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Information Distribution in Autonomic Networking

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This is an older version of an Internet-Draft whose latest revision state is "Replaced".
Authors Bing Liu , Xun Xiao , Sheng Jiang , Artur Hecker , Zoran Despotovic
Last updated 2019-07-08 (Latest revision 2019-03-11)
Replaced by draft-ietf-anima-grasp-distribution
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ANIMA WG                                                          B. Liu
INTERNET-DRAFT                                       Huawei Technologies
Intended Status: Standard Track                                  X. Xiao
Expires: January 9, 2020                        MRC, Huawei Technologies
                                                                S. Jiang
                                                     Huawei Technologies
                                                               A. Hecker
                                                           Z. Despotovic
                                                MRC, Huawei Technologies
                                                            July 8, 2019

            Information Distribution in Autonomic Networking


   This document discusses the requirement to autonomic nodes supporting
   information distribution based over GRASP in autonomic networks. In
   general, information distribution can be categorized into two
   different modes: 1) one autonomic node instantly sends information to
   other nodes in the domain; 2) one autonomic node publishes some
   information and asynchronously some other interested nodes request
   the published information. In the former case, information data will
   be generated and consumed instantly. In the latter case, information
   data live longer in the network.

   These capabilities are basic and fundamental to an autonomous network
   system (i.e. ANI [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model]). This document
   clarifies possible use cases of information distribution in ANI and
   requirements to ANI so that rich information distribution can be
   natively supported. Extensions to autonomic nodes are proposed and
   detailed embodiments based on GRASP are discussed.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted to IETF in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups.  Note that
   other groups may also distribute working documents as

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months

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   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
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   The list of current Internet-Drafts can be accessed at

   The list of Internet-Draft Shadow Directories can be accessed at

Copyright and License Notice

   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors. All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   publication of this document. Please review these documents
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   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   2. Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
   3. Requirements of Advanced Information Distribution  . . . . . . . 4
   4. Information Distribution in ANI  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
   5. Node Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
      5.1 Instant Information Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
      5.2 Asynchronous Information Distribution  . . . . . . . . . . . 7
      5.3 Summary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6. Protocol Specification (GRASP extension) . . . . . . . . . . .  12
      6.1 Un-solicited Synchronization Message (A new GRASP Message)  12
      6.2 Selective Flooding Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
      6.3 Subscription Objective Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
      6.4 Un_Subscription Objective Option . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
      6.5 Publishing Objective Option  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7. Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   8. IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   9.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
      9.1 Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14

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      9.2 Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Appendix A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

1  Introduction

   In an autonomic network, autonomic functions (AFs) running on
   autonomic nodes would exchange information constantly, both for
   controlling/management signaling and data exchange. This document
   discusses the information distribution capability of such exchanges
   between AFs.  

   According to the number of participants, information distribution can
   happen with the following scenarios:

      1) Point-to-point (P2P) Communication: information are exchanged
      between two communicating parties from one node to another node.

      2) One-to-Many Communication: information exchanges involve an
      information source and multiple receivers.

   The approaches of distributing information could be categorized into
   two basic modes:

      1) An instant communication: a sender connects and sends the
      information data (e.g. control/management signaling,
      synchronization data and so on) to the receiver(s) immediately. 

      2) An asynchronous communication: a sender saves the information
      in the network, may or may not publish the information to the
      other who is interested in the published information, to which a
      node asks to retrieve.

   The ANI should have provided a generic way to support these
   information distribution scenarios among AFs, rather than AFs
   managing to use other transport or routing protocols (HTTP, BGP/IGP
   as bearing protocols etc.). In fact, GRASP already provides part of
   the capabilities.

   In this document, we first analyze requirements of information
   distribution in autonomic networks (Section 3), and then introduce
   its relationship to the other modules in ANI (Section 4). After that,
   the node behaviors and extensions to the existing GRASP are
   introduced in Section 5 and Section 6, respectively.

2. Terminology

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   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3. Requirements of Advanced Information Distribution

   If the information exchanged is just short and simple, this can be
   done instantly. In practice, however, this is not always the case. In
   the following cases, a mixture of instant and asynchronous
   communication models is more appropriate.

