Carrier-Grade-NAT (CGN) Deployment Considerations.
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Network Working Group K. Nishizuka Internet-Draft NTT Communications Intended status: Standards Track Mar 29, 2013 Expires: September 30, 2013 Carrier-Grade-NAT (CGN) Deployment Considerations. draft-nishizuka-cgn-deployment-considerations-00 Abstract This document provides deployment considerations for Carrier-Grade- NAT (CGN) based on the verification result include the investigation of the number of sessions of applications. The verification was conducted in StarBED which is one of the largest scale network experiment environment in Japan. A million of subscribers was emulated and it revealed the realistic behavior of CGN. Status of this Memo This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79. Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet- Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/. Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress." This Internet-Draft will expire on September 30, 2013. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of publication of this document. Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Code Components extracted from this document must include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 1] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 described in the Simplified BSD License. Table of Contents 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. Conventions used in this document . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4. The number of sessions of applications . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 5. Feasibility of port assignment methods . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5.1. Port assignment methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5.2. Efficiency of address saving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5.3. Logging design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.3.1. Amount of the NAT log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 5.3.2. Necessity for destination information . . . . . . . . 8 6. Scalability of CGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6.1. Performance of CGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 6.2. Redundancy features of CGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6.3. DNS query traffic considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.4. Separation of traffic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 7. Tested web sites and applications (Excerpts) . . . . . . . . . 13 8. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 9. Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 10. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 11. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 11.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 11.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Author's Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 2] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 1. Introduction IP address sharing is tentative technic to deal with the shortage of IPv4 addresses. As described in [RFC6269], IP address sharing causes many issues such as application failures and security vulnerabilities. A part of these issues is based on the assigned number of sessions per user and port allocation method of CGN. This document lists the number of port consumption of major application and web sites. The efficiency of CGN is based on the number of sessions allocated to each user and the installation location. This document also describes the deployment considerations of CGN to specify the optimum place according to CGN performance. CGN performance was experimentally-verified with realistic traffic generated by amount of emulated users. The growth of IPv6 is continual solution of the shortage of IPv4 addresses and frees these issues. By adopting the combination of the IPv4 shared address and native IPv6, the duty of CGN will decrease and as the result, the bad effect on applications which are caused by the limitation of available ports and address translation itself and security vulnerability will be resolved. The most effective way of deploying CGN is examined in this document. Further discussion about the integration of CGN into the existing network is studied in [I-D.ietf-opsawg-lsn-deployment]. 2. Conventions used in this document The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC2119. 