard
   950 Route Des Colles
   Sophia-Antipolis  06901


   Eric Vyncke
   Cisco Systems
   De Kleetlaan 6a
   Diegem  1831

   Phone: +32 2 778 4677

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