      1) Long Communication Intervals. The time interval of the
      communication is not necessarily always short and instant.
      Advanced AFs  may rather involve heavy jobs/tasks (e.g. database
      lookup, authentication etc.) when gearing the network, so the
      instant mode may introduce unnecessary pending time and become
      less efficient. If simply using an instant mode, the AF has to
      wait until the tasks finish and return. A better way is that an AF
      instantly sends the request but switches to an synchronous mode,
      once the jobs are finished, AFs will get notified.

      2) Common Interest Distribution. As mentioned, some information
      are common interests among AFs. For example, the network intent is
      distributed to network nodes enrolled, which is a typical one-to-
      many scenario. We can also finish the intent distribution by an
      instant flooding (e.g. via GRASP) to every network nodes across
      the network domain. Because of network dynamic, however, not every
      node can be just ready at the moment when the network intent is
      flooded. Actually, nodes may join in the network sequentially. In
      this situation, an asynchronous communication model could be a
      better choice where every (newly joining) node can subscribe the
      intent information and will get notified if it is ready (or

      3) Distributed Coordination. With computing and storage resources
      on autonomic nodes, alive AFs not only consumes but also generates
      data information. For example, AFs coordinating with each other as
      distributed schedulers, responding to service requests and
      distributing tasks. It is critical for those AFs to make correct
      decisions based on local information, which might be asymmetric as
      well. AFs may also need synthetic/aggregated data information
      (e.g. statistic info, like average values of several AFs, etc.) to
      make decisions. In these situations, AFs will need an efficient
      way to form a global view of the network (e.g. about resource
      consumption, bandwidth and statistics). Obviously, purely relying
      on instant communication model is inefficient, while a scalable,
      common, yet distributed data layer, on which AFs can store and
      share information in an asynchronous way, should be a better

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   For ANI, in order to support various communication scenarios, an
   information distribution module is required, and both instant and
   asynchronous communication models should be supported.

4. Information Distribution in ANI

   This section describes how the information distribution module fits
   into the ANI including what extensions of GRASP are required [I-

                          |       ASAs        |
    +------------------------Info-Dist. APIs-----------------------+
    | +--------------------+   +-------------+   +---------------+ |
    | | Selective Flooding |-|-| Event Queue |-|-| Info. Storage | |
    | +--------------------+   +-------------+   +---------------+ |
                +-------------GRASP APIs----------------+
                | +---------------+   +---------------+ |
                | |  GRASP Base   |-|-|   Extension | | |
                | +---------------+   +---------------+ |

   Figure 1. Information Distribution Module and GRASP Extension.

   As the Fig 1 shows, the information distribution module includes
   three sub-modules, all of which provides APIs for ASAs. Specific
   behaviors of these modules is described in Section 5. In order to
   support the modules, the GRASP is also extended, which is described
   in Section 6.

5. Node Behaviors

   In this section, we discuss how each autonomic node should behave in
   order to support the two modes of information distribution introduced
   before. ANI is a distributed system, so the information distribution
   module must be implemented in a distributed way as well, where every
   node participates to contribute. 

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5.1 Instant Information Distribution

   In this case, sender(s) and receiver(s) are specified. Information
   will be directly sent from the sender(s) to the receiver(s). This
   requires that every node is equipped by some signaling/transport
   protocols so that they can coordinate with each other and correctly
   deliver the information. 

 5.1.1 Instant P2P and Flooding Communications

   Current GRASP already provides the capability to support instant P2P
   and flooding. It is natural to use the GRASP Synchronization message
   directly for P2P distribution. Furthermore, it is also natural to use
   the GRASP Flood Synchronization message for broadcast.

   However, as mentioned in Section 3, in some scenarios one node needs
   to actively send some information to another. GRASP Synchronization
   just lacks such capability, therefore an un-solicited synchronization
   mechanism is needed. An extension of GRASP message (i.e.
   M_UNSOLIDSYN) is defined in Section 6.1.

 5.1.2 Instant Selective Flooding Communication

   When doing selective flooding, the distributed information needs to
   contain the criteria for nodes to judge which interfaces should be
   sent the distributed information and which are not. Specifically, the
   criteria contain:

      o  Matching condition: a set of matching rules.

      o  Matching object: the object that the match condition would be
      applied to.  For example, the matching object could be node itself
      or its neighbors.

      o  Action: what behavior the node needs to do when the matching
      object matches or failed the matching condition.  For example, the
      action could be forwarding or discarding the distributed message.

