IPv4 Options for ILNPv4
draft-irtf-rrg-ilnp-v4opts-00

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Internet Draft                                           RJ Atkinson
draft-irtf-rrg-ilnp-v4opts-00.txt                         Consultant
Expires:  09 JUL 2012                                      SN Bhatti
Category: Experimental                                 U. St Andrews
                                                      9 January 2012

                        IPv4 Options for ILNPv4
                   draft-irtf-rrg-ilnp-v4opts-00.txt

Status of this Memo

   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
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   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six
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   at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/1id-abstracts.html

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at
   http://www.ietf.org/shadow.html

   This document is not on the IETF standards-track and does not
   specify any level of standard. This document merely provides
   information for the Internet community.

   This document is part of the ILNP document set, and has had
   extensive review within the IRTF Routing Research Group.  ILNP is
   one of the recommendations made by the RG Chairs. Separately,
   various refereed research papers on ILNP have also been published
   during this decade. So the ideas contained herein have had much
   broader review than the IRTF Routing RG. The views in this
   document were considered controversial by the Routing RG, but the
   RG reached a consensus that the document still should be
   published. The Routing RG has had remarkably little consensus on
   anything, so virtually all Routing RG outputs are considered
   controversial.

Abstract

   This document defines 2 new IPv4 options that are used with ILNP
   for IPv4 (ILNPv4).  ILNP is is an experimental, evolutionary
   enhancement to IP. This document is a product of the IRTF Routing
   RG.

Table of Contents - ### to be updated

     1. Introduction.............................
     2. IPv4 Options for ILNPv4..................
     3. Security Considerations..................
     4. IANA Considerations......................
     5. References...............................

1. INTRODUCTION

   The Identifier Locator Network Protocol (ILNP) is an proposal for
   evolving the Internet Architecture.  It differs from the current
   Internet Architecture primarily by deprecating the concept of an
   IP Address, and instead defining two new objects, each having
   crisp syntax and semantics.  The first new object is the Locator,

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   a topology-dependent name for a subnetwork.  The other new object
   is the Identifier, which provides a topology-independent name for
   a node.

1.1  ILNP Document Roadmap

   The ILNP Architecture document [ILNP-ARCH] is the best place to
   start reading about ILNP.  ILNP has multiple instantiations.
   [ILNP-ENG] discusses engineering and implementation aspects
   common to all instances of ILNP.  This document discusses
   engineering and implementation details that are specific to ILNP
   for IPv4 (ILNPv4).  [ILNP-DNS] describes new Domain Name System
   (DNS) resource records used with ILNP.  [ILNP-ICMPv4] defines the
   ICMP Locator Update message used with ILNPv4.  Other documents
   describe ILNP for IPv6 (ILNPv6) [ILNP-ICMPv6] [ILNP-NONCE6].

1.2  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL
   NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and
   "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described
   in RFC 2119. [RFC-2119]

2.  IPv4 Options for ILNPv4

   ILNP for IPv4 (ILNPv4) is merely a different instantiation of the
   ILNP architecture, so it retains the crisp distinction between
   the Locator and the Identifier.  As with ILNP for IPv6 (ILNPv6),
   when ILNPv4 is used for a network-layer session, the upper-layer
   protocols (e.g. TCP/UDP pseudo-header checksum, IPsec Security
   Association) bind only to the Identifiers, never to the Locators.
   As with ILNPv6, only the Locator values are used for routing and
   forwarding ILNPv4 packets.

   However, just as the packet format for IPv4 is different to IPv6,
   so the engineering details for ILNPv4 are different also. Just as
   ILNPv6 is carefully engineered to be backwards-compatible with
   IPv6, ILNPv4 is carefully engineered to be backwards-compatible
   with IPv4.

2.1  ILNPv4 Packet Format

   The Source IP Address in the IPv4 header becomes the Source
   ILNPv4 Locator value, while the Destination IP Address of the
   IPv4 header becomes the Destination ILNPv4 Locator value.  Of
   course, backwards compatibility requirements mean that ILNPv4
   Locators use the same number space as IPv4 routing prefixes.

