Photonic firewall oriented routing and spectrum allocation strategy in optical networks
draft-li-rtgwg-photonic-firewall-rsa-02

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Li Xin  , Lu Zhang  , Ying Tang  , Zicheng Shi  , Shanguo Huang 
Last updated 2021-12-26
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rtgwg                                                              X. Li 
Internet Draft                                                  L. Zhang 
Intended status: Informational                                   Y. Tang 
Expires: June 2022                                                Z. Shi
                                                                S. Huang 
                                                                    BUPT 
                                                       December 27, 2021 
  
 
                                            
    Photonic firewall oriented routing and spectrum allocation strategy 
                                in optical networks 
                 draft-li-rtgwg-photonic-firewall-rsa-02.txt 

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Internet-DraftPhotonic firewall oriented routing and spectrum allocation 
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   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 29, 2022. 

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Abstract 

   The photonic firewall oriented routing and spectrum allocation 
   strategy in elastic optical networks is proposed. For the security 
   detecting requirement, each light-path should pass through at least a 
   photonic firewall. To reduce the blocking rate and improve the 
   spectrum efficiency, the whole network is divided into several parts 
   according to the locations of all deployed photonic firewalls. A 
   photonic firewall is responsible for the security detecting for each 
   part. This strategy has a low complexity and is suitable for large-
   scale optical networks. 

Table of Contents 

    
   1. Introduction....................................................3 
   2. Conventions used in this document...............................4 
   3. Motivation......................................................4 
   4. Photonic Firewall Oriented Routing and Spectrum Allocation 
   Strategy...........................................................4 
       4.1. Photonic Firewall.........................................4 
       4.2. Secure Connection Establishment Requirement...............6 
       4.3. Photonic Firewall oriented Routing and Spectrum Allocation 
       Strategy.......................................................6 
   5. Security Considerations.........................................7 
   6. IANA Considerations.............................................7 
   7. References......................................................7 
       7.1. Normative References......................................7 
       7.2. Informative References....................................8 
  

 
 
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1. Introduction 

   This document describes the photonic firewall oriented routing and 
   spectrum allocation strategy in optical networks. Optical networks 
   which take advantages of high-speed and large-capacity has been 
   widely applied to access, backbone transmission, data center 
   interconnection, inter-satellite link, etc. Many new technologies are 
   emerging with the aim of improving the capacity of optical fiber, 
   such as optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (O-OFDM) 
   and space division multiplexing (SDM). The accommodated traffic is 
   booming, and more services are emerging, such as cloud computing, big 
   data, augmented reality, and virtual reality. Since the accommodated 
   traffic is very large, the secure transmission becomes more and more 
   important. Due to the large amount of transmission information, wide 
   coverage, and QoT sensitivity, optical networks are highly vulnerable 
   to eavesdropping and attacks. The common attacks exist in optical 
   networks can be simply divided into two parts. One aims for optical 
   device and the other aims for network management. Attacks for optical 
   fiber include eavesdropping, interception, in-band interference, 
   signal delays [Fok2011]. To ensure secure data transmission, some 
   security technologies such as optical encryption, quantum key 
   distribution, chaotic encryption, node/line reinforcement, optical 
   steganography [Wang2010], etc., have been proposed. These 
   technologies help to ensure the confidentiality and integrity of data 
   transmission over optical networks. However, when invasions and 
   attacks are hidden in the transmitted data, these technologies are 
   useless. Photonic firewall is an important network security device. 
   It leverages the all-optical pattern matching to directly identify 
   the signals in the optical domain, then distinguish hidden network 
   intrusions and attacks, and finally selects corresponding defense 
   means according to the set security policy. Thus, it can directly 
   realize intrusion detection and security protection in the optical 
   domain. Since the processing rate of the photonic firewall is far 
   great than that of the electronic firewall, a photonic firewall can 
   replace tens of thousands of electronic firewalls. In future, we 
   believe the photonic firewall can be widely used in the optical 
   backbone network, optical access network, optical datacenter network, 
   etc. A photonic firewall is composed of multiple all-optical logic 
   gate, regenerators, optical amplifiers, etc. The cost of the photonic 
   firewall is very high. In the early stage, the photonic firewall can 
   only be deployed just in a few places. To ensure each established 
   light-path can be obtained the security detecting, the photonic 
   firewall oriented routing and spectrum allocation strategy should be 
   designed. To avoid the traffic congestion on some fiber links or a 
   certain photonic firewall, we divide the whole topology into several 
   parts according to the number of and the locations of all deployed 
 
