The OPAQUE Asymmetric PAKE Protocol
draft-irtf-cfrg-opaque-02

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Authors Hugo Krawczyk  , Kevin Lewi  , Christopher Wood 
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Network Working Group                                        H. Krawczyk
Internet-Draft                                       Algorand Foundation
Intended status: Informational                                   K. Lewi
Expires: 9 August 2021                                     Novi Research
                                                               C.A. Wood
                                                              Cloudflare
                                                         5 February 2021

                  The OPAQUE Asymmetric PAKE Protocol
                       draft-irtf-cfrg-opaque-02

Abstract

   This document describes the OPAQUE protocol, a secure asymmetric
   password-authenticated key exchange (aPAKE) that supports mutual
   authentication in a client-server setting without reliance on PKI and
   with security against pre-computation attacks upon server compromise.
   In addition, the protocol provides forward secrecy and the ability to
   hide the password from the server, even during password registration.
   This document specifies the core OPAQUE protocol, along with several
   instantiations in different authenticated key exchange protocols.

Discussion Venues

   This note is to be removed before publishing as an RFC.

   Source for this draft and an issue tracker can be found at
   https://github.com/cfrg/draft-irtf-cfrg-opaque.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on 9 August 2021.

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2021 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/
   license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document.
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.  Code Components
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   provided without warranty as described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
     1.1.  Requirements Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     1.2.  Notation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   2.  Cryptographic Protocol and Algorithm Dependencies . . . . . .   6
   3.  Offline Registration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  Credential Storage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.2.  Registration Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.3.  Registration Functions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.3.1.  CreateRegistrationRequest . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.3.2.  CreateRegistrationResponse  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
       3.3.3.  FinalizeRequest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       3.3.4.  Credential File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   4.  Online Authenticated Key Exchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     4.1.  Credential Retrieval  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
       4.1.1.  Credential Retrieval Messages . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
       4.1.2.  Credential Retrieval Functions  . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.2.  AKE Instantiations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       4.2.1.  Key Schedule Utility Functions  . . . . . . . . . . .  18
       4.2.2.  OPAQUE-3DH Instantiation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   5.  Configurations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
   6.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     6.1.  Related Analysis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     6.2.  Identities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     6.3.  Envelope Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     6.4.  Export Key Usage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     6.5.  Static Diffie-Hellman Oracles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
     6.6.  Input Validation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     6.7.  OPRF Hardening  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     6.8.  Client Enumeration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
     6.9.  Password Salt and Storage Implications  . . . . . . . . .  27
   7.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   8.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28

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     8.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
     8.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  28
   Appendix A.  Acknowledgments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   Appendix B.  Alternate AKE Instantiations . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
     B.1.  HMQV Instantiation Sketch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32
     B.2.  SIGMA-I Instantiation Sketch  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
   Appendix C.  Test Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
     C.1.  OPAQUE-3DH Test Vector 1  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       C.1.1.  Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       C.1.2.  Input Values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  33
       C.1.3.  Intermediate Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  34
       C.1.4.  Output Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  35
     C.2.  OPAQUE-3DH Test Vector 2  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       C.2.1.  Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       C.2.2.  Input Values  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  36
       C.2.3.  Intermediate Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37
       C.2.4.  Output Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  38
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  39

1.  Introduction

   Password authentication is the prevalent form of authentication in
   the web and in many other applications.  In the most common
   implementation, a client authenticates to a server by sending its
   client ID and password to the server over a TLS connection.  This
   makes the password vulnerable to server mishandling, including
   accidentally logging the password or storing it in cleartext in a
   database.  Server compromise resulting in access to these plaintext
   passwords is not an uncommon security incident, even among security-
   conscious companies.  Moreover, plaintext password authentication
   over TLS is also vulnerable to TLS failures, including many forms of
   PKI attacks, certificate mishandling, termination outside the
   security perimeter, visibility to middle boxes, and more.

   Asymmetric (or Augmented) Password Authenticated Key Exchange (aPAKE)
   protocols are designed to provide password authentication and
   mutually authenticated key exchange in a client-server setting
   without relying on PKI (except during client/password registration)
   and without disclosing passwords to servers or other entities other
   than the client machine.  A secure aPAKE should provide the best
   possible security for a password protocol.  Namely, it should only be
   open to inevitable attacks, such as online impersonation attempts
   with guessed client passwords and offline dictionary attacks upon the
   compromise of a server and leakage of its password file.  In the
   latter case, the attacker learns a mapping of a client's password
   under a one-way function and uses such a mapping to validate
   potential guesses for the password.  Crucially important is for the
   password protocol to use an unpredictable one-way mapping.

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   Otherwise, the attacker can pre-compute a deterministic list of
   mapped passwords leading to almost instantaneous leakage of passwords
   upon server compromise.

   Despite the existence of multiple designs for (PKI-free) aPAKE
   protocols, none of these protocols are secure against pre-computation
   attacks.  In particular, none of these protocols can use the standard
   technique against pre-computation that combines _secret_ random
   values ("salt") into the one-way password mappings.  Either these
   protocols do not use a salt at all or, if they do, they transmit the
   salt from server to client in the clear, hence losing the secrecy of
   the salt and its defense against pre-computation.  Furthermore,
   transmitting the salt may require additional protocol messages.

   This document describes OPAQUE, a PKI-free secure aPAKE that is
   secure against pre-computation attacks and capable of using a secret
   salt.  OPAQUE provides forward secrecy (essential for protecting past
   communications in case of password leakage) and the ability to hide
   the password from the server - even during password registration.
   Furthermore, OPAQUE enjoys good performance and an array of
   additional features including the ability to increase the difficulty
   of offline dictionary attacks via iterated hashing or other hardening
   schemes, and offloading these operations to the client (that also
   helps against online guessing attacks); extensibility of the protocol
   to support storage and retrieval of client's secrets solely based on
   a password; and being amenable to a multi-server distributed
   implementation where offline dictionary attacks are not possible
   without breaking into a threshold of servers (such a distributed
   solution requires no change or awareness on the client side relative
   to a single-server implementation).

   OPAQUE is defined and proven as the composition of two
   functionalities: an oblivious pseudorandom function (OPRF) and an
   authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol.  It can be seen as a
   "compiler" for transforming any suitable AKE protocol into a secure
   aPAKE protocol.  (See Section 6 for requirements of the OPRF and AKE
   protocols.)  This document specifies one OPAQUE instantiation based
   on 3DH [SIGNAL].  Other instantiations are possible, as discussed in
   Appendix B, but their details are out of scope for this document.  In
   general, the modularity of OPAQUE's design makes it easy to integrate
   with additional AKE protocols, e.g., IKEv2, and with future ones such
   as those based on post-quantum techniques.

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   OPAQUE consists of two stages: registration and authenticated key
   exchange.  In the first stage, a client registers its password with
   the server and stores its encrypted credentials on the server.  In
   the second stage, a client obtains those credentials, recovers them
   using the client's password, and subsequently uses them as input to
   an AKE protocol.

   Currently, the most widely deployed PKI-free aPAKE is SRP [RFC2945],
   which is vulnerable to pre-computation attacks, lacks a proof of
   security, and is less efficient relative to OPAQUE.  Moreover, SRP
   requires a ring as it mixes addition and multiplication operations,
   and thus does not work over plain elliptic curves.  OPAQUE is
   therefore a suitable replacement for applications that use SRP.

   This draft complies with the requirements for PAKE protocols set
   forth in [RFC8125].

1.1.  Requirements Notation

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in
   BCP 14 [RFC2119] [RFC8174] when, and only when, they appear in all
   capitals, as shown here.

1.2.  Notation

   The following terms are used throughout this document to describe the
   operations, roles, and behaviors of OPAQUE:

   *  Client (C): Entity which has knowledge of a password and wishes to
      authenticate.

   *  Server (S): Entity which authenticates clients using passwords.

   *  password: An opaque byte string containing the client's password.

   *  (skX, pkX): An AKE key pair used in role X; skX is the private key
      and pkX is the public key.  For example, (client_private_key,
      client_public_key) refers to C's private and public key.

   *  kX: An OPRF private key used for role X.  For example, as
      described in Section 3.3.2, oprf_key refers to the private OPRF
      key for client C known only to the server.

   *  I2OSP and OS2IP: Convert a byte string to and from a non-negative
      integer as described in [RFC8017].  Note that these functions
      operate on byte strings in big-endian byte order.

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   *  concat(x0, ..., xN): Concatenate byte strings.  For example,
      "concat(0x01, 0x0203, 0x040506) = 0x010203040506".

   *  random(n): Generate a random byte string of length "n" bytes.

   *  xor(a,b): Apply XOR to byte strings.  For example, "xor(0xF0F0,
      0x1234) = 0xE2C4".  It is an error to call this function with two
      arguments of unequal length.