   The criteria information must be include in the message that carries
   the distributed information from the sender. The receiving node
   decides the action according to the criteria carried in the message.
   Still considering the criteria attached with the distributed
   information, the node behaviors can be:

      o When the Matching Object is "Neighbors", then the node matches
      the relevant information of its neighbors to the Matching
      Condition.  If the node finds one neighbor matches the Matching
      Condition, then it forwards the distributed message to the

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      neighbor.  If not, the node discards forwarding the message to the

      o When the Matching Object is the node itself, then the node
      matches the relevant information of its own to the Matching
      Condition.  If the node finds itself matches the Matching
      Condition, then it forwards the distributed message to its
      neighbors; if not, the node discards forwarding the message to the

   GRASP is extended with a new option field (i.e. selective-flood-
   option) to support selective flooding, shown in Section 6.2. This
   option will be included in the original flooding message of GRASP. An
   example of selective flooding is briefly described in the Appendix A.

5.2 Asynchronous Information Distribution

   Asynchronous information distribution happens in a different way
   where sender(s) and receiver(s) are not immediately specified. Both
   senders and receivers may come up in an asynchronous way. First of
   all, this requires that the information can be stored; secondly, it
   requires an information publication and subscription (Pub/Sub)
   mechanism (corresponding protocol specification of Pub/Sub is defined
   in Section 6).

   As we sketched in the previous section that in general each node
   requires two modules: 1) Information Storage (IS) module and 2) Event
   Queue (EQ) module in the information distribution module. We
   introduce details of the two modules in the following sections.

 5.2.1 Information Storage

   IS module handles how to save and retrieve information for ASAs
   across the network. The IS module uses a syntax to index information,
   generating the hash index value (e.g. a hash key) of the information
   and mapping the hash index to a certain node in ANI. Note that, this
   mechanism can use existing solutions. Specifically, storing
   information in an ANIMA network will be realized in the following

      1) ASA-to-IS Negotiation. An ASA calls the API provided by
      information distribution module (directly supported by IS sub-
      module) to request to store the information somewhere in the
      network. Such a request will be checked by the IS module who will
      be responsible for the request whether such a request is feasible
      according to criteria such as permitted information size.

      2) Destination Node Mapping. The information block will be handled

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      by the IS module in order to calculate/map to a destination node
      in the network. Since ANIMA network is a peer-to-peer network, a
      typical way is to use dynamic hash table (DHT) to map information
      to a unique index identifier. For example, if the size of the
      information is reasonable, the information block itself can be
      hashed, otherwise, some meta-data of the information block can be
      used to generate the mapping.

      3) Destination Node Negotiation Request. Negotiation request of
      storing the information will be sent from the IS module to the IS
      module on the destination node. The negotiation request contains
      parameters about the information block from the source IS module.
      According to the parameters as well as the local available
      resource, the destination node will feedback the source IS module.

      4) Destination Node Negotiation Response. Negotiation response
      from the destination node is sent back to the source IS module. If
      the source IS module gets confirmation that the information can be
      stored, source IS module will prepare to transfer the information
      block; otherwise, a new destination node must be discovered (i.e.
      going to step 7).

      5) Information Block Transfer. Before sending the information
      block to the destination node that accepts the request, the IS
      module of the source node will check if the information block can
      be afforded by one GRASP message. If so, the information block
      will be directly sent by calling a GRASP API. Otherwise, bulk data
      transmission with GRASP will be triggered, where multi-time GRASP
      message sending will be used so that one information block will be
      transferred by smaller pieces [I-D.ietf-anima-reference-model].

      6) Information Writing. Once the information block (or a smaller
      block) is received, the IS module of the destination node will
      store the data block in the local storage, which is accessible.

      7) (Optional) New Destination Node Discovery. If the previously
      selected destination node is not available to store the
      information block, the source IS module will have to identify a
      new destination node to start a new negotiation. In this case, the
      discovery can be done by using discovery GRASP API to identify a
      new candidate, or more complex mechanisms can be introduced.

   Similarly, Getting information from an ANIMA network will be realized
   in the following steps.

      1) ASA-to-IS Request. An ASA accesses the IS module via the APIs
      exposed by the information distribution module. The key/index of
      the interested information will be sent to the IS module. An

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      assumption here is that the key/index should be ready to an ASA
      before an ASA can ask for the information. This relates to the
      publishing/subscribing of the information, which are handled by
      other modules (e.g. Event Queue with Pub/Sub supported by GRASP).