3. Motivation With a progressive exhaustion of IPv4 addresses, the demands for sharing IPv4 addresses with multiple customers are rapidly rising, thus many proposals are getting much attention include Carrier Grade NAT (CGN, or LSN for Large Scale NAT) [I-D.ietf-behave-lsn-requirements], Dual-Stack Lite [RFC6333], NAT64 [RFC6146], Address+Port (A+P) [RFC6346], 464XLAT [I-D.ietf-v6ops-464xlat] and MAP [I-D.ietf-softwire-map]. The practical configuration of these method is based on the same considerations as follows: Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 3] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 - Stateful or Stateless - Centralized or Distributed - Dynamic port assignment or Static port assignment - Log reduction strategy - Security considerations The best practice about these considerations should be derived from realistic experiment because there are pros and cons. Though we tested them in NAT444 environment, the result is applicable for other approaches. The investigation of number of sessions is described in this document and it can be also helpful for all of them. 4. The number of sessions of applications The number of concurrent sessions of applications is important factor of designing of CGN because there is trade-off between the efficiency of IPv4 address saving and the availability of those applications. In addition, for security and fairness, we should limit the number of sessions per user. As described in [RFC6269], infected devices could rapidly exhaust the available ports of global pool addresses, hence all the rest of users could not through the CGN anymore. So to place the CGN to existing network, we should know how many sessions are sufficient for every user. Here is a list of applications and their average sessions. We selected and tested 50 sites from the list of top sites and remarkable applications. Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 4] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 +-------------------------+----------+--------+--------+--------+ | Application | Total | TCP | TCP | UDP | | | sessions | port80 | port443| port53 | +-------------------------+----------+--------+--------+--------+ | Web mail | 65 | 35 | 30 | 20 | | | | | | | | Video | 83 | 77 | 6 | 20 | | | | | | | | Portal site | 47 | 47 | 0 | 13 | | | | | | | | EC site | 45 | 43 | 2 | 11 | | | | | | | | blog | 61 | 59 | 2 | 17 | | | | | | | | Search Engine | 8 | 8 | 0 | 4 | | | | | | | | Online Banking | 20 | 2 | 18 | 4 | | | | | | | | Cloud Service | 29 | 23 | 6 | 6 | | | | | | | | iTunes | 20 | 1 | 19 | 7 | | | | | | | | Twitter | 33 | 1 | 32 | 12 | | | | | | | | Twitter(mobile) | 14 | 2 | 11 | 3 | | | | | | | | facebook | 51 | 40 | 11 | 18 | | | | | | | | facebook(mobile) | 18 | 11 | 7 | 10 | | | | | | | | Game | 95 | 86 | 9 | 19 | | | | | | | +-------------------------+----------+--------+--------+--------+ Figure 1: The number of sessions of applications. Figure 1 The number of sessions of these applications are up to 100 sessions. There are no longer high-consumption applications. This observation implies that modern applications such as facebook have changed to use multiplexed requests. Previously, to achieve high-performance web, it abused HTTP sessions. Now, current cutting edge technologies such as WebSocket, SPDY and HTTP2.0 avoid such an abusing. Basically, multiple requests are multiplexed into one TCP connection. However, a kind of game applications still consume many sessions. The last factor of the estimation of number of sessions is how many Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 5] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 applications are used simultaneously within a single CPE (Customer Premises Equipment) which includes non-PC devices like gaming devices. Our investigation shows that the average number of session of active subscriber is 400. We daresay the limitation of 1000 sessions per user would not affect the most of users while preventing the severe abuse from certain users. 5. Feasibility of port assignment methods Basing on the investigation of the number of sessions of applications, the realistic parameter of each port assignment method was estimated by the verification. 5.1. Port assignment methods The efficiency of IPv4 saving by CGN is highly depending on how to allocate the ports of pool addresses to each users. There are 2 major methods: dynamic assignment and static assignment [I-D.chen-sunset4-cgn-port-allocation]. There are combined problem involving efficiency of address saving and logging information reduction. Typical IP Network Address Translator (NAT) [RFC2663][RFC2993] implementation uses dynamic assignment, so NAT444, NAT64, DS-lite and 464XLAT are originally dynamic assignment approach. To avoid the huge amount of information needed to be recorded, those approaches have variations of static assignment [I-D.donley-behave-deterministic-cgn] and MAP is inherently static assignment approach. For taking advantage of both methods, the hybrid method that is dynamic assignment of port ranges has been implemented in some CGN. The merits of the port block assignment have been referred in [RFC6346], [I-D.donley-behave-deterministic-cgn] and [I-D.chen-sunset4-cgn-port-allocation]. 