   *  ct_equal(a, b): Return "true" if "a" is equal to "b", and false
      otherwise.  This function is constant-time in the length of "a"
      and "b", which are assumed to be of equal length, irrespective of
      the values "a" or "b".

   Except if said otherwise, random choices in this specification refer
   to drawing with uniform distribution from a given set (i.e., "random"
   is short for "uniformly random").  Random choices can be replaced
   with fresh outputs from a cryptographically strong pseudorandom
   generator, according to the requirements in [RFC4086], or
   pseudorandom function.

   The name OPAQUE is a homonym of O-PAKE where O is for Oblivious.  The
   name OPAKE was taken.

2.  Cryptographic Protocol and Algorithm Dependencies

   OPAQUE relies on the following protocols and primitives:

   *  Oblivious Pseudorandom Function (OPRF, [I-D.irtf-cfrg-voprf]):

      -  Blind(x): Convert input "x" into an element of the OPRF group,
         randomize it by some scalar "r", producing "M", and output
         ("r", "M").

      -  KeyGen(): Generate an OPRF private and public key.  OPAQUE only
         requires an OPRF private key.  We write "(oprf_key, _) =
         KeyGen()" to denote use of this function for generating secret
         key "oprf_key" (and discarding the corresponding public key).

      -  Evaluate(k, M): Evaluate input element "M" using private key
         "k", yielding output element "Z".

      -  Unblind(r, Z): Remove random scalar "r" from "Z", yielding
         output "N".

      -  Finalize(x, N, info): Compute the OPRF output using input "x",
         "N", and domain separation tag "info".

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      -  SerializeScalar(s): Map a scalar "s" to a unique byte array
         "buf" of fixed length.

      -  DeserializeScalar(buf): Map a byte array "buf" to a scalar "s",
         or fail if the input is not a valid byte representation of a
         scalar.

      -  SerializedElement: A serialized OPRF group element, a byte
         array of fixed length.

      -  SerializedScalar: A serialized OPRF scalar, a byte array of
         fixed length.

   *  Cryptographic hash function:

      -  Hash(m): Compute the cryptographic hash of input message "m".
         The type of the hash is determined by the chosen OPRF group.

      -  Nh: The output size of the Hash function.

   *  Memory Hard Function (MHF):

      -  Harden(msg, params): Repeatedly apply a memory hard function
         with parameters "params" to strengthen the input "msg" against
         offline dictionary attacks.  This function also needs to
         satisfy collision resistance.

   Note that we only need the base mode variant (as opposed to the
   verifiable mode variant) of the OPRF described in
   [I-D.irtf-cfrg-voprf].

3.  Offline Registration

   Registration is executed between a client C and a server S.  It is
   assumed S can identify C and the client can authenticate S during
   this registration phase.  This is the only part in OPAQUE that
   requires an authenticated channel, either physical, out-of-band, PKI-
   based, etc.  This section describes the registration flow, message
   encoding, and helper functions.  Moreover, C has a key pair
   (client_private_key, client_public_key) for an AKE protocol which is
   suitable for use with OPAQUE; See Section 4. (client_private_key,
   client_public_key) may be randomly generated for the account or
   provided by the calling client.  Clients MUST NOT use the same key
   pair (client_private_key, client_public_key) for two different
   accounts.

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   To begin, C chooses password password, and S chooses its own pair of
   private-public keys server_private_key and server_public_key for use
   with the AKE.  S can use the same pair of keys with multiple clients.
   These steps can happen offline, i.e., before the registration phase.
   Once complete, the registration process proceeds as follows:

 Client (password, creds)            Server (server_private_key, server_public_key)
 --------------------------------------------------------------------
 (request, blind) = CreateRegistrationRequest(password)

                               request
                      ------------------------->

            (response, oprf_key) = CreateRegistrationResponse(request, server_public_key)

                               response
                      <-------------------------

 (record, export_key) = FinalizeRequest(password, creds, blind, response)

                                record
                      ------------------------->

   Section 3.3 describes details of the functions referenced above.

   Both client and server MUST validate the other party's public key
   before use.  See Section 6.6 for more details.

   Upon completion, S stores C's credentials for later use.  See
   Section 3.3.4 for a recommended storage format.

3.1.  Credential Storage

   OPAQUE makes use of a structure "Envelope" to store client
   credentials.  The "Envelope" structure embeds the following types of
   credentials:

   *  client_private_key: The encoded client private key for the AKE
      protocol.

   *  server_public_key: The encoded server public key for the AKE
      protocol.

   *  client_identity: The client identity.  This is an application-
      specific value, e.g., an e-mail address or normal account name.

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   *  server_identity: The server identity.  This is typically a domain
      name, e.g., example.com.  See Section 6.2 for information about
      this identity.

   Each public and private key value is an opaque byte string, specific
   to the AKE protocol in which OPAQUE is instantiated.  For example, if
   used as raw public keys for TLS 1.3 [RFC8446], they may be RSA or
   ECDSA keys as per [RFC7250].

   These credentials are incorporated in the "SecretCredentials" and
   "CleartextCredentials" structs, depending on the mode set by the
   value of "EnvelopeMode":

   enum {
     base(1),
     custom_identifier(2),
     (255)
   } EnvelopeMode;

   The "base" mode defines "SecretCredentials" and
   "CleartextCredentials" as follows:

   struct {
     opaque client_private_key<1..2^16-1>;
   } SecretCredentials;

   struct {
     opaque server_public_key<1..2^16-1>;
   } CleartextCredentials;

   The "custom_identifier" mode defines "SecretCredentials" and
   "CleartextCredentials" as follows:

   struct {
     opaque client_private_key<1..2^16-1>;
   } SecretCredentials;

   struct {
     opaque server_public_key<1..2^16-1>;
     opaque client_identity<0..2^16-1>;
     opaque server_identity<0..2^16-1>;
   } CleartextCredentials;

   These credentials are embedded into the following "Envelope"
   structure with encryption and authentication.

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   struct {
     EnvelopeMode mode;
     opaque nonce[32];
     opaque encrypted_creds<1..2^16-1>;
   } InnerEnvelope;

   struct {
     InnerEnvelope inner_env;
     opaque auth_tag[Nh];
   } Envelope;

   mode  The "EnvelopeMode" value.  This MUST be one of "base" or
      "custom_identifier".

   nonce  A unique 32-byte nonce used to protect this Envelope.

   encrypted_creds  Encoding of encrypted and authenticated
      "SecretCredentials".

   auth_tag  Authentication tag protecting the contents of the envelope,
      covering "InnerEnvelope" and "CleartextCredentials".

   The full procedure for constructing "Envelope" and "InnerEnvelope"
   from "SecretCredentials" and "CleartextCredentials" is described in
   Section 3.3.3.  Note that only "SecretCredentials" are stored in the
   "Envelope" (in encrypted form).

   The "EnvelopeMode" value is specified as part of the configuration
   (see Section 5).

   Credential information corresponding to the configuration-specific
   mode, along with the client public key "client_public_key" and
   private key "client_private_key", are stored in a "Credentials"
   object with the following named fields:

   *  "client_private_key", the client's private key

   *  "client_public_key", the client's public key corresponding to
      "client_private_key"

   *  "client_identity", an optional client identity (present only in
      the "custom_identifier" mode)

   *  "server_identity", an optional server identity (present only in
      the "custom_identifier" mode)

3.2.  Registration Messages

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   struct {
       SerializedElement data;
   } RegistrationRequest;

   data  A serialized OPRF group element.

   struct {
       SerializedElement data;
       opaque server_public_key<1..2^16-1>;
   } RegistrationResponse;

   data  A serialized OPRF group element.

   server_public_key  An encoded public key that will be used for the
      online authenticated key exchange stage.

   struct {
       opaque client_public_key<1..2^16-1>;
       Envelope envelope;
   } RegistrationUpload;

   client_public_key  An encoded public key, corresponding to the
      private key "client_private_key".

   envelope  The client's "Envelope" structure.