      2) Destination Node Mapping. IS module maps the key/index of the
      requested information to a destination node, and prepares to start
      to request the information. The mapping here follows the same
      mechanism when the information is stored.

      3) Retrieval Negotiation Request. The source IS module sends a
      request to the destination node identified in the previous step
      and asks if such an information object is available.

      4) Retrieval Negotiation Response. The destination node checks the
      key/index of the requested information, and replies to the source
      IS module. If the information is found and the information block
      can be afforded within one GRASP message, the information will be
      sent together with the response to the source IS module.

      5) (Optional) New Destination Request. If the information is not
      found after the source IS module gets the response from the
      original destination node, the source IS module will have to
      discover where the location storing the requested information is.

   IS module can reuse distributed databases and key value stores like
   NoSQL, Cassandra, DHT technologies. storage and retrieval of
   information are all event-driven responsible by the EQ module.

 5.2.2 Event Queue

   The main job of Event Queue (EQ) module is to help ASAs to show
   interests to particular information and notify the occurrences of
   that in asynchronous communication scenarios. In ANI, information
   generated on network nodes is labeled as an event identified with an
   event ID, which is semantically related to the topic of the
   information. Key features of EQ module are summarized as follows.

   1) Event Group: EQ module provides isolated queues for different
   event groups. If two groups of AFs could have completely different
   purposes or interests, EQ module allows to create multiple queues
   where only AFs interested in the same topic will be aware of the
   corresponding event queue.

   2) Event Prioritization: Events do not have to be delivered in the
   same priority. This corresponds to how much important the event
   implies. Some of them are more urgent than regular ones.
   Prioritization allows AFs to differentiate events (i.e. information)

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   they publish/subscribe. 

   3) Event Matching: an information consumer has to be identified from
   the queue in order to deliver the information from the provider.
   Event matching keeps looking for the subscriptions in the queue to
   see if there is an exact published event there. Whenever a match is
   found, it will notify the upper layer to inform the corresponding
   ASAs who are the information provider and subscriber(s) respectively.

   The procedure of how EQ module on every network node works is
   introduced as follows.

      1) Event ID Generation: If information of an ASA is ready, an
      event ID is generated according to the content of the information.
      This is also related to how the information is stored/saved by the
      IS module introduced before. Meanwhile, the type of the event is
      also specified where it can be of control purpose or user plane

      2) Priority Specification: According to the type of the event, the
      ASA may specify its priority to say how this event is wanted to be
      processed. By considering both aspects, the priority of the event
      will be determined and ready for enqueuing.

      3) Event Enqueue: Given the event ID, event group and its
      priority, a queue is identified locally if all criteria can be
      satisfied. If there is such a queue, the event will be simply
      added into the queue, otherwise a new queue will be created to
      accommodate such an event.

      4) Event Propagation: The published event will be propagated to
      the other network nodes in the ANIMA domain. A propagation
      algorithm can be employed to here in order to optimize the
      propagation efficiency of the updated event queue states.

      5) Event Match and Notification: While propagating updated event
      states, EQ module in parallel keeps matching published events and
      its interested consumers. Once a match is found, the provider and
      subscriber(s) will be notified for final information retrieval.

   Event contains the address where the information is stored, after a
   subscriber is notified, it directly retrieves the information from
   the given location.

 5.2.3 Integrating with GRASP APIs

   Actions triggered to the information distribution module will

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   eventually invoke underlying GRASP APIs. Moreover, EQ and IS modules
   are usually correlated. When an AF(ASA) publishes information, not
   only such an event is translated and sent to EQ module, but also the
   information is indexed and stored simultaneously. Similarly, when an
   AF(ASA) subscribes information, not only subscribing event is
   triggered and sent to EQ module, but also the information will be
   retrieved by IS module at the same time.