 
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   photonic firewalls. A photonic firewall is responsible for the 
   security detecting for each connection in the each part. 
2. Conventions used in this document 

   This document makes use of the following acronyms:  

   QoT: Quality of Transmission 

   AI: Artificial Intelligence 

   SDM: Space Division Multiplexing 
   O-OFDM: Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 

   In this document, these words will appear with that interpretation   
   only when in ALL CAPS. Lower case uses of these words are not to be    
   interpreted as carrying significance described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119]. 
3. Motivation 

   Photonic firewall can directly realize the intrusion detection and 
   security protection in optical domain. A photonic firewall can 
   replace tens of thousands of electronic firewalls. Since the cost of 
   the photonic firewall is very high, it can only be deployed just in a 
   few places. In order to ensure that each established light-path can 
   be obtained the security detecting, the photonic firewall oriented 
   routing and spectrum allocation strategy should be designed for each 
   user request. The strategy has a low complexity and is suitable for 
   large-scale optical networks. 
4. Photonic Firewall Oriented Routing and Spectrum Allocation Strategy 

   This section first gives introduce the photonic firewall and its 
   applications in optical networks. Then, the secure connection 
   establishment requirement is elaborated. At last, the photonic 
   firewall oriented routing and spectrum allocation strategy is 
   elaborated. 

4.1. Photonic Firewall 

   Photonic firewall is an optical network device. It leverages the all-
   optical pattern matching to directly identify the signals in the 
   optical domain, and then distinguish hidden network intrusions and 
 

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   attacks. It selects corresponding defense means according to the set 
   security policy. As presented in Figure 1, it can be deployed in the 
   important optical switching node, gateway node, or access node. The 
   all-optical pattern recognition is the core part of photonic 
   firewall. It is composed of one all-optical XNOR gate, all-optical 
   AND gate, and a regenerator, as shown in Figure 2. 
   +------------------------+                    +---------------------+ 
   |                        |                    |                     | 
   |      IP/Ethernet       |                    |   Optical Network   | 
   |                        |                    |                     | 
   |               +--------|--------+     +-----|-----------+         | 
   +------------------------+        |     |     +---------------------+ 
                   |   Core Router   |     |Photonic Firewall| 
                   |Photonic Firewall|     |                 | 
                   |    +-------------------------+          | 
                   +----|------------+     +------|----------+ 
                        |                         | 
                        |     Optical Network     | 
                        |                         | 
                        |                         | 
                        +-------------------------+ 
                               Photonic Firewall Applications 

                      Loop 
                   --<--- 
                  |  nT  | 
                   -->---    +------+ 
   Data sequence------------>|      |            +------+ 
   Probe-------------------->| XNOR |----------->| AND  |------->Output 
   Target sequence---------->|      |  ---->---->|      |     | 
                             +------+  |    |    +------+     | 
                                       |    |                 | 
                                       |    |  Recirculating  | 
                         Initialing signal  |       Loop      | 
                                            |      --<---     | 
                                            |     |(n+1)T|    | 
                                            |      -->---     | 
                                            |  +-----------+  | 
                                            |--|Regenerator|<-| 
                                               +-----------+ 
                                All-optical pattern matching 

 
 
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4.2. Secure Connection Establishment Requirement 

    For the security detecting requirement, each light-path should pass 
    through at least a photonic firewall. As presented in Fig. 3, three 
    photonic firewalls are deployed in nodes A, F, and D. There are 
    three light-paths are established in the network (B->A->G, G->F->C, 
    and E->D->C). Each light-path passes through a photonic firewall. 