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   ILNPv4 uses the same 64-bit Identifier, with the same modified
   EUI-64 syntax, as ILNPv6.  Because the IPv4 address is much
   smaller than the IPv6 address, ILNPv4 cannot carry the
   Identifier values in the fixed portion of the IPv4 header.
   The obvious two ways to carry the ILNP Identifier with ILNPv4
   are either as an IPv4 Option or as an IPv6-style Extension
   Header placed after the IPv4 header and before the upper-layer
   protocol (e.g. OSPF, TCP, UDP, SCTP).

   Currently deployed IPv4 routers from multiple router vendors use
   packet forwarding silicon that is able to parse past IPv4 options
   to examine the upper-layer protocol header at wire-speed on
   reasonably fast (e.g. 1 Gbps or better) network interfaces.  By
   contrast, no existing IPv4-capable packet forwarding silicon is
   able to parse past a new Extension Header for IPv4.  Hence, for
   engineering reasons, ILNPv4 uses a new IPv4 Option to carry the
   Identifier values.  Another new IPv4 option also carries a nonce
   value, performing the same function for ILNPv4 as the IPv6 Nonce
   Destination Option [ILNP-NONCE6] performs for ILNPv6.

    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |Version|IHL=12 |Type of Service|          Total Length         |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |         Identification        |Flags|      Fragment Offset    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |  Time to Live |    Protocol   |         Header Checksum       |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                 Source Locator (32 bits)                      |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |              Destination Locator (32 bits)                    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    | OT=ILNPv4_ID  |     OL=5      |      Padding=0x0000           |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    +                      Source Identifier                        +
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    +                    Destination Identifier                     +
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |OT=ILNPv4_NONCE|     OL=2      |      top 16 bits of nonce     |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                     lower 32 bits of nonce                    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

           Figure 1:  ILNPv4 header with ILNP ID option

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                     and ILNP Nonce option.

        Notation for Figure 1:
             IHL:  Internet Header Length
             OT:   Option Type
             OL:   Option Length

2.2  ILNP Identifier Option for IPv4

    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    | OT=ILNPv4_ID  |     OL=5      |      Reserved (16 bits)       |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    +                      Source Identifier                        +
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                                                               |
    +                    Destination Identifier                     +
    |                                                               |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

           Figure 2: ILNP Identifier Option for IPv4

        Notation for Figure 2:
             OT:   Option Type
             OL:   Option Length

   ## need to verify units used for IPv4 options (bytes vs words)

   The Source Identifier and Destination Identifier are unsigned
   64-bit integers.  [ILNP-ENG] specifies the syntax, semantics,
   and generation of ILNP Identifier values.  Using the same
   syntax and semantics for all instantiations of ILNP Identifiers
   simplifies specification and implementation, while also
   facilitating translation or transition between ILNPv4 and
   ILNPv6 should that be desirable in future.

   This IP option MUST NOT be present in an IPv4 packet unless
   the packet is part of an ILNPv4 session.  ILNPv4 sessions
   MUST include this option in the first few packets of each
   session, and MAY include this option in all packets of the
   session.  It is RECOMMENDED to include this option in all
   packets of the session if packet loss higher than normal.

2.3  ILNP Nonce Option for IPv4

    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

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    |OT=ILNPv4_NONCE|     OL=2      |      NONCE (upper 16 bits)    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
    |                      NONCE (lower 32 bits)                    |
    +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

           Figure 3: ILNP Nonce Option for IPv4

        Notation for Figure 3:
             OT:   Option Type
             OL:   Option Length

   ## need to verify units used for IPv4 options (bytes vs words)

   This option contains a 48-bit ILNP Nonce.  As noted in
   [ILNP-ARCH] and [ILNP-ENG], all ILNP Nonce values are
   unidirectional.  This means, for example, that a typical
   TCP/ILNPv4 session will have two different NONCE values: one from
   Initiator to Responder and another from Responder to Initiator.
   The ILNP Nonce is used to provide non-cryptographic protection
   against off-path attacks (e.g. forged ICMP messages from the
   remote end of a TCP session).

   Each NONCE value MUST be unpredictable (i.e. cryptographically
   random).  [RFC-4086] provides guidance to implementers on
   generating cryptographically random values.

   This IP option MUST NOT be present in an IPv4 packet unless the
   packet is part of an ILNPv4 session.  ILNPv4 nodes MUST include
   this option in the first few packets of each ILNP session, MUST
   include this option in all ICMP messages generated by endpoints
   participating in an ILNP session, and MAY include this option in
   all packets of an ILNPv4 session.