   o Storing and publishing information: This action involves both IS
   and EQ modules where a node that can store the information will be
   discovered first and related event will e published to the network.
   For this, GRASP APIs discover(), synchronize() and flood() are
   combined to compose such a procedure. In specific, discover() call
   will specific its objective being to "store_data" and the return
   parameters could be either an ASA_locator who will accept to store
   the data, or an error code indicating that no one could afford such
   data; after that, synchronize() call will send the data to the
   specified ASA_locator and the data will be stored at that node, with
   return of processing results like store_data_ack; meanwhile, such a
   successful event (i.e. data is stored successfully) will be flooded
   via a flood() call to interesting parties (such a multicast group

   o Subscribing and getting information: This action involves both IS
   and EQ modules as well where a node that is interested in a topic
   will subscribe the topic by triggering EQ module and if the topic is
   ready IS module will retrieve the content of the topic (i.e. the
   data). GRASP APIs such as register_objective(), flood(),
   synchronize() are combined to compose the procedure. In specific, any
   subscription action received by EQ module will be translated to
   register_objective() call where the interested topic will be the
   parameter inside of the call; the registration will be (selectively)
   flooded to the network by an API call of flood() with the option we
   extended in this draft; once a matched topic is found (because of the
   previous procedure), the node finding such a match will call API
   synchronize() to send the stored data to the subscriber.

5.3 Summary

   In summary, the general requirements for the information distribution
   module on each autonomic node are two sub-modules handling instant
   communications and asynchronous communications, respectively. For
   instant communications, node requirements are simple, in which
   signaling protocols have to be supported. With minimum efforts,
   reusing the existing GRASP is possible. For asynchronous
   communications, information distribution module requires event queue
   and information storage mechanism to be supported.


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6. Protocol Specification (GRASP extension)

   There are multiple ways to integrate the information distribution
   module. The principle we follow is to minimize modifications made to
   the current ANI. We consider to use GRASP as a base to build up the
   information distribution module. The main reason is that the current
   version of GRASP is already an information distribution module for
   the cases of P2P and flooding. In the following discussions, we
   introduce how to complete the missing part.

6.1 Un-solicited Synchronization Message (A new GRASP Message)

   In fragmentary CDDL, a Un-solicited Synchronization message follows
   the pattern:

      unsolicited_synch-message = [M_UNSOLIDSYNCH, session-id,

   A node MAY actively send a unicast Un-solicited Synchronization
   message with the Synchronization data, to another node. This MAY be
   sent to port GRASP_LISTEN_PORT at the destination address, which
   might be obtained by GRASP Discovery or other possible ways. The
   synchronization data are in the form of GRASP Option(s) for specific
   synchronization objective(s). 

6.2 Selective Flooding Option

   In fragmentary CDDL, the selective flood follows the pattern:

      selective-flood-option = [O_SELECTIVE_FLOOD, +O_MATCH-CONDITION,
   match-object, action]
      O_MATCH-CONDITION = [O_MATCH-CONDITION, Obj1, match-rule, Obj2]
         Obj1 = text 
         match-rule = GREATER / LESS / WITHIN / CONTAIN
         Obj2 = text
      match-object = NEIGHBOR / SELF
      action = FORWARD / DROP

   The selective flood option encapsulates a match-condition option
   which represents the conditions regarding to continue or discontinue
   flood the current message. For the match-condition option, the Obj1
   and Obj2 are to objects that need to be compared. For example, the
   Obj1 could be the role of the device and Obj2 could be "RSG". The
   match rules between the two objects could be greater, less than,
   within, or contain. The match-object represents of which Obj1 belongs
   to, it could be the device itself or the neighbor(s) intended to be
   flooded. The action means, when the match rule applies, the current
   device just continues flood or discontinues.

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6.3 Subscription Objective Option

   In fragmentary CDDL, a Subscription Objective Option follows the

      subscription-objection-option = [SUBSCRIPTION, 2, 2, subobj]
      objective-name = SUBSCRIPTION
      objective-flags = 2
      loop-count = 2
      subobj = text

   This option MAY be included in GRASP M_Synchronization, when
   included, it means this message is for a subscription to a specific

6.4 Un_Subscription Objective Option

   In fragmentary CDDL, a Un_Subscribe Objective Option follows the

      Unsubscribe-objection-option = [UNSUBSCRIB, 2, 2, unsubobj]
      objective-name = SUBSCRIPTION
      objective-flags = 2
      loop-count = 2
      unsubobj = text

   This option MAY be included in GRASP M_Synchronization, when
   included, it means this message is for a un-subscription to a
   specific object. 

6.5 Publishing Objective Option

   In fragmentary CDDL, a Publish Objective Option follows the pattern:

      publish-objection-option = [PUBLISH, 2, 2, pubobj] objective-name
      = PUBLISH
      objective-flags = 2
      loop-count = 2
      pubobj = text

   This option MAY be included in GRASP M_Synchronization, when
   included, it means this message is for a publish of a specific object

   Note that extended GRASP messages with new arguments inside here will
   be triggered by interactions/actions from information distribution
   module introduced in Section 5. 