3.3.  Registration Functions

3.3.1.  CreateRegistrationRequest

   CreateRegistrationRequest(password)

   Input:
   - password, an opaque byte string containing the client's password

   Output:
   - request, a RegistrationRequest structure
   - blind, an OPRF scalar value

   Steps:
   1. (blind, M) = Blind(password)
   2. Create RegistrationRequest request with M
   3. Output (request, blind)

3.3.2.  CreateRegistrationResponse

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   CreateRegistrationResponse(request, server_public_key)

   Input:
   - request, a RegistrationRequest structure
   - server_public_key, the server's public key

   Output:
   - response, a RegistrationResponse structure
   - oprf_key, the per-client OPRF key known only to the server

   Steps:
   1. (oprf_key, _) = KeyGen()
   2. Z = Evaluate(oprf_key, request.data)
   3. Create RegistrationResponse response with (Z, server_public_key)
   4. Output (response, oprf_key)

3.3.3.  FinalizeRequest

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FinalizeRequest(password, creds, blind, response)

Parameters:
- params, the MHF parameters established out of band
- mode, the InnerEnvelope mode
- Nh, the output size of the Hash function

Input:
- password, an opaque byte string containing the client's password
- creds, a Credentials structure
- blind, an OPRF scalar value
- response, a RegistrationResponse structure

Output:
- record, a RegistrationUpload structure
- export_key, an additional key

Steps:
1. N = Unblind(blind, response.data)
2. y = Finalize(password, N, "OPAQUE")
3. envelope_nonce = random(32)
4. prk = HKDF-Extract(envelope_nonce, Harden(y, params))
5. Create SecretCredentials secret_creds with creds.client_private_key
6. Create CleartextCredentials cleartext_creds with response.server_public_key
   and custom identifiers creds.client_identity and creds.server_identity if
   mode is custom_identifier
7. pseudorandom_pad =
     HKDF-Expand(prk, "Pad", len(secret_creds))
8. auth_key = HKDF-Expand(prk, "AuthKey", Nh)
9. export_key = HKDF-Expand(prk, "ExportKey", Nh)
10. encrypted_creds = xor(secret_creds, pseudorandom_pad)
11. Create InnerEnvelope inner_env
      with (mode, envelope_nonce, encrypted_creds)
12. auth_tag = HMAC(auth_key, concat(inner_env, cleartext_creds))
13. Create Envelope envelope with (inner_env, auth_tag)
14. Create RegistrationUpload record with (envelope, creds.client_public_key)
15. Output (record, export_key)

   The inputs to HKDF-Extract and HKDF-Expand are as specified in
   [RFC5869].  The underlying hash function is that which is associated
   with the OPAQUE configuration (see Section 5).

   See Section 4 for details about the output export_key usage.

   Upon completion of this function, the client MUST send "record" to
   the server.

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3.3.4.  Credential File

   The server then constructs and stores the "credential_file" object,
   where "envelope" and "client_public_key" are obtained from "record",
   and "oprf_key" is retained from the output of
   "CreateRegistrationResponse". "oprf_key" is serialized using
   "SerializeScalar".

   struct {
       SerializedScalar oprf_key;
       opaque client_public_key<1..2^16-1>;
       Envelope envelope;
   } credential_file;

4.  Online Authenticated Key Exchange

   After registration, the client and server run the authenticated key
   exchange stage of the OPAQUE protocol.  This stage is composed of a
   concurrent OPRF and key exchange flow.  The key exchange protocol is
   authenticated using the client and server credentials established
   during registration; see Section 3.  The type of keys MUST be
   suitable for the key exchange protocol.  For example, if the key
   exchange protocol is 3DH, as described in Section 4.2.2, then the
   private and public keys must be Diffie-Hellman keys.  At the end, the
   client proves its knowledge of the password, and both client and
   server agree on a mutually authenticated shared secret key.

   OPAQUE produces two outputs: a session secret and an export key.  The
   export key may be used for additional application-specific purposes,
   as outlined in Section 6.4.  The output "export_key" MUST NOT be used
   in any way before the HMAC value in the envelope is validated.  See
   Section 6.3 for more details about this requirement.

4.1.  Credential Retrieval

   The online AKE stage of the protocol requires clients to obtain and
   decrypt their credentials from the server-stored envelope.  This
   process is similar to the offline registration stage, as shown below.

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 Client (password)             Server (server_private_key, server_public_key, credential_file)
 --------------------------------------------------------------------
 (request, blind) = CreateCredentialRequest(password)

                               request
                      ------------------------->

    response = CreateCredentialResponse(request, server_public_key, credential_file)

                               response
                      <-------------------------

 (client_private_key, server_public_key, export_key) =
     RecoverCredentials(password, blind, response)

   The rest of this section describes these credential retrieval
   functions in more detail.

4.1.1.  Credential Retrieval Messages

   struct {
       SerializedElement data;
   } CredentialRequest;

   data  A serialized OPRF group element.

   struct {
       SerializedElement data;
       opaque server_public_key<1..2^16-1>;
       Envelope envelope;
   } CredentialResponse;

   data  A serialized OPRF group element.

   server_public_key  An encoded public key that will be used for the
      online authenticated key exchange stage.

   envelope  The client's "Envelope" structure.

4.1.2.  Credential Retrieval Functions

4.1.2.1.  CreateCredentialRequest

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   CreateCredentialRequest(password)

   Input:
   - password, an opaque byte string containing the client's password

   Output:
   - request, a CredentialRequest structure
   - blind, an OPRF scalar value

   Steps:
   1. (blind, M) = Blind(password)
   2. Create CredentialRequest request with M
   3. Output (request, blind)

4.1.2.2.  CreateCredentialResponse

CreateCredentialResponse(request, server_public_key, credential_file)

Input:
- request, a CredentialRequest structure
- server_public_key, the public key of the server
- credential_file, the server's output from registration
  (see {{credential-file}})

Output:
- response, a CredentialResponse structure

Steps:
1. Z = Evaluate(DeserializeScalar(credential_file.oprf_key), request.data)
2. Create CredentialResponse response
    with (Z, server_public_key, credential_file.envelope)
3. Output response

4.1.2.3.  RecoverCredentials

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RecoverCredentials(password, blind, response)

Parameters:
- params, the MHF parameters established out of band
- Nh, the output size of the Hash function

Input:
- password, an opaque byte string containing the client's password
- blind, an OPRF scalar value
- response, a CredentialResponse structure

Output:
- client_private_key, the client's private key for the AKE protocol
- server_public_key, the public key of the server
- export_key, an additional key

Steps:
1. N = Unblind(blind, response.data)
2. y = Finalize(password, N, "OPAQUE")
3. contents = response.envelope.contents
4. envelope_nonce = contents.nonce
5. prk = HKDF-Extract(envelope_nonce, Harden(y, params))
6. pseudorandom_pad =
    HKDF-Expand(prk, "Pad", len(contents.encrypted_creds))
7. auth_key = HKDF-Expand(prk, "AuthKey", Nh)
8. export_key = HKDF-Expand(prk, "ExportKey", Nh)
9. Create CleartextCredentials cleartext_creds with response.server_public_key
   and custom identifiers creds.client_identity and creds.server_identity if mode is
   custom_identifier
10. expected_tag = HMAC(auth_key, concat(contents, cleartext_creds))
11. If !ct_equal(response.envelope.auth_tag, expected_tag),
    raise DecryptionError
12. secret_creds = xor(contents.encrypted_creds, pseudorandom_pad)
13. Output (secret_creds.client_private_key, response.server_public_key, export_key)

4.2.  AKE Instantiations

   This section describes instantiations of OPAQUE using 3-message AKEs
   which satisfies the forward secrecy and KCI properties discussed in
   Section 6.  As shown in [OPAQUE], OPAQUE cannot use less than three
   messages so the 3-message instantiations presented here are optimal
   in terms of number of messages.  On the other hand, there is no
   impediment of using OPAQUE with protocols with more than 3 messages
   as in the case of IKEv2 (or the underlying SIGMA-R protocol [SIGMA]).

   The generic outline of OPAQUE with a 3-message AKE protocol includes
   three messages KE1, KE2, and KE3, where KE1 and KE2 include key
   exchange shares, e.g., DH values, sent by client and server,

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   respectively, and KE3 provides explicit client authentication and
   full forward security (without it, forward secrecy is only achieved
   against eavesdroppers which is insufficient for OPAQUE security).

   The output of the authentication phase is a session secret
   "session_key" and export key "export_key".  Applications can use
   "session_key" to derive additional keying material as needed.  Key
   derivation and other details of the protocol are specified by the AKE
   scheme.  We note that by the results in [OPAQUE], KE2 and KE3 must
   authenticate credential_request and credential_response,
   respectively, for binding between the underlying OPRF protocol
   messages and the KE session.

   The rest of this section includes key schedule utility functions used
   by OPAQUE-3DH, and then provides a detailed specification for OPAQUE-
   3DH, including its wire format messages.

4.2.1.  Key Schedule Utility Functions

   The key derivation procedures for OPAQUE-3DH makes use of the
   functions below, re-purposed from TLS 1.3 [RFC8446].

   HKDF-Expand-Label(Secret, Label, Context, Length) =
     HKDF-Expand(Secret, HkdfLabel, Length)

   Where HkdfLabel is specified as:

   struct {
      uint16 length = Length;
      opaque label<8..255> = "OPAQUE " + Label;
      opaque context<0..255> = Context;
   } HkdfLabel;

   Derive-Secret(Secret, Label, Transcript) =
       HKDF-Expand-Label(Secret, Label, Hash(Transcript), Nh)

   HKDF uses Hash as its underlying hash function, which is the same as
   that which is indicated by the OPAQUE instantiation.  Note that the
   Label parameter is not a NULL-terminated string.