                    +---+              +---+ 
                    | B |--------------| C | 
                   /+---+             /+---+\ 
                  /  /   \           / A   A \ 
                 /  /     \         / /     \ \ 
                /  /       \       / /       \ \ 
               /  /         \     / +----+    \ \ 
     +----+   /  /           \   / /| PF |     \ \    +----+ 
     | PF |+---+/             +---+ +----+      \+---+| PF | 
     +----+| A X--------------| F/|--------------X D |+----+ 
           +---+\             +---+             /+---+ 
               \ \           / /  \            / / 
                \ \         / /    \          / / 
                 \ \       / /      \        / / 
                  \ \     / /        \      / / 
                   \ V   / /          \    / / 
                    \+---+/            +---+/ 
                     | G |-------------| E | 
                     +---+             +---+ 
                   Secure Connection Establishment (PF denotes photonic 
                                       firewall) 
4.3. Photonic Firewall oriented Routing and Spectrum Allocation Strategy 

    The photonic firewall oriented routing and spectrum allocation 
    strategy adopts the greedy strategy. For each user, it calculates 
    the closest photonic firewall. Thus, each photonic firewall has a 
    user set in which any user is closest to it. In other words, the 
    whole network is divided into several parts according to the 
    locations of all deployed photonic firewalls. When a new user 
    request arrive the network, the user first calculates the shortest 
    path to its closest photonic firewall, and then calculates the 
    shortest path from the photonic firewall to its destination. 
    Finally, the First-Fit algorithm is used to conduct spectrum 
    allocation on the two shortest paths. 

                                             

 
 
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    +--------------------+            +------------+ 
    |               +---+|           / +---+      / 
    |               | B |--------------| C |     / 
    |              /+---+|         /  /+---+\   / 
    | Area1       /  /   \        /  / A   A \ / 
    |            /  /    |\      /  / /     \ \ 
    |           /  /     | \    /  / /       \ \ +------------+ 
    |          /  /      |  \  /  / +----+  / \ \             | 
    |+----+   /  /       |   \/  / /| PF | /   \ \    +----+  | 
    || PF |+---+/        |   /+---+ +----+/   / \+---+| PF |  | 
    |+----+| A X--------------| F/|--------------X D |+----+  | 
    |      +---+\        | /  +---+     /   /   /+---+        | 
    +----------\-\-------+/  / /  \    /   /   / /            | 
                \ \      /  / /    \  /   /   / /             | 
                 \ \    /  / /      \/   /   / /              | 
                  \ \  /  / /       /\  /   / /     Area3     | 
                   \ V/  / / Area2 /  \/   / /                | 
                    \+---+/       /   /+---+/                 | 
                    /| G |-------------| E |                  | 
                   / +---+      /   /  +---+                  | 
                  +------------+   +--------------------------+ 
                                     Photonic Firewall Area 

    As presented in Fig. 4, the whole network is divided into three 
    parts. In each part, a photonic firewall is responsible for the 
    security detecting for each user in this part. This strategy has a 
    low complexity and is suitable for large-scale optical networks. 

5. Security Considerations 
    TBD 

6. IANA Considerations 

    This document makes no request of IANA. 
7. References 

7.1. Normative References 

    [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate 
                Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. 

 
 
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7.2. Informative References 

    [Fok2011] M. P. Fok, Z. Wang, Y. Deng, and P. R. Prucnal, "Optical 
                Layer Security in Fiber-Optic Networks", IEEE 
                Transactions On Information Forensics and Security, 
                vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 725-736, 2011. 

    [Wang2010] Z. Wang, M. P. Fok, L. Xu, J. Chang, and P. R. Prucnal, 
                "Improving the privacy of optical steganography with 
                temporal phase masks", Opt. Express, vol. 18, no. 6, pp.
                6079-6088, 2010. 

 
 
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Authors' Addresses 

    Xin Li  
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications 
    10 Xitucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China 
      
    Email: xinli@bupt.edu.cn 
     
    Lu Zhang 
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications 
    10 Xitucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China 
      
    Email: luzhang@bupt.edu.cn 
     

    Ying Tang 
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications 
    10 Xitucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China 
      
    Email: ytang@bupt.edu.cn 
     

    Zicheng Shi  
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications 
    10 Xitucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China 
      
    Email: zchshi@bupt.edu.cn 
     
    Shanguo Huang 
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications 
    10 Xitucheng Road, Haidian District, Beijing, China 
      
    Email: shghuang@bupt.edu.cn 

 
 
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