A Framework for Computing-Aware Traffic Steering (CATS)
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|Authors||Cheng Li , Zongpeng Du , Mohamed Boucadair , Luis M. Contreras , John Drake , Daniel Huang , Gyan Mishra , Changwang Lin , Xueshun Wang , xuewei wang|
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cats C. Li, Ed. Internet-Draft Huawei Technologies Intended status: Informational Z. Du Expires: 5 September 2023 China Mobile M. Boucadair, Ed. Orange L. M. Contreras Telefonica J. Drake Juniper Networks, Inc. G. Huang ZTE G. Mishra Verizon Inc. C. Lin New H3C Technologies X. Wang CICT X. Wang Ruijie Networks 4 March 2023 A Framework for Computing-Aware Traffic Steering (CATS) draft-ldbc-cats-framework-00 Abstract This document describes a framework for Computing-Aware Traffic Steering (CATS). Particularly, the document identifies a set of CATS components, describes their interactions, and exemplifies the workflow of the control plane and data plane. Status of This Memo This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- Drafts is at https://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 1] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 This Internet-Draft will expire on 5 September 2023. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2023 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (https://trustee.ietf.org/ license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Revised BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as described in the Revised BSD License. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2. Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Framework and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.1. Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.2. CATS Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.3. CATS Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 3.4. Deployment Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4. CATS Framework Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.1. Service Announcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.2. Metrics Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 4.3. Service Demand Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 4.4. Instance Affinity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 5. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Appendix A. Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1. Introduction Edge computing architectures have been expanding from single edge nodes to multiple interconnected collaborating edge nodes to address issues, such as long response time reduction, suboptimal service resource utilization, and inefficient network utilization. Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 2] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 The underlying networking architectures for edge computing usually provide relatively static service dispatching. In such architectures, the service traffic is often directed to the closest edge from a routing perspective or to the server with the most computing resources without considering the network status, and even sometimes simply based on static configurations. As described in [I-D.yao-cats-ps-usecases], traffic steering that takes into account computing resource metrics would benefit several services, such as augmented reality or augmented/virtual reality (AR/ VR). This document provides an architectural framework, which will enable compute- and network-aware traffic steering decisions in edge computing. The Computing-Aware Traffic Steering (CATS) framework assumes that there may be multiple service instances running on different edge nodes, globally providing one single service. A single edge may have limited computing resources (such as CPU or GPU) available, and different edges likely have different resources available. A single edge may host multiple instances of a service, or just one. The CATS framework is an ingress-based overlay framework for the selection of the suitable service instance(s) from a set of instance candidates. The exact characterization of 'suitable' will be determined by a combination of networking and computing related metrics. To that aim, the CATS framework assumes that edge nodes collaborate with each other under a single administrative domain to achieve a global objective of dispatching service demands, by taking into account both service instances status and network state (e.g., forwarding path length, cost, and congestion). Also, this document describes a workflows of the main CATS procedures in both the control and data planes. 2. Terminology This document makes use of the following terms: Client: An endpoint that is connected to a service provider network. Computing-Aware Traffic Steering (CATS): An architecture that takes into account the dynamic nature of computing resources and network state to steer service traffic to a service instance. This dynamicity is expressed by means of relevant metrics. CATS Service ID (CS-ID): An identifier representing a service, which the clients use to access said service. Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 3] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 CATS Binding ID (CB-ID): An identifier of a single service instance or site of a given service instance (CS-ID). Service: A monolithic function that is provided by a network operator according to a specification. A composite service can be built by orchestrating multiple monolithic services. Service instance: A run-time environment (e.g., a server or a process on a server) that makes the functionality of a service available. One service can be exposed by multiple instances running at the same or different network locations. Service demand: The demand for a service identified by a CATS Service ID (CS-ID). See Section 3.2 for more details. Service request: The request for a specific service instance. CATS-Router: A network device (usually at the edge of the network) that makes forwarding decisions based on CATS information to steer traffic belonging to the same service demand to the same selected service instance. Ingress CATS-Router: A network edge router that serves as a service access point for CATS clients. It steers the service packets onto an overlay path to an Egress CATS-Router linked to the most suitable edge site to access a service instance. Egress CATS-Router: An egress endpoint of an overlay path and which connected a CATS-serviced site. CATS Service Metric Agent (C-SMA): Responsible for collecting service capabilities and status, and reporting them to a CATS Path Selector (C-PS). CATS Network Metric Agent (C-NMA): Responsible for collecting network capabilities and status, and reporting them to a C-PS. CATS Path Selector (C-PS): An entity that determines the path toward the appropriate service location and service instances to meet a service demand given the service status and network status information. CATS Traffic Classifier (C-TC): Responsible for determining which packets belong to a traffic flow for a particular service demand, and for steering them on the path to the service instance as determined by a C-PS. Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 4] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 3. Framework and Components 3.1. Assumptions CATS assumes that there are multiple service instances running on different edge sites, providing one single service which is represented by the same service identifier (see Section 3.2. 3.2. CATS Identifiers CATS introduces the following identifiers: CATS Service ID (CS-ID): An identifier representing a service, which the clients use to access said service. Such an ID identifies all of the instances of the same service, no matter on where they are actually running. The CS-ID is independent of which service instance serves the service demand. Usually multiple instances provide a (logically) single service, and service demands are dispatched to the different instance by choosing one instance among all available instances. CATS Binding ID (CB-ID): An identifier of a single service instance or site of a given service instance (CS-ID). 3.3. CATS Components The network takes forwarding decisions for a service demand received from a client according to both service instances status as well as network status. The main CATS functional elements and their interactions are shown in Figure 1. Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 5] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 +-----+ +------+ +------+ +------+| +------+ | +------+ | |client|+ |client|-+ |client|-+ +------+ +------+ +------+ | | | | +-------------+ | +-------------+ +---| C-TC |---+ +------| C-TC | |-------------| | |-------------| | | C-PS | +------+ |CATS-Router 4| ........| +-------|.....| C-PS |...| |... : |CATS-Router 2| | | | | . : +-------------+ +------+ +-------------+ : : : : +-------+ : : Underlay | C-NMA | : : Infrastructure +-------+ : : : : : : +-------------+ +-------------+ : : |CATS-Router 1| +-------+ |CATS-Router 3| : :...| |..| C-SMA |.... .| |.....: +-------------+ +-------+ +-------------+ | | | C-SMA | | | +-------------+ | | | | | | +------------+ +------------+ +------------+ | +------------+ | | service | | | service | | | instance |-+ | instance |-+ +------------+ +------------+ edge site 1 edge site 2 Figure 1: CATS Functional Components Edge sites (edges for short) are the sites that provide access to edge computing resources. A compute service (e.g., a matrix computation for face recognition or a game server) is uniquely identified by a CATS Service ID (CS-ID). Service instances can be instantiated and access through different edge sites so that a single service can have a significant number of instances running at different places in the network. Figure 1 shows two edge nodes (CATS-Router 1 and CATS-Router 3) that provide access to service instances. These nodes behaves as Egress CATS-Routers. Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 6] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 The CATS Service Metric Agent (C-SMA) is a functional component that gathers information about edge sites and server resources, as well as the status of the different service instances. The C-SMAs are located adjacent to the service instances in or next to the Egress CATS-Routers. Figure 1 shows one C-SMA collocated with CATS-Router 3, and another C-SMA adjacent to CATS-Router 1. The CATS Network Metric Agent (C-NMA) is a functional component that gathers information about the state of the network. The C-NMAs may be implemented as separate components or may form part of existing components such as CATS-Routers or CATS Path Selectors(C-PS). Figure 1 shows a single C-NMA located independently within the underlay network. There may be one or more C-NMAs for an underlay network. The C-SMAs and C-NMAs share the collected information with CATS Path Selectors (C-PSes) that use the information to select the Egress CATS-Routers (and potentially the service instances) to which to forward traffic for a service demand. They also determine the best paths (possibly tunnels) to use to forward the traffic depending on the network behavior required for the service and the current network state. The information is presented as one or more metrics and associate with the CS-ID and possible CB-ID. There may be one or more C-PSes in the network. They can be integrated into the Ingress CATS-Routers (as with CATS-Router 2 in Figure 1) or they may be separate components that communicate with the Ingress CATS-Routers (as with CATS-Router 4 in Figure 1). Last, CATS Traffic Classifier (C-TC) is a functional component that is responsible for selecting incoming packets that belong to the same service demand and ensuring that they are steered onto the same path toward the same service instance as instructed by a C-PS component. There is a C-TC in each Ingress CATS Router. The Egress CATS-Routers are the egress endpoints of overlay paths. A site supporting service instances may be linked to one or more Egress CATS routers (that is, dual-homing is supported). If the C-PS has selected a specific service instance and the C-TC has marked the traffic with the CB-ID, the Egress CATS-Router simply forwards the traffic to the correct service instance. In some cases, the choice of service instance may be left open to the Egress CATS-Router (the traffic is marked only with the CS-ID) and in this case the Egress CATS-Router selects an appropriate service instance (using local knowledge of capabilities and current load), but must be sure to deliver all packets from the same service demand to the same service instance. Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 7] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 Note that, depending on deployment and service requirements, per- instance computing-related metrics or aggregated per-site computing- related metrics can be used by the C-PS. Using aggregated per-site computing-related metrics offers a more scalable choice, but relies on the Egress CATS-Router to consistently select a service instance. In Figure 1, the "underlay infrastructure" indicates the general IP/ MPLS infrastructure that is not aware of CATS. The CATS routes will be distributed among the overlay CATS-Routers assisted by the C-PS, and will not affect the underlay nodes. An implementation may use a control plane or management plane solution to distribute the server metrics, network metrics, and underlay routes - this document does not define a specific solution. 3.4. Deployment Considerations This document does not make an assumption about how the various CATS functional elements are implemented. Whether a CATS deployment follows a fully distributed or collocate or combine many of the functional components is deployment specific. One possibility is a centralized implementation where the computing-related metrics from the C-SMAs are collected by a centralized controller/PCE that also collects the network metrics, and which acts on service requests to produce paths and service instance selections that it programs into the relevant C-TCs. 4. CATS Framework Workflow The following subsections provide an overview of how the CATS workflow operates in a distributed functional architecture. 4.1. Service Announcement A service is associated with a unique identifier called a CS-ID. A CS-ID may be a network identifier, such as an IP address. The mapping of CS-ID to network identifier may be learned through a name resolution service such as DNS. 4.2. Metrics Distribution As described above, a C-SMA collects both service-related capabilities and metrics, and associates them with a CS-ID that identifies the service. It may aggregate the metrics for multiple service instances, or maintain them separately. The C-SMA then sends (advertises) the CS-ID along with the metrics to be received by all C-PSs in the network. The service-related metrics include computing- related metrics and potentially other service metrics, if needed. Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 8] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 Computing metrics may change very frequently (see [I-D.yao-cats-ps-usecases] for a discussion). When and how frequently such information is distributed is to be determined as part of the specification of any distribution protocol. A spectrum of approaches can be considered, such as interval-based updates, threshold-triggered updates, policy-based updates, etc. Additionally, the C-NMA collects network-related capabilities and metrics. These may be collected and distributed by existing network routing protocols, although enhancements may be needed to distribute additional information not previously available (such as link latency). The C-NMA distributes the network metrics to the C-PSes so that they can use the combination of service metrics and network metrics to determine the best Egress CATS-Router to provide access to a service instance to provide the compute function needed by a service demand. Network metrics may also change very frequently. Routing protocols may apply elements of thresholding and policy to prevent the network being flooded with state change information. The C-NMA should apply similar processes to those used in the C-SMA to determine when and how often to distribute updates to the C-PSes. Figure 2 shows an example to illustrate how CATS metrics can be distributed. There is a client attached to the netowrk via CATS- Router 1. There are three instances of the service with CS-ID 1: two are at Edge Site 2 attached via CATS-Router 2 and have CB-IDs 1 and 2; the third is at Edge Site 3 attached via CATS-Router 3 and with CB-ID 3. There is also a second service with CS-ID 2 with only one instance located at Edge Site 2. In this example, the C-SMA collocated with CATS-Router 2 distributes the service metrics for both service instances. Note that these could be aggregated into a single advertisement, but in this case the metrics for each instance are advertised. Similarly, the C-SMA at Edge Site 2 advertises the service metrics for the two services offered at Edge Site 2. The service metric advertisements are consumed by the C-PS at CATS- Router 1 that provides access for the client. The C-PS also consumes network metric advertisements from the C-NMA. All of the metrics are used by the C-PS to determine the best Egress CATS-Router to which to send traffic (and on what path) for the client's service demand given the service that is requested (CS-ID 1 or CS-ID 2), the state of the service instances reported by the metrics, and the state of the network. Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 9] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 Service CS-ID 1, instance CB-ID 1 <metrics> Service CS-ID 1, instance CB-ID 2 <metrics> :<----------------------: : : +-------+ : : |CS-ID 1| : : +--|CB-ID 1| : +-------------+ | +-------+ : | C-SMA |----| Edge Site 2 : +-------------+ | +-------+ : |CATS-Router 2| +--|CS-ID 1| : +-------------+ |CB-ID 2| +--------+ : | +-------+ | Client | : Network +----------------------+ +--------+ : metrics | +-------+ | | : :<---------| C-NMA | | | : : | +-------+ | +-------------------+ | | |CATS-Router 1|C-PS |------| | +-------------------+ | Underlay | : | Infrastructure | +-------+ : | | |CS-ID 1| : +----------------------+ +---|CB-ID 3| : | | +-------+ : +-------------+ +-------+ : |CATS-Router 3|--| C-SMA | Edge Site 3 : +-------------+ +-------+ : : | +-------+ : : +---|CS-ID 2| : : +-------+ :<-------------------------------: Service CS-ID 1, instance CB-ID 3 <metrics> Service CS-ID 2, <metrics> Figure 2: Example CATS Metric Distribution The above example mainly describes a per-instance computing-related metrics distribution. In the case of distributing aggregated per- site computing-related metrics, the per-instance CB-ID will not be included in the distribution. Instead, a per-site CB-ID may be used in the case of multiple sites are attached to the Egress CATS router to indicate from which site the aggregated metrics come. However, CB-ID is not needed in the distribution (in above example) if the edge site can support consistently service instance selection. For easy deployment, aggregated per-site computing-related metrics distribution is recommeded. Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 10] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 4.3. Service Demand Handling The C-PS determines the best choice of Egress CATS-Router and path to that router given the service and network metrics distributed as described in the previous section. The C-PS may be collocated with the Ingress CATS-Router (as shown in Figure 2) or the selection function may be offloaded to a dedicated server. This document does not describe any algorithms for path selection, but it is expected that a service demand or local policy may give directions to the C-PS in terms of "objective functions" that describe the desired behavior from the network and the chosen service instance. In the example in Figure 2, when the client sends a service demand to CATS-Router 1, the router consults the C-PS to select a service instance at a remote edge site accessed through a particular Egress CATS-Router. The C-PS also determines a path to the Egress CATS- Router. This information is provided to the Ingress CATS-Router (CATS-Router 1) so that it can correctly encapsulate and route packets. A service transaction consists of one or more service packets sent by the client to its Ingress CATS-Router. The Ingress CATS-Router classifies the packets using the C-TC functionality, and forwards the packets to the chosen Egress CATS-Router using an overlay path with appropriate encapsulation. When the packets reach the Egress CATS- Router, the outer header of the overlay encapsulation is removed and the inner packets are sent to the service instance. 4.4. Instance Affinity Instance affinity is a key feature of CATS. It means that packets from the same 'flow' for a service should always be sent to the same Egress CATS-Router to be processed by the same service instance. Furthermore, in the general case, packets from the same service flow should be sent on the same path to avoid them becoming mis-ordered and to prevent the introduction of unpredictable latency variations. The affinity is determined at the time of newly formulated service demand. Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 11] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 Note that different services may have different notions of what constitutes a 'flow' and may thus identify a flow differently. Typically a flow is identified by the 5-tuple value (source and destination addresses, source and destination ports, and next protocol type). However, for instance, an RTP video streaming may use different port numbers for video and audio, and so affinity may be identified as the combination of two 5-tuple flow identifiers so that both flows are sent to the same service instance. Hence, when specifying a protocol solution for service instance affinity, a certain level of flexibility in identifying flows should be provided. Or, from a more general perspective, there should be a flexible mechanism to specify and identify the set of packets that are subject to a service instance affinity. More importantly, the means for identifying a flow for the purpose of ensuring instance affinity must be application-independent to avoid the need for service-specific instance affinity methods. Specifically, Instance affinity information should be configurable on a per-service basis. For each service, the information can include the flow/packets identification type and means, affinity timeout value, and etc. This document does not define the specific mechanisms for defining or applying service instance affinity. 5. Security Considerations TBD 6. IANA Considerations This document makes no requests for IANA action. 7. Informative References [I-D.yao-cats-ps-usecases] Yao, K., Eardley, P., Trossen, D., Boucadair, M., Contreras, L. M., Li, C., Li, Y., and P. Liu, "Computing- Aware Traffic Steering (CATS) Problem Statement and Use Cases", Work in Progress, Internet-Draft, draft-yao-cats- ps-usecases-00, 3 March 2023, <https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/html/draft-yao-cats-ps- usecases-00>. Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 12] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 Appendix A. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Joel Halpern, John Scudder, Dino Farinacci, Adrian Farrel, Cullen Jennings, Linda Dunbar, Jeffrey Zhang, Peng Liu, Fang Gao, Aijun Wang,Cong Li, Xinxin Yi, Dirk Trossen, Luigi Iannone, Yizhou Li, Jari Arkko, Mingyu Wu, Haibo Wang, Xia Chen, Jianwei Mao, Guofeng Qian, Zhenbin Li, and Xinyue Zhang for their comments and suggestions. Contributors Huijuan Yao China Mobile Email: email@example.com Yizhou Li Huawei Technologies Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Dirk Trossen Huawei Technologies Email: email@example.com Hang Shi Huawei Technologies Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Authors' Addresses Cheng Li (editor) Huawei Technologies China Email: email@example.com Zongpeng Du China Mobile China Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Mohamed Boucadair (editor) Orange Email: email@example.com Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 13] Internet-Draft CATS Framework March 2023 Luis M. Contreras Telefonica Spain Email: firstname.lastname@example.org John E Drake Juniper Networks, Inc. United States of America Email: email@example.com Guangping Huang ZTE China Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Gyan Mishra Verizon Inc. United States of America Email: email@example.com Changwang Lin New H3C Technologies Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Xueshun Wang CICT Email: email@example.com Xuewei Wang Ruijie Networks Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Li, et al. Expires 5 September 2023 [Page 14]