4.2.2.  OPAQUE-3DH Instantiation

   OPAQUE-3DH is implemented using a suitable prime order group.  All
   operations in the key derivation steps in Section 4.2.2.2 are
   performed in this group and represented here using multiplicative
   notation.  The output of OPAQUE-3DH is a session secret "session_key"
   and export key "export_key".

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4.2.2.1.  OPAQUE-3DH Messages

   The three messages for OPAQUE-3DH are described below.

   struct {
     CredentialRequest request;
     uint8 client_nonce[32];
     opaque client_info<0..2^16-1>;
     uint8 client_keyshare[Npk];
   } KE1;

   request  A "CredentialRequest" generated according to
      Section 4.1.2.1.

   client_nonce  A fresh 32-byte randomly generated nonce.

   client_info  Optional application-specific information to exchange
      during the protocol.

   client_keyshare  Client ephemeral key share of fixed size Npk, where
      Npk depends on the corresponding prime order group.

   struct {
     CredentialResponse response;
     uint8 server_nonce[32];
     uint8 server_keyshare[Npk];
     opaque enc_server_info<0..2^16-1>;
     uint8 mac[Nh];
   } KE2;

   response  A "CredentialResponse" generated according to
      Section 4.1.2.2.

   server_nonce  A fresh 32-byte randomly generated nonce.

   server_keyshare  Server ephemeral key share of fixed size Npk, where
      Npk depends on the corresponding prime order group.

   enc_server_info  Optional application-specific information to
      exchange during the protocol encrypted under key Ke2, defined
      below.

   mac  An authentication tag computed over the handshake transcript
      computed using Km2, defined below.

   struct {
     uint8 mac[Nh];
   } KE3;

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   mac  An authentication tag computed over the handshake transcript
      computed using Km3, defined below.

4.2.2.2.  OPAQUE-3DH Key Schedule

   OPAQUE-3DH requires MAC keys "server_mac_key" and "client_mac_key"
   and encryption key "handshake_encrypt_key".  Additionally, OPAQUE-3DH
   also outputs "session_key".  The schedule for computing this key
   material is below.

   HKDF-Extract(salt=0, IKM)
       |
       +-> Derive-Secret(., "handshake secret", info) = handshake_secret
       |
       +-> Derive-Secret(., "session secret", info) = session_key

   From "handshake_secret", Km2, Km3, and Ke2 are computed as follows:

   server_mac_key =
     HKDF-Expand-Label(handshake_secret, "server mac", "", Nh)
   client_mac_key =
     HKDF-Expand-Label(handshake_secret, "client mac", "", Nh)
   handshake_encrypt_key =
     HKDF-Expand-Label(handshake_secret, "handshake enc", "", Nh)

   Nh is the output length of the underlying hash function.

   The HKDF input parameter "info" is computed as follows:

  info = "3DH keys" || I2OSP(len(client_nonce), 2) || client_nonce
                    || I2OSP(len(server_nonce), 2) || server_nonce
                    || I2OSP(len(client_identity), 2) || client_identity
                    || I2OSP(len(server_identity), 2) || server_identity

   See Section 6.2 for more information about identities client_identity
   and server_identity.

   Let "epkS" and "eskS" be "server_keyshare" and the corresponding
   secret key, and "epkU" and "eskU" be "client_keyshare" and the
   corresponding secret key.  The input parameter "IKM" the
   concatenation of three DH values computed by the client as follows:

   IKM = epkS^eskU || pkS^eskU || epkS^skU

   Likewise, "IKM" is computed by the server as follows:

   IKM = epkU^eskS || epkU^skS || pkU^eskS

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4.2.2.3.  OPAQUE-3DH Encryption and Key Confirmation {#3dh-core}

   Clients and servers use keys Km2 and Km3 in computing KE2.mac and
   KE3.mac, respectively.  These values are computed as HMAC(mac_key,
   transcript), where mac_key and transcript are as follows:

   *  KE2.mac: mac_key is Km2 and transcript is the concatenation of KE1
      and KE2, excluding KE2.mac.

   *  KE3.mac: mac_key is Km3 and transcript is the concatenation of KE1
      and KE2, including KE2.mac.

   The server applicaton info, an opaque byte string "server_info", is
   encrypted using a technique similar to that used for secret
   credential encryption.  Specifically, a one-time-pad is derived from
   Ke2 and then used as input to XOR with the plaintext.  In pseudocode,
   this is done as follows:

   info_pad = HKDF-Expand(Ke2, "encryption pad", len(server_info))
   enc_server_info = xor(info_pad, server_info)

5.  Configurations

   An OPAQUE configuration is a tuple (OPRF, Hash, MHF, EnvelopeMode).
   The OPAQUE OPRF protocol is drawn from the "base mode" variant of
   [I-D.irtf-cfrg-voprf].  The following OPRF ciphersuites are
   supported:

   *  OPRF(ristretto255, SHA-512)

   *  OPRF(decaf448, SHA-512)

   *  OPRF(P-256, SHA-256)

   *  OPRF(P-384, SHA-512)

   *  OPRF(P-521, SHA-512)

   Future configurations may specify different OPRF constructions.

   The OPAQUE hash function is that which is associated with the OPRF
   ciphersuite.  For the ciphersuites specified here, only SHA-512 and
   SHA-256 are supported.

   The OPAQUE MHFs include Argon2 [I-D.irtf-cfrg-argon2], scrypt
   [RFC7914], and PBKDF2 [RFC2898] with fixed parameter choices.

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   The EnvelopeMode value is defined in Section 3.1.  It MUST be one of
   "base" or "custom_identifier".  Future specifications may specify
   alternate EnvelopeMode values and their corresponding Envelope
   structure.

6.  Security Considerations

   OPAQUE is defined and proven as the composition of two
   functionalities: an OPRF and an AKE protocol.  It can be seen as a
   "compiler" for transforming any AKE protocol (with KCI security and
   forward secrecy - see below) into a secure aPAKE protocol.  In
   OPAQUE, the client stores a secret private key at the server during
   password registration and retrieves this key each time it needs to
   authenticate to the server.  The OPRF security properties ensure that
   only the correct password can unlock the private key while at the
   same time avoiding potential offline guessing attacks.  This general
   composability property provides great flexibility and enables a
   variety of OPAQUE instantiations, from optimized performance to
   integration with TLS.  The latter aspect is of prime importance as
   the use of OPAQUE with TLS constitutes a major security improvement
   relative to the standard password-over-TLS practice.  At the same
   time, the combination with TLS builds OPAQUE as a fully functional
   secure communications protocol and can help provide privacy to
   account information sent by the client to the server prior to
   authentication.

   The KCI property required from AKE protocols for use with OPAQUE
   states that knowledge of a party's private key does not allow an
   attacker to impersonate others to that party.  This is an important
   security property achieved by most public-key based AKE protocols,
   including protocols that use signatures or public key encryption for
   authentication.  It is also a property of many implicitly
   authenticated protocols, e.g., HMQV, but not all of them.  We also
   note that key exchange protocols based on shared keys do not satisfy
   the KCI requirement, hence they are not considered in the OPAQUE
   setting.  We note that KCI is needed to ensure a crucial property of
   OPAQUE: even upon compromise of the server, the attacker cannot
   impersonate the client to the server without first running an
   exhaustive dictionary attack.  Another essential requirement from AKE
   protocols for use in OPAQUE is to provide forward secrecy (against
   active attackers).

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6.1.  Related Analysis

   Jarecki et al.  [OPAQUE] proved the security of OPAQUE in a strong
   aPAKE model that ensures security against pre-computation attacks and
   is formulated in the Universal Composability (UC) framework
   [Canetti01] under the random oracle model.  This assumes security of
   the OPRF function and of the underlying key exchange protocol.  In
   turn, the security of the OPRF protocol from [I-D.irtf-cfrg-voprf] is
   proven in the random oracle model under the One-More Diffie-Hellman
   assumption [JKKX16].

   Very few aPAKE protocols have been proven formally, and those proven
   were analyzed in a weak security model that allows for pre-
   computation attacks (e.g., [GMR06]).  This is not just a formal
   issue: these protocols are actually vulnerable to such attacks.  This
   includes protocols that have recent analyses in the UC model such as
   AuCPace [AuCPace] and SPAKE2+ [SPAKE2plus].  We note that as shown in
   [OPAQUE], these protocols, and any aPAKE in the model from [GMR06],
   can be converted into an aPAKE secure against pre-computation attacks
   at the expense of an additional OPRF execution.

   OPAQUE's design builds on a line of work initiated in the seminal
   paper of Ford and Kaliski [FK00] and is based on the HPAKE protocol
   of Xavier Boyen [Boyen09] and the (1,1)-PPSS protocol from Jarecki et
   al.  [JKKX16].  None of these papers considered security against pre-
   computation attacks or presented a proof of aPAKE security (not even
   in a weak model).