3.  SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS

   Security considerations for the overall ILNP Architecture are
   described in [ILNP-ARCH].  Additional common security
   considerations are described in [ILNP-ENG].  This section
   describes security considerations specific to ILNPv4 topics
   discussed in this document.

   If the ILNP Nonce value is predictable, then an off-path attacker
   might be able to forge data or control packets.  This risk also
   is mitigated by the existing common practice of IP Source Address
   filtering [RFC-2827] [RFC-3704].

   IP Security for ILNP [ILNP-ENG] [RFC-4301] provides cryptographic

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   protection for ILNP data and control packets. The ILNP Nonce
   option is required in the circumstances described in Section 3,
   even if IP Security is also in use.  Deployments of ILNPv4 in
   high-threat environments SHOULD use IP Security for additional
   risk reduction.

4.  IANA CONSIDERATIONS

   IANA is requested to assign new IPv4 option values for the ILNPv4
   Identifier option (ILNPv4_ID) and the ILNPv4 Nonce option
   (ILNPv4_NONCE) in accordance with the procedures of [RFC-2780].
   The short name for ILNPv4_ID is "ID", for consistency with
   [ILNP-DNS], and the short name for ILNPv4_NONCE is "INONCE".

   Each of these options MUST be copied upon fragmentation.
   Each of these options is used for control, so uses Option Class 0.

5.  REFERENCES

   This document has both Normative and Informational References.

5.1  Normative References

   [ILNP-ARCH]  R. Atkinson and S. Bhatti, "ILNP Architecture",
                draft-irtf-rrg-ilnp-arch, January 2012.

   [ILNP-ENG]   R. Atkinson and S. Bhatti, "ILNP Engineering
                Considerations", draft-irtf-rrg-ilnp-eng, January 2012.

   [ILNP-DNS]   R. Atkinson and S. Bhatti, "DNS Resource Records
                for ILNP", draft-irtf-rrg-ilnp-dns, January 2012.

   [ILNP-ICMPv4] R. Atkinson and S. Bhatti, "ICMP Locator Update
               message for ILNPv4", draft-irtf-rrg-ilnp-icmpv4,
               January 2012.

   [RFC-2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to
               Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
               March 1997.

   [RFC-4301]  S. Kent and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for
               the Internet Protocol", RFC-4301, December 2005.

5.2  Informative References

   [ILNP-NONCE6] R. Atkinson and S. Bhatti, "ILNPv6 Nonce
                Destination Option", draft-irtf-rrg-ilnp-noncev6,
                January 2012.

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   [ILNP-ICMPv6]  R. Atkinson and S. Bhatti, "ICMPv6 Locator
                Update Message for ILNPv6",
                draft-irtf-rrg-ilnp-icmpv6, January 2012.

   [RFC-2780]

   [RFC-2827]  P. Ferguson and D. Senie, "Network Ingress
               Filtering: Defeating Denial of Service Attacks
               which employ IP Source Address Spoofing",
               RFC-2827, May 2000.

   [RFC-3704]  F. Baker and P. Savola, "Ingress Filtering for
               Multihomed Networks", RFC-3704, March 2004.

   [RFC-4086]  D. Eastlake 3rd, J. Schiller, and S. Crocker,
               "Randomness Requirements for Security", RFC-4086,
               June 2005.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

   Steve Blake, Mohamed Boucadair, Noel Chiappa, Steve Hailes, Joel
   Halpern, Mark Handley, Volker Hilt, Paul Jakma, Dae-Young Kim,
   Tony Li, Yakov Rehkter and Robin Whittle (in alphabetical order)
   provided review and feedback on earlier versions of the ILNP
   documents.  Steve Blake provided an especially thorough review of
   an earlier version of the entire ILNP document set, which was
   extremely helpful.  We also wish to thank the anonymous reviewers
   for their feedback.

AUTHOR'S ADDRESS

   RJ Atkinson
   Consultant
   San Jose, CA,
   95125 USA

   Email:     rja.lists@gmail.com

   SN Bhatti
   School of Computer Science
   University of St Andrews
   North Haugh, St Andrews
   Fife, Scotland
   KY16 9SX, UK

   Email: saleem@cs.st-andrews.ac.uk

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