5.2. Efficiency of address saving In the dynamic assignment, the ports of pool address are allocated randomly for active users. This method can use pool addresses and ports most effectively. The average number of port consumption (N) per active subscriber is the key value for dynamic assignment. In the verification, the average number of port consumption (N) was estimated to be 400. At the same time, user-quota of 1000 sessions was set to avoid the abuse. The percentage of the active subscribers (a) was estimated to be 25% at the value during the busy hour of traffic (21:00 pm to 1:00am). In this time, "active" subscriber means who create a new session in certain period of time. Then, when a CGN adopt the dynamic assignment, the required number of the pool address is as follows: Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 6] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 # of pool address (P) = # of Subscriber (S) * a * N / (65536 - R) Here, (R) is reserved TCP/UDP port list referred in [I-D.donley-behave-deterministic-cgn]. CGN should eliminate the wellknown ports (0-1023 for TCP and UDP) to avoid the bad interpretation from destination servers. It is natural to translate source port of outgoing packet to ephemeral ports. The ports after 32768 is considered to be used without any problems because ephemeral ports are 32768-61000 for Linux and 49152-65535 in the IANA recommendations. As the result, 3,051 pool addresses are sufficient for 1,000,000 subscribers. The feasibility of configuration was confirmed in the verification. On the other hand, in static assignment, the ports are allocated a priori for every users. The pool addresses and ports are reserved to every users, so most of them could be a dead stock because there are light users and heavy users in aspect of port consumption. The max number of port consumption in all subscribers is the key value for static assignment. The true peak number of the session by a heavy user could be over 10,000 sessions. However it is assumed that such a severe consumption of ports to be an abuse, so the number of statically assigned port (M) is controllable parameter by each providers. In the static assignment, the required number of the pool address is as follows: # of pool address (P) = # of Subscriber (S) * M / (65536 - R) Taking account into the investigation of number of sessions of applications, the desirable value of (M) is over 1,000. As the result, no less than 30,517 pool addresses are needed for 1,000,000 subscribers. The compression ratio is one tenth of the case of dynamic assignment. 5.3. Logging design 5.3.1. Amount of the NAT log In the aspect of the efficiency, the dynamic assignment is preferable than the static assignment. However the size of the log is the main consideration. There is a case that providers must identify a user to respond abuse or public safety requests. Conventionally, source IP address and a timestamp are needed. It was possible to identify a user by comparing IP address with authentication logs of the exact time. However, when IP address is shared by the CGN, it is necessary to compare the translated address and port information which are given by the destination host with the NAT log to identify the untranslated IP address. According to the [I-D.ietf-behave-lsn-requirements], following information is Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 7] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 recommended to log (for NAT444): - Transport Protocol - Source IP address:port - Source IP address:port after translation - Timestamp In addition, the indicator of the allocation and deallocation are needed because it assures that the identified subscriber certainly had been using the translated IP address and port. Plus, including the index of the CGN host, the average size of NAT log is about 120 byte in ASCII format. Every active subscriber generate 400 sessions in average for a certain amount of time. It is assumed that the event happens every 5 minute in the most severe condition. The size of the log (L) for time frame (T) can be estimated as follows: The size of log (L) = # of Subscriber (S) * a * N * 120byte * 2 * ( Time frame(T) / 5 min. ) It should be noted that the log is generated at the timing of NAT table creation and freeing. As the result, for 1,000,000 users, the size of log is piled up to 6.4 terabytes per day. The verification result confirm the existing estimation referred in [I-D.donley-behave-deterministic-cgn]. The size of the log can be reduced without loss of the amount of information. Compact format is the technique of reducing the amount of log by using a notational change (hexadecimal number). It was confirmed by verification that the compact format can reduce amount of log to about 80% as compared with ASCII format. Though it was not tested, theoretically binary format is the smallest notation and amount of log can be reduced to 30%. In static allocation, the amount of log is dramatically reduced even to zero because the untranslated IP address and the translated IP address / port range are mapped a priori. 5.3.2. Necessity for destination information In [RFC6269], it is pointed out that only providing information about the external address to a service provider is no longer sufficient to unambiguously identify customers. One of the solutions is the method of recording the source port information (and exact time stamp) additionally by the destination server or FW, which is demanded in [RFC6302]. The other solution is the method of recording destination IP address and port information by CGN of service provider. The both solutions are imperfect. In [I-D.tsou-behave-natx4-log-reduction], it is noted that source port recording is not supported by every Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 8] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 application. Thus, to increase the certainty, additional logging of destination address and port is effective measure to deal with the legal request from servers which are not compliant with [RFC6302]. In dynamic assignment, to log destination address is additional. It is confirmed by the verification that by logging destination address, only 4% of amount of log is increased in ASCII format. On the other hand, in static assignment, logging of every session is newly required and it has the same amount of log as the dynamic assignment. It completely breaks the merit of the static assignment. 