6.2.  Identities

   AKE protocols generate keys that need to be uniquely and verifiably
   bound to a pair of identities.  In the case of OPAQUE, those
   identities correspond to client_identity and server_identity.  Thus,
   it is essential for the parties to agree on such identities,
   including an agreed bit representation of these identities as needed.

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   Applications may have different policies about how and when
   identities are determined.  A natural approach is to tie
   client_identity to the identity the server uses to fetch envelope
   (hence determined during password registration) and to tie
   server_identity to the server identity used by the client to initiate
   an offline password registration or online authenticated key exchange
   session. server_identity and client_identity can also be part of
   envelope or be tied to the parties' public keys.  In principle, it is
   possible that identities change across different sessions as long as
   there is a policy that can establish if the identity is acceptable or
   not to the peer.  However, we note that the public keys of both the
   server and the client must always be those defined at time of
   password registration.

   The client identity (client_identity) and server identity
   (server_identity) are optional parameters which are left to the
   application to designate as monikers for the client and server.  If
   the application layer does not supply values for these parameters,
   then they will be omitted from the creation of the envelope during
   the registration stage.  Furthermore, they will be substituted with
   client_identity = client_public_key and server_identity =
   server_public_key during the authenticated key exchange stage.

   The advantage to supplying a custom client_identity and
   server_identity (instead of simply relying on a fallback to
   client_public_key and server_public_key) is that the client can then
   ensure that any mappings between client_identity and
   client_public_key (and server_identity and server_public_key) are
   protected by the authentication from the envelope.  Then, the client
   can verify that the client_identity and server_identity contained in
   its envelope matches the client_identity and server_identity supplied
   by the server.

   However, if this extra layer of verification is unnecessary for the
   application, then simply leaving client_identity and server_identity
   unspecified (and using client_public_key and server_public_key
   instead) is acceptable.

6.3.  Envelope Encryption

   The analysis of OPAQUE from [OPAQUE] requires the authenticated
   encryption scheme used to produce envelope to have a special property
   called random key-robustness (or key-committing).  This specification
   enforces this property by utilizing encrypt-then-HMAC in the
   construction of envelope.  There is no option to use another
   authenticated-encryption scheme with this specification.  (Deviating
   from the key-robustness requirement may open the protocol to attacks,
   e.g., [LGR20].)  We remark that export_key for authentication or

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   encryption requires no special properties from the authentication or
   encryption schemes as long as export_key is used only after the
   envelope is validated, i.e., after the HMAC in RecoverCredentials
   passes verification.

6.4.  Export Key Usage

   The export key can be used (separately from the OPAQUE protocol) to
   provide confidentiality and integrity to other data which only the
   client should be able to process.  For instance, if the server is
   expected to maintain any client-side secrets which require a password
   to access, then this export key can be used to encrypt these secrets
   so that they remain hidden from the server.

6.5.  Static Diffie-Hellman Oracles

   While one can expect the practical security of the OPRF function
   (namely, the hardness of computing the function without knowing the
   key) to be in the order of computing discrete logarithms or solving
   Diffie-Hellman, Brown and Gallant [BG04] and Cheon [Cheon06] show an
   attack that slightly improves on generic attacks.  For the case that
   q-1 or q+1, where q is the order of the group G, has a t-bit divisor,
   they show an attack that calls the OPRF on 2^t chosen inputs and
   reduces security by t/2 bits, i.e., it can find the OPRF key in time
   2^{q/2-t/2} and 2^{q/2-t/2} memory.  For typical curves, the attack
   requires an infeasible number of calls and/or results in
   insignificant security loss (*).  Moreover, in the OPAQUE
   application, these attacks are completely impractical as the number
   of calls to the function translates to an equal number of failed
   authentication attempts by a _single_ client.  For example, one would
   need a billion impersonation attempts to reduce security by 15 bits
   and a trillion to reduce it by 20 bits - and most curves will not
   even allow for such attacks in the first place (note that this
   theoretical loss of security is with respect to computing discrete
   logarithms, not in reducing the password strength).

   (*) Some examples (courtesy of Dan Brown): For P-384, 2^90 calls
   reduce security from 192 to 147 bits; for NIST P-256 the options are
   6-bit reduction with 2153 OPRF calls, about 14 bit reduction with 187
   million calls and 20 bits with a trillion calls.  For Curve25519,
   attacks are completely infeasible (require over 2^100 calls) but its
   twist form allows an attack with 25759 calls that reduces security by
   7 bits and one with 117223 calls that reduces security by 8.4 bits.

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6.6.  Input Validation

   Both client and server MUST validate the other party's public key(s)
   used for the execution of OPAQUE.  This includes the keys shared
   during the offline registration phase, as well as any keys shared
   during the online key agreement phase.  The validation procedure
   varies depending on the type of key.  For example, for OPAQUE
   instantiations using 3DH with P-256, P-384, or P-521 as the
   underlying group, validation is as specified in Section 5.6.2.3.4 of
   [keyagreement].  This includes checking that the coordinates are in
   the correct range, that the point is on the curve, and that the point
   is not the point at infinity.  Additionally, validation MUST ensure
   the Diffie-Hellman shared secret is not the point at infinity.

6.7.  OPRF Hardening

   Hardening the output of the OPRF greatly increases the cost of an
   offline attack upon the compromise of the password file at the
   server.  Applications SHOULD select parameters that balance cost and
   complexity.

6.8.  Client Enumeration

   Client enumeration refers to attacks where the attacker tries to
   learn whether a given client identity is registered with a server.
   Preventing such attacks requires the server to act with unknown
   client identities in a way that is indistinguishable from its
   behavior with existing clients.  Here we suggest a way to implement
   such defense, namely, a way for simulating a CredentialResponse for
   non-existing clients.  Note that if the same CredentialRequest is
   received twice by the server, the response needs to be the same in
   both cases (since this would be the case for real clients).  For
   protection against this attack, one would apply the encryption
   function in the construction of envelope to all the key material in
   envelope.  The server S will have two keys MK, MK' for a pseudorandom
   function f. f refers to a regular pseudorandom function such as HMAC
   or CMAC.  Upon receiving a CredentialRequest for a non-existing
   client client_identity, S computes oprf_key=f(MK; client_identity)
   and oprf_key'=f(MK'; client_identity) and responds with
   CredentialResponse carrying Z=M^oprf_key and envelope, where the
   latter is computed as follows. prk is set to oprf_key' and
   secret_creds is set to the all-zero string (of the length of a
   regular envelope plaintext).  Care needs to be taken to avoid side
   channel leakage (e.g., timing) from helping differentiate these
   operations from a regular server response.  The above requires
   changes to the server-side implementation but not to the protocol
   itself or the client side.

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   There is one form of leakage that the above allows and whose
   prevention would require a change in OPAQUE.  An attacker that
   attempts authentication with the same CredentialRequest twice and
   receives different responses can conclude that either the client
   registered with the service between these two activations or that the
   client was registered before but changed its password in between the
   activations (assuming the server changes oprf_key at the time of a
   password change).  In any case, this indicates that client_identity
   is a registered client at the time of the second activation.  To
   conceal this information, S can implement the derivation of oprf_key
   as oprf_key=f(MK; client_identity) also for registered clients.
   Hiding changes in envelope, however, requires a change in the
   protocol.  Instead of sending envelope as is, S would send an
   encryption of envelope under a key that the client derives from the
   OPRF result (similarly to prk) and that S stores during password
   registration.  During the authenticated key exchange stage, the
   client will derive this key from the OPRF result, will use it to
   decrypt envelope, and continue with the regular protocol.  If S uses
   a randomized encryption, the encrypted envelope will look each time
   as a fresh random string, hence S can simulate the encrypted envelope
   also for non-existing clients.

   Note that the first case above does not change the protocol so its
   implementation is a server's decision (the client side is not
   changed).  The second case, requires changes on the client side so it
   changes OPAQUE itself.

   [[https://github.com/cfrg/draft-irtf-cfrg-opaque/issues/22: Should
   this variant be documented/standardized?]]

6.9.  Password Salt and Storage Implications

   In OPAQUE, the OPRF key acts as the secret salt value that ensures
   the infeasibility of pre-computation attacks.  No extra salt value is
   needed.  Also, clients never disclose their password to the server,
   even during registration.  Note that a corrupted server can run an
   exhaustive offline dictionary attack to validate guesses for the
   client's password; this is inevitable in any aPAKE protocol.  (OPAQUE
   enables a defense against such offline dictionary attacks by
   distributing the server so that an offline attack is only possible if
   all - or a minimal number of - servers are compromised [OPAQUE].)