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7. Security Considerations

   The distribution source authentication could be done at multiple

      o  Outer layer authentication: the GRASP communication is within
      ACP (Autonomic Control Plane,
      [I-D.ietf-anima-autonomic-control-plane]). This is the default
      GRASP behavior.

      o  Inner layer authentication: the GRASP communication might not
      be within a protected channel, then there should be embedded
      protection in distribution information itself. Public key
      infrastructure might be involved in this case.

8. IANA Considerations


9.  References

9.1 Normative References

              Bormann, D., Carpenter, B., and B. Liu, "A Generic
              Autonomic Signaling Protocol (GRASP)", draft-ietf-
              animagrasp-15 (Standard Track), October 2017.

9.2 Informative References

   [RFC7575] Behringer, M., "Autonomic Networking: Definitions and
              Design Goals", RFC 7575, June 2015

              Eckert, T., Behringer, M., and S. Bjarnason, "An Autonomic
              Control Plane (ACP)", draft-behringer-anima-autonomic-
              control-plane-13, December 2017.

              Eckert, T., Behringer, M., "Using Autonomic Control Plane
              for Stable Connectivity of Network OAM", draft-ietf-anima-
              stable-connectivity-10, February 2018.

              Behringer, M., Carpenter, B., Eckert, T., Ciavaglia, L.,
              Pierre P., Liu, B., Nobre, J., and J. Strassner, "A
              Reference Model for Autonomic Networking", draft-ietf-

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              anima-reference-model-05, October 2017.

              Du, Z., Jiang, S., Nobre, J., Ciavaglia, L., and M.
              Behringer, "ANIMA Intent Policy and Format", draft-
              duanima-an-intent-05 (work in progress), February 2017.

              Carpenter, B., Liu, B., Wang, W., and X. Gong, "Generic
              Autonomic Signaling Protocol Application Program Interface
              (GRASP API)", draft-ietf-anima-grasp-api-00 (work in
              progress), December 2017.

              Carpenter, B., Jiang, S., Liu, B., "Transferring Bulk Data
              over the GeneRic Autonomic Signaling Protocol (GRASP)",
              draft-carpenter-anima-grasp-bulk-02 (work in progress),
              June 30, 2018

              3GPP, "Technical Realization of Service Based
              Architecture", 3GPP TS 29.500 15.1.0, 09 2018

              3GPP, "System Architecture for the 5G System", 3GPP TS
              23.501 15.2.0, 6 2018,

              3GPP, "Procedures for the 5G System", 3GPP TS 23.502
              15.2.0, 6 2018, <

              White Paper "Toward fully connected vehicles: Edge
              computing for advanced automotive communications", 5GAA

Appendix A.

   GRASP includes flooding criteria together with the delivered
   information so that every node will process and act according to the
   criteria specified in the message. An example of extending GRASP with

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   selective criteria can be:

      o  Matching condition: "Device role=IPRAN_RSG"

      o  Matching objective: "Neighbors"

      o  Action: "Forward"

   This example means: only distributing the information to the
   neighbors who are IPRAN_RSG.

Authors' Addresses

   Bing Liu
   Huawei Technologies
   Q27, Huawei Campus
   No.156 Beiqing Road
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing  100095
   P.R. China


   Sheng Jiang
   Huawei Technologies
   Q27, Huawei Campus
   No.156 Beiqing Road
   Hai-Dian District, Beijing  100095
   P.R. China


   Xun Xiao
   Munich Research Center
   Huawei technologies
   Riesstr. 25, 80992, Muenchen, Germany


   Artur Hecker
   Munich Research Center
   Huawei technologies
   Riesstr. 25, 80992, Muenchen, Germany


   Zoran Despotovic

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   Munich Research Center
   Huawei technologies
   Riesstr. 25, 80992, Muenchen, Germany


   Appendix A  Real-world Use Cases of Information Distribution

   The requirement analysis in Section 3 shows that generally
   information distribution should be better of as an infrastructure
   layer module, which provides to upper layer utilizations. In this
   section, we review some use cases from the real-world where an
   information distribution module with powerful functions do plays a
   critical role there.

