Controlling Actuators with CoAP
draft-mattsson-core-coap-actuators-05

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Network Working Group                                        J. Mattsson
Internet-Draft                                               J. Fornehed
Intended status: Informational                               G. Selander
Expires: September 20, 2018                                 F. Palombini
                                                                Ericsson
                                                              C. Amsuess
                                             Energy Harvesting Solutions
                                                          March 19, 2018

                    Controlling Actuators with CoAP
                 draft-mattsson-core-coap-actuators-05

Abstract

   Being able to trust information from sensors and to securely control
   actuators are essential in a world of connected and networking things
   interacting with the physical world.  In this memo we show that just
   using COAP with a security protocol like DTLS, TLS, or OSCORE is not
   enough.  We describe several serious attacks any on-path attacker can
   do, and discusses tougher requirements and mechanisms to mitigate the
   attacks.  While this document is focused on actuators, some of the
   attacks apply equally well to sensors.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 20, 2018.

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   Copyright (c) 2018 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents

Mattsson, et al.       Expires September 20, 2018               [Page 1]
Internet-Draft               CoAP Actuators                   March 2018

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   2.  Attacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  The Block Attack  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  The Request Delay Attack  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.3.  The Response Delay and Mismatch Attack  . . . . . . . . .   8
     2.4.  The Relay Attack  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     2.5.  The Request Fragment Rearrangement Attack . . . . . . . .  12
       2.5.1.  Completing an Operation with an Earlier Final Block .  13
       2.5.2.  Injecting a Withheld First Block  . . . . . . . . . .  14
   3.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   4.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
   5.  References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     5.1.  Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     5.2.  Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
   Acknowledgements  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17

1.  Introduction

   Being able to trust information from sensors and to securely control
   actuators are essential in a world of connected and networking things
   interacting with the physical world.  One protocol used to interact
   with sensors and actuators is the Constrained Application Protocol
   (CoAP) [RFC7252].  Any Internet-of-Things (IoT) deployment valuing
   security and privacy would use a security protocol such as DTLS
   [RFC6347], TLS [RFC5246], or OSCORE [I-D.ietf-core-object-security]
   to protect CoAP, where the choice of security protocol depends on the
   transport protocol and the presence of intermediaries.  The use of
   CoAP over UDP and DTLS is specified in [RFC6347] and the use of CoAP
   over TCP and TLS is specified in [RFC8323].  OSCORE protects CoAP
   end-to-end with the use of COSE [RFC8152] and the CoAP Object-
   Security option [I-D.ietf-core-object-security], and can therefore be
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