   Some applications may require learning the client's password for
   enforcing password rules.  Doing so invalidates this important
   security property of OPAQUE and is NOT RECOMMENDED.  Applications
   should move such checks to the client.  Note that limited checks at
   the server are possible to implement, e.g., detecting repeated
   passwords.

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7.  IANA Considerations

   This document makes no IANA requests.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC4086]  Eastlake 3rd, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker,
              "Randomness Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC4086, June 2005,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4086>.

   [RFC8174]  Leiba, B., "Ambiguity of Uppercase vs Lowercase in RFC
              2119 Key Words", BCP 14, RFC 8174, DOI 10.17487/RFC8174,
              May 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8174>.

8.2.  Informative References

   [AuCPace]  Haase, B. and B. Labrique, "AuCPace: Efficient verifier-
              based PAKE protocol tailored for the IIoT",
              http://eprint.iacr.org/2018/286 , 2018.

   [BG04]     Brown, D. and R. Galant, "The static Diffie-Hellman
              problem", http://eprint.iacr.org/2004/306 , 2004.

   [Boyen09]  Boyen, X., "HPAKE: Password authentication secure against
              cross-site user impersonation", Cryptology and Network
              Security (CANS) , 2009.

   [Canetti01]
              Canetti, R., "Universally composable security: A new
              paradigm for cryptographic protocols", IEEE Symposium on
              Foundations of Computer Science (FOCS) , 2001.

   [Cheon06]  Cheon, J.H., "Security analysis of the strong Diffie-
              Hellman problem", Euroctypt 2006 , 2006.

   [FK00]     Ford, W. and B.S. Kaliski, Jr, "Server-assisted generation
              of a strong secret from a password", WETICE , 2000.

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   [GMR06]    Gentry, C., MacKenzie, P., and . Z, Ramzan, "A method for
              making password-based key exchange resilient to server
              compromise", CRYPTO , 2006.

   [HMQV]     Krawczyk, H., "HMQV: A high-performance secure Diffie-
              Hellman protocol", CRYPTO , 2005.

   [I-D.irtf-cfrg-argon2]
              Biryukov, A., Dinu, D., Khovratovich, D., and S.
              Josefsson, "The memory-hard Argon2 password hash and
              proof-of-work function", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-irtf-cfrg-argon2-12, 8 September 2020,
              <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-irtf-cfrg-
              argon2-12.txt>.

   [I-D.irtf-cfrg-hash-to-curve]
              Faz-Hernandez, A., Scott, S., Sullivan, N., Wahby, R., and
              C. Wood, "Hashing to Elliptic Curves", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-irtf-cfrg-hash-to-curve-10, 11
              October 2020, <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-
              irtf-cfrg-hash-to-curve-10.txt>.

   [I-D.irtf-cfrg-voprf]
              Davidson, A., Faz-Hernandez, A., Sullivan, N., and C.
              Wood, "Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions (OPRFs) using
              Prime-Order Groups", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft,
              draft-irtf-cfrg-voprf-05, 2 November 2020,
              <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-irtf-cfrg-
              voprf-05.txt>.

   [I-D.sullivan-tls-opaque]
              Sullivan, N., Krawczyk, H., Friel, O., and R. Barnes,
              "Usage of OPAQUE with TLS 1.3", Work in Progress,
              Internet-Draft, draft-sullivan-tls-opaque-00, 11 March
              2019, <http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-sullivan-
              tls-opaque-00.txt>.

   [JKKX16]   Jarecki, S., Kiayias, A., Krawczyk, H., and J. Xu,
              "Highly-efficient and composable password-protected secret
              sharing (or: how to protect your bitcoin wallet online)",
              IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy , 2016.

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   [keyagreement]
              Barker, E., Chen, L., Roginsky, A., Vassilev, A., and R.
              Davis, "Recommendation for pair-wise key-establishment
              schemes using discrete logarithm cryptography", National
              Institute of Standards and Technology report,
              DOI 10.6028/nist.sp.800-56ar3, April 2018,
              <https://doi.org/10.6028/nist.sp.800-56ar3>.

   [LGR20]    Len, J., Grubbs, P., and T. Ristenpart, "Partitioning
              Oracle Attacks", n.d.,
              <https://eprint.iacr.org/2020/1491.pdf>.

   [OPAQUE]   Jarecki, S., Krawczyk, H., and J. Xu, "OPAQUE: An
              Asymmetric PAKE Protocol Secure Against Pre-Computation
              Attacks", Eurocrypt , 2018.

   [RFC2898]  Kaliski, B., "PKCS #5: Password-Based Cryptography
              Specification Version 2.0", RFC 2898,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2898, September 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2898>.

   [RFC2945]  Wu, T., "The SRP Authentication and Key Exchange System",
              RFC 2945, DOI 10.17487/RFC2945, September 2000,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2945>.

   [RFC5869]  Krawczyk, H. and P. Eronen, "HMAC-based Extract-and-Expand
              Key Derivation Function (HKDF)", RFC 5869,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5869, May 2010,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5869>.

   [RFC7250]  Wouters, P., Ed., Tschofenig, H., Ed., Gilmore, J.,
              Weiler, S., and T. Kivinen, "Using Raw Public Keys in
              Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport
              Layer Security (DTLS)", RFC 7250, DOI 10.17487/RFC7250,
              June 2014, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7250>.

   [RFC7914]  Percival, C. and S. Josefsson, "The scrypt Password-Based
              Key Derivation Function", RFC 7914, DOI 10.17487/RFC7914,
              August 2016, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7914>.

   [RFC8017]  Moriarty, K., Ed., Kaliski, B., Jonsson, J., and A. Rusch,
              "PKCS #1: RSA Cryptography Specifications Version 2.2",
              RFC 8017, DOI 10.17487/RFC8017, November 2016,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8017>.

   [RFC8125]  Schmidt, J., "Requirements for Password-Authenticated Key
              Agreement (PAKE) Schemes", RFC 8125, DOI 10.17487/RFC8125,
              April 2017, <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8125>.

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   [RFC8446]  Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", RFC 8446, DOI 10.17487/RFC8446, August 2018,
              <https://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8446>.

   [SIGMA]    Krawczyk, H., "SIGMA: The SIGn-and-MAc approach to
              authenticated Diffie-Hellman and its use in the IKE
              protocols", CRYPTO , 2003.

   [SIGNAL]   "Signal recommended cryptographic algorithms",
              https://signal.org/docs/specifications/
              doubleratchet/#recommended-cryptographic-algorithms ,
              2016.

   [SPAKE2plus]
              Shoup, V., "Security Analysis of SPAKE2+",
              http://eprint.iacr.org/2020/313 , 2020.

Appendix A.  Acknowledgments

   The OPAQUE protocol and its analysis is joint work of the author with
   Stas Jarecki and Jiayu Xu.  We are indebted to the OPAQUE reviewers
   during CFRG's aPAKE selection process, particularly Julia Hesse and
   Bjorn Tackmann.  This draft has benefited from comments by multiple
   people.  Special thanks to Richard Barnes, Dan Brown, Eric Crockett,
   Paul Grubbs, Fredrik oprf_keyivinen, Payman Mohassel, Jason Resch,
   Greg Rubin, and Nick Sullivan.

Appendix B.  Alternate AKE Instantiations

   It is possible to instantiate OPAQUE with other AKEs, such as HMQV
   [HMQV] and SIGMA-I.  HMQV is similar to 3DH but varies in its key
   schedule.  SIGMA-I uses digital signatures rather than static DH keys
   for authentication.  Specification of these instantiations is left to
   future documents.  A sketch of how these instantiations might change
   is included below for posterity.

   OPAQUE may also be instantiated with any post-quantum (PQ) AKE
   protocol that has the message flow above and security properties (KCI
   resistance and forward secrecy) outlined in Section 6.  Note that
   such an instantiation is not quantum safe unless the OPRF is quantum
   safe.  However, an OPAQUE instantiation where the AKE is quantum
   safe, but the OPRF is not, would still ensure the confidentiality of
   application data encrypted under session_key (or a key derived from
   it) with a quantum-safe encryption function.