   A.1 Service-Based Architecture (SBA) in 3GPP 5G

   In addition to Internet, the telecommunication network (i.e. carrier
   mobile wireless networks) is another world-wide networking system.
   The architecture of the upcoming 5G mobile networks from 3GPP has
   already been defined to follow a service-based architecture (SBA)
   where any network function (NF) can be dynamically associated with
   any other NF(s) when needed to compose a network service. Note that
   one NF can simultaneously associate with multiple other NFs, instead
   of being physically wired as in the previous generations of mobile
   networks. NFs communicate with each other over service-based
   interface (SBI), which is also standardized by 3GPP [3GPP.23.501].

   In order to realize an SBA network system, detailed requirements are
   further defined to specify how NFs should interact with each other
   with information exchange over the SBI. We now list three
   requirements that are related to information distribution here.

      1) NF Pub/Sub: Any NF should be able to expose its service status
      to the network and any NF should be able to subscribe the service
      status of an NF and get notified if the status is available. An
      concrete example is that a session management function (SMF) can
      subscribe the REGISTER notification from an access management
      function (AMF) if there is a new user entity trying to access the
      mobile network [3GPP.23.502].

      2) Network Exposure Function (NEF): A particular network function
      that is required to manage the event exposure and distributions.
      In specific, SBA requires such a functionality to register network
      events from the other NFs (e.g. AMF, SMF and so on), classify the
      events and properly handle event distributions accordingly in

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      terms of different criteria (e.g. priorities) [3GPP.23.502].

      3) Network Repository Function (NRF): A particular network
      function where all service status information is stored for the
      whole network. An SBA network system requires all NFs to be
      stateless so as to improve the resilience as well as agility of
      providing network services. Therefore, the information of the
      available NFs and the service status generated by those NFs will
      be globally stored in NRF as a repository of the system. This
      clearly implies storage capability that keeps the information in
      the network and provides those information when needed. A concrete
      example is that whenever a new NF comes up, it first of all
      registers itself at NRF with its profile. When a network service
      requires a certain NF, it first inquires NRF to retrieve the
      availability information and decides whether or not there is an
      available NF or a new NF must be instantiated [3GPP.23.502].

   (Note: 3GPP CT might finally adopt HTTP2.0/JSON to be the protocol
   communicating between NFs, but autonomic networks can also load
   HTTP2.0 with in ACP.)

   A.2 Vehicle-to-Everything

   Carrier networks On-boarding services of vertical industries are also
   one of some blooming topics that are heavily discussed. Connected car
   is clearly one of the important scenarios interested in automotive
   manufacturers, carriers and vendors. 5G Automotive Alliance - an
   industry collaboration organization defines many promising use cases
   where services from car industry should be supported by the 5G mobile
   network. Here we list two examples as follows [5GAA.use.cases].

      1) Software/Firmware Update: Car manufacturers expect that the
      software/firmware of their car products can be remotely
      updated/upgraded via 5G network in future, instead of onsite
      visiting their 4S stores/dealers offline as nowadays. This
      requires the network to provide a mechanism for vehicles to
      receive the latest software updates during a certain period of
      time. In order to run such a service for a car manufacturer, the
      network shall not be just like a network pipe anymore. Instead,
      information data have to be stored in the network, and delivered
      in a publishing/subscribing fashion. For example, the latest
      release of a software will be first distributed and stored at the
      access edges of the mobile network, after that, the updates can be
      pushed by the car manufacturer or pulled by the car owner as

      2) Real-time HD Maps: Autonomous driving clearly requires much
      finer details of road maps. Finer details not only include the

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      details of just static road and streets, but also real-time
      information on the road as well as the driving area for both local
      urgent situations and intelligent driving scheduling. This asks
      for situational awareness at critical road segments in cases of
      changing road conditions. Clearly, a huge amount of traffic data
      that are real-time collected will have to be stored and shared
      across the network. This clearly requires the storage capability,
      data synchronization and event notifications in urgent cases from
      the network, which are still missing at the infrastructure layer.

   A.3 Summary

   Through the general analysis and the concrete examples from the real-
   world, we realize that the ways information are exchanged in the
   coming new scenarios are not just short and instant anymore. More
   advanced as well as diverse information distribution capabilities are
   required and should be generically supported from the infrastructure
   layer. Upper layer applications (e.g. ASAs in ANIMA) access and
   utilize such a unified mechanism for their own services.

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