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B.1.  HMQV Instantiation Sketch

   An HMQV instantiation would work similar to OPAQUE-3DH, differing
   primarily in the key schedule [HMQV].  First, the key schedule "info"
   value would use a different constant prefix -- "HMQV keys" instead of
   "3DH keys" -- as shown below.

 info = "HMQV keys" || I2OSP(len(client_nonce), 2) || client_nonce
                    || I2OSP(len(server_nonce), 2) || server_nonce
                    || I2OSP(len(client_identity), 2) || client_identity
                    || I2OSP(len(server_identity), 2) || server_identity

   Second, the IKM derivation would change.  Assuming HMQV is
   instantiated with a cyclic group of prime order p with bit length L,
   clients would compute "IKM" as follows:

   u' = (eskU + u \* skU) mod p
   IKM = (epkS \* pkS^s)^u'

   Likewise, servers would compute "IKM" as follows:

   s' = (eskS + s \* skS) mod p
   IKM = (epkU \* pkU^u)^s'

   In both cases, "u" would be computed as follows:

   hashInput = I2OSP(len(epkU), 2) || epkU ||
               I2OSP(len(info), 2) || info ||
               I2OSP(len("client"), 2) || "client"
   u = Hash(hashInput) mod L

   Likewise, "s" would be computed as follows:

   hashInput = I2OSP(len(epkS), 2) || epkS ||
               I2OSP(len(info), 2) || info ||
               I2OSP(len("server"), 2) || "server"
   s = Hash(hashInput) mod L

   Hash is the same hash function used in the main OPAQUE protocol for
   key derivation.  Its output length (in bits) must be at least L.

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B.2.  SIGMA-I Instantiation Sketch

   A SIGMA-I instantiation differs more drastically from OPAQUE-3DH,
   since authentication uses digital signatures in lieu of Diffie
   Hellman.  In particular, both KE2 and KE3 would carry a digital
   signature, computed using the server and client private keys
   established during registration, respectively, as well as a MAC,
   where the MAC is computed as in OPAQUE-3DH.

   The key schedule would also change.  Specifically, the key schedule
   "info" value would use a different constant prefix -- "SIGMA-I keys"
   instead of "3DH keys" -- and the "IKM" computation would use only the
   ephemeral key shares exchanged between client and server.

Appendix C.  Test Vectors

   This section contains test vectors for the OPAQUE-3DH specification.
   Each test vector specifies the configuration information, protocol
   inputs, intermeidate values computed during registration and
   authentication, and protocol outputs.  All values are encoded in
   hexadecimal strings.  The configuration information includes the
   (OPRF, Hash, MHF, EnvelopeMode) tuple, along with the group to which
   the AKE authentication keys correspond.

C.1.  OPAQUE-3DH Test Vector 1

C.1.1.  Configuration

   Group: ristretto255
   EnvelopeMode: 01
   OPRF: 0001
   SlowHash: Identity
   Hash: SHA512

C.1.2.  Input Values

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   server_nonce: a4997137a8fa0d4baf7052a499bf877057f9404e03c889d641a0d7c
   807b6a518
   oprf_key: 5ed895206bfc53316d307b23e46ecc6623afb3086da74189a416012be03
   7e50b
   password: 436f7272656374486f72736542617474657279537461706c65
   blind_login: ed8366feb6b1d05d1f46acb727061e43aadfafe9c10e5a64e7518d63
   e3263503
   server_private_keyshare: 31587dff30b8001d9d43584decc22e358fa7f9d6e606
   29fb1223081c3bae7103
   client_nonce: 75a1ad27ab77578bc08b44c4318f09b31d53145c9ba3b42abf0ea08
   a781277a6
   server_info: 6772656574696e677320616c696365
   client_info: 68656c6c6f20626f62
   client_private_keyshare: fbbf4ad24119f08a35bf999f8ae0c779ed7b3e266bf3
   3f793f6bf9ebf4578005
   envelope_nonce: 6c6bb9021b9833c788dd25994d3ce7f3811338744fd6dc556e037
   585783444c0
   server_keyshare: 82be40ef93bf7c6edd43d4ed9f52fa19827649b819de39c52a22
   43e985b75d62
   blind_registration: c604c785ada70d77a5256ae21767de8c3304115237d262134
   f5e46e512cf8e03
   client_public_key: b2d1b10f3741a8efef3139f4d2889f2b11f776b79b9aa2c3ef
   caba4f1c4ae861
   client_private_key: f0f56cfb488649fe28691dd9aa5dc9ff4c0e6028075baa3c5
   615398a2cb12304
   client_keyshare: 484e47e31b3132f4ee512e41805a1690891111a7b885bc526198
   22c14cabf360
   server_public_key: 5442a6f57333a332b4c6f07308f6fa846bde3ed27425820cdc
   eeeb935924a903
   server_private_key: d63d709e3a739a128929a9f289ff263fdcbc457f2f47f7c43
   ccafbbfee72290c

C.1.3.  Intermediate Values

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   auth_key: 22198da4ad73b1d35cd8bb875e64ce1a9fc2edeb073d760e114d1d7a2f8
   6d47411caf1787907e2ff96cd3190b14d101101d74cff234259d9f19a18f2cfe29d0b
   server_mac_key: 9de28e2f7107afe266570934c033dd6a403fb2b09a9f1a1357a81
   9fb072d25e6651626638d77bd7f0adf4b2b715d0a0bee2ac531fd0f7da699aba6e9ed
   717466
   envelope: 016c6bb9021b9833c788dd25994d3ce7f3811338744fd6dc556e0375857
   83444c00022e9b28440a1dc99cca7513e8eb754d427caf8515642b45a92c73838c043
   fc316deeb83deface81589bc8e5c2c767b5ab79218834fbf4fa4f87cf23775aa54633
   ed75665cd88f451e044cac1b282d890269476d1ac18ff9a4c0cb832e1143ffa7d447a
   prk: 732303f65e76c39f30876aec31af1f5bcd8861626c922baa2e842209c7d5bf2e
   024912db2d6cac00b1260c437d34ec588a664a55fc7a0a40251915d2b15d8ec9
   client_mac_key: 1536168d48218d08dcbed3438e897d98eff566894240d8d136be0
   4ba46b2c788883fd165ce7614c52a6a9c926bf55d249e6c29bc4a23d5a1775ad294a7
   858922
   pseudorandom_pad: e99274b5cd27d14aeeaf16e7aa8d7e7a03071d58229c5dc96d0
   46ed57a761ddccdbc
   handshake_encrypt_key: c646def7a8ca75282ac1a0ad15630834cba2772837d7a3
   a26d00b36923e55b3f5d065679c715e4c799654f261c865f1a55bc94cabc29a6e2e72
   296dfc494a984
   handshake_secret: cc887e128c28064106d4101ac3de633e9096e170f2c4a9913d3
   50f306274b1665a5b251f761672c12db4c403a615c22cee96adb3539fa62662a17f2e
   18cd5fed

C.1.4.  Output Values

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   registration_response: 1867301bcc67bdf8e640b7d6edcbe2a65488446417b50d
   30cdba66ccb379e57200205442a6f57333a332b4c6f07308f6fa846bde3ed27425820
   cdceeeb935924a903
   export_key: 6ca2c344763e5bc9e3d2bbfe3d982b826b709da597e28e85f9594ec54
   2a20c697d55de277ccce1d1af7c48ab7fea1467ac1e3a99c71dcf6326a909d280bd2f
   6f
   registration_upload: 0020b2d1b10f3741a8efef3139f4d2889f2b11f776b79b9a
   a2c3efcaba4f1c4ae861016c6bb9021b9833c788dd25994d3ce7f3811338744fd6dc5
   56e037585783444c00022e9b28440a1dc99cca7513e8eb754d427caf8515642b45a92
   c73838c043fc316deeb83deface81589bc8e5c2c767b5ab79218834fbf4fa4f87cf23
   775aa54633ed75665cd88f451e044cac1b282d890269476d1ac18ff9a4c0cb832e114
   3ffa7d447a
   registration_request: 241b621c417c0705b5ea7a8b7cdd5039fd61e6b63effe2a
   44418164c4d49003e
   session_key: ee9f1ef224d498858f6c9b3a121016a38bad7816055c452b1c7edf3d
   d439c42a4cc78cbd672e985a20910df14f8f1af4ce5793303ffe6954ff5f1a264e3fd
   515
   KE3: e771daf28bc5e8068dead67c3db19f9ad03ee919e52f6c7a6e79cf1085bd7448
   1e76512c77f37762578eb2faff8fe98e4185ca2d01957216c556d33a6fba3028
   KE2: e83812f06568d57b8cdfdcc90fe91454e21bd25dd2a1c32dd1599a2e4a4b6c35
   00205442a6f57333a332b4c6f07308f6fa846bde3ed27425820cdceeeb935924a9030
   16c6bb9021b9833c788dd25994d3ce7f3811338744fd6dc556e037585783444c00022
   e9b28440a1dc99cca7513e8eb754d427caf8515642b45a92c73838c043fc316deeb83
   deface81589bc8e5c2c767b5ab79218834fbf4fa4f87cf23775aa54633ed75665cd88
   f451e044cac1b282d890269476d1ac18ff9a4c0cb832e1143ffa7d447aa4997137a8f
   a0d4baf7052a499bf877057f9404e03c889d641a0d7c807b6a51882be40ef93bf7c6e
   dd43d4ed9f52fa19827649b819de39c52a2243e985b75d62000f13aed85ae30aee2f8
   9ac5e1c5dd53609b890267ef2d765bb56000bc704c2ba4e4256107befee6655cdb084
   64e6c75d8b251642e0d721b3fce38f245568b50e7f6c98825d54cc1a26d6eafadcc1d
   344
   KE1: b68e0e356f8490fa9c3bed952e16cc02db21eda686b3c484f3d9d912caa41f76
   75a1ad27ab77578bc08b44c4318f09b31d53145c9ba3b42abf0ea08a781277a600096
   8656c6c6f20626f62484e47e31b3132f4ee512e41805a1690891111a7b885bc526198
   22c14cabf360

C.2.  OPAQUE-3DH Test Vector 2

C.2.1.  Configuration

   Group: ristretto255
   EnvelopeMode: 02
   OPRF: 0001
   SlowHash: Identity
   Hash: SHA512

C.2.2.  Input Values

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   server_nonce: 0f3a6da8b667bc7a383c987586bee749c5f2787691baca68757e78b
   6128b0a0f
   oprf_key: 89c61a42c8191a5ca41f2fe959843d333bcf43173b7de4c5c119e0e0d8b
   0e707
   password: 436f7272656374486f72736542617474657279537461706c65
   blind_login: e6d0f1d89ad552e383d6c6f4e8598cc3037d6e274d22da3089e7afbd
   4171ea02
   server_private_keyshare: 70c944dcb7f4dddde168ecb48dd9488c62b6fc7e9bb4
   2a16d291afca9dd25b07
   client_nonce: 480917b09c6720680b4a7a0ba9f54b69d870f640a4a7994b47ad07d
   1a95c984f
   server_info: 6772656574696e677320616c696365
   server_identity: 5442a6f57333a332b4c6f07308f6fa846bde3ed27425820cdcee
   eb935924a903
   client_info: 68656c6c6f20626f62
   client_private_keyshare: a4ba6cb7e16ab76eccdb4c0b9261eedd426d7863f00b
   fc4a0e09476d3121e70c
   envelope_nonce: e38fb444afe3df13ae05e6876d10eca7661196375518eb66d7dee
   b8cfb42d13f
   server_public_key: 5442a6f57333a332b4c6f07308f6fa846bde3ed27425820cdc
   eeeb935924a903
   client_identity: b2d1b10f3741a8efef3139f4d2889f2b11f776b79b9aa2c3efca
   ba4f1c4ae861
   blind_registration: 019cbd1d7420292528f8cdd62f339fdabb602f04a95dac9db
   cec831b8c681a09
   client_public_key: b2d1b10f3741a8efef3139f4d2889f2b11f776b79b9aa2c3ef
   caba4f1c4ae861
   client_private_key: f0f56cfb488649fe28691dd9aa5dc9ff4c0e6028075baa3c5
   615398a2cb12304
   client_keyshare: 4ae7d50bb80cc8f5034d36c1c27edc30caca0983677a941bc0ac
   e5e10b18300a
   server_keyshare: a2e9e0809b270a1d5c8208f3498a3188538265e6a9e6b274cb38
   c4c5d9b1792d
   server_private_key: d63d709e3a739a128929a9f289ff263fdcbc457f2f47f7c43
   ccafbbfee72290c

C.2.3.  Intermediate Values

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   auth_key: 4c7c0ae950ad7e9c518266f953d4a01bd2232695f92fb028aa6c124996e
   31a205f621305fd4997edf8a5fce04a51252ba8430227c134b81d7093a58e01c70752
   server_mac_key: 974bde939ef1d30ba29f9ec2addcaff1eeb105a1f534e04113f9f
   0b5c3b9a0797e3fa5f7006e63dfb2b0ce74d002bd1161767c361507bfb1fa0fed5063
   1cdcb7
   envelope: 02e38fb444afe3df13ae05e6876d10eca7661196375518eb66d7deeb8cf
   b42d13f00227ed4654d4452340f26c6304dceeeb1fddb142fcd91b3b26ecd566d7688
   095f9478a721e5a592be9dd3bda76ed97421819aca4a30752813223d33bc7ea443be9
   76754605116278c7fffda4de142674ed154f540bd3285080637eb4b929e1378336b11
   prk: e3bb74ca5f88a95571578e921489e1b6119b438e4efce6e955ae9b6453f24aa4
   e3a34fa22bc5f470cfc134ca0784a9cd7df64be46ff3b325fc19f4009979bf2e
   client_mac_key: 1c55ecba64d98dc2db8f45faa72b8fdd63cad8677b8665cc575cf
   8ad36ef38ec63c9dfc5552007573215983f55d8f5cfa1651da8417e3f27094dde5254
   7f5b89
   pseudorandom_pad: 7ef495b828a97c896f381824d3371ba012eb63c3f19bb535676
   a3b63b18373255ba3
   handshake_encrypt_key: 0852fb826109073be6e7c065b6e2d1f872c16f9977c177
   cd2f945b26bb933fe6252f226f40483f7aa52f545f801d1e4430f30f80fd42070494e
   a77fdcecd6595
   handshake_secret: bfd3bfbe451520880975d0e568cbd3b5155b23c02de504fccb9
   dd5a8195266cd94d49d040530b3d6b0a585d542eb24da708a2b6f6dc34dee4652d0c1
   c62c4e59

C.2.4.  Output Values

Krawczyk, et al.          Expires 9 August 2021                [Page 38]
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   registration_response: 088ac01ebf5700f0c96bc2988509343cb7e2dd6f0df820
   d0fb807faa11a26f5600205442a6f57333a332b4c6f07308f6fa846bde3ed27425820
   cdceeeb935924a903
   export_key: 0effa605dc47ba4fe565c423b782b8b6697b26ee2ede7059b0e17510d
   f8b11554ce053409671480a56ffbe77b91edc95205c213caeaf9dcb0841790ff834a0
   09
   registration_upload: 0020b2d1b10f3741a8efef3139f4d2889f2b11f776b79b9a
   a2c3efcaba4f1c4ae86102e38fb444afe3df13ae05e6876d10eca7661196375518eb6
   6d7deeb8cfb42d13f00227ed4654d4452340f26c6304dceeeb1fddb142fcd91b3b26e
   cd566d7688095f9478a721e5a592be9dd3bda76ed97421819aca4a30752813223d33b
   c7ea443be976754605116278c7fffda4de142674ed154f540bd3285080637eb4b929e
   1378336b11
   registration_request: c8d2e9ba503bf3f8821226653314427edb1ec8a3ecc94a5
   dfbbe33d59d07b645
   session_key: 8dc21ff264f2774de95955d35544ba314e92d07f4a3b32c89ead5e70
   c83ac4c0221deadd34ed11d43fc4d3651aec612d696c63979c96bf1ddd1ee44da5d0c
   d68
   KE3: c178e45ed9b314653685cdbf5f7730e3e40f8652ceb9b10f47d1c784fdd75dd1
   07c4ae3f7683de5a692359178c8f13f41a043fc1dcfc14b1fb7cb411514efc6c
   KE2: 5079b16709b195b3b63257b419efb752bd0603170160fa72b828ce9ff9209c0c
   00205442a6f57333a332b4c6f07308f6fa846bde3ed27425820cdceeeb935924a9030
   2e38fb444afe3df13ae05e6876d10eca7661196375518eb66d7deeb8cfb42d13f0022
   7ed4654d4452340f26c6304dceeeb1fddb142fcd91b3b26ecd566d7688095f9478a72
   1e5a592be9dd3bda76ed97421819aca4a30752813223d33bc7ea443be976754605116
   278c7fffda4de142674ed154f540bd3285080637eb4b929e1378336b110f3a6da8b66
   7bc7a383c987586bee749c5f2787691baca68757e78b6128b0a0fa2e9e0809b270a1d
   5c8208f3498a3188538265e6a9e6b274cb38c4c5d9b1792d000f5a1a0b34573bf728b
   14f53485f3bf62fd91154dc9ca01b21945b2204f96adc87bd80e8283ecf3522b6d893
   7527f2e9b9782a94fedab0fa304590d1d4f03d72fb1664fca1523a3be95f6c3a97d0a
   2ed
   KE1: 7024ca0d5423176294fbb9ca968d8ce3fc879a231f1ceef69e672c89e02ded59
   480917b09c6720680b4a7a0ba9f54b69d870f640a4a7994b47ad07d1a95c984f00096
   8656c6c6f20626f624ae7d50bb80cc8f5034d36c1c27edc30caca0983677a941bc0ac
   e5e10b18300a

Authors' Addresses

   Hugo Krawczyk
   Algorand Foundation

   Email: hugokraw@gmail.com

   Kevin Lewi
   Novi Research

   Email: lewi.kevin.k@gmail.com

Krawczyk, et al.          Expires 9 August 2021                [Page 39]
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   Christopher A. Wood
   Cloudflare

   Email: caw@heapingbits.net

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