6. Scalability of CGN The estimation of efficiency of address saving and the logging design are depending on the number of subscribers accommodated with a CGN. The scalability of the current CGN was verified by the measurement of the performance. 6.1. Performance of CGN According to the experimental results, there are three base capacities to indicate CGN performance as follows: - Through put - MCS: Max Concurrent Sessions - CPS: Connections per Sec These capacities are not independent of each other, but become mixed load for CGN. Each load will be combined in real network traffic, thus using subscriber emulated traffic is important for measuring the performance in realistic way. Through put is forwarding performance of CGN. Currently CGN equipments with an IF of 1GigabitEthernet and 10GigabitEthernet are flagship models of the manufactures, but CGN has an upper limit internally because the performance depends on internal devices such as CPUs. By ON / OFF of ALGs (Application Level Gateway), the forwarding performance will be affected because the traffic process is possibly changed to the path through CPU. MCS shows an upper limit of numbers of records kept in NAT table. Number of holding sessions depends on retention time of NAT table. That is because, even after the end of data transmission, the NAT table is held in a certain period of time to guarantee the behavior of an application. As described in [I-D.ietf-behave-lsn-requirements] REQ-8, if the CGN tracks TCP sessions, NAT tables may be released when RST or FIN of TCP has been observed. In case of TCP session where RST or FIN session has not Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 9] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 been observed, and UDP and ICMP communication, NAT table should retain a certain amount of time. Also, in case of Full Cone NAT, a table of Full Cone NAT also should retain a certain time to await communication from outside for a certain period of time. It is effective to shorten the time-out value in order to suppress the overflowing NAT table, but it is needed to be careful not to inhibit the behavior of the application. It is desirable that retention time of NAT table is configurable as time-out value. In the experiment, the time-out values are as follows: +------------------+---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ | Protocols | TCP | TCP | UDP | DNS | ICMP | | | | SYN | | | | +------------------+---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ | Time-out Value | 300 | 60 | 300 | 3 | 2 | +------------------+---------+--------+--------+--------+--------+ Figure 2: The time-out values (sec) in the experiment. Figure 2 These settings didn't break the behavior of applications. It is very difficult to estimate maximum number of concurrent sessions in the network where traffic is already flowing. Maximum number of concurrent sessions was estimated to be 1M sessions per 10,000 users by our assumption as follows: Max Concurrent Sessions (MCS) = # of Subscriber (S) * a * N As the result, it is verified that tested current CGN is able to have 16M sessions for 160,000 subscribers with the capability of the dynamic assignment and logging. It means that introducing CGN up to about 15G traffic section is capable, which implies that CGN can be placed to more centralized position of the network. In summary, the settings and the performance result are as follows: Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 10] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 +----------------------------------------------+ | | Assumed | | | Values | +---------------------------------+------------+ | average # of sessions(N) | 400 | +---------------------------------+------------+ | % of the active subscribers (a) | 25 | +---------------------------------+------------+ | | Verified | | | Values | +---------------------------------+------------+ | # of Subscriber (S) | 160,000 | +---------------------------------+------------+ | Max Concurrent Sessions(MCS) | 16,000,000 | +---------------------------------+------------+ | Connection Per Sec(CPS) | 30,000 | +---------------------------------+------------+ | # of pool address (P) | 4,000 | +---------------------------------+------------+ | size of log (L) (in 10min) | 7.0GB | +---------------------------------+------------+ Figure 3: The performance results of tested CGN. Figure 3 In the verification, session arrival rate by emulated subscribers was not so high because the load of concurrent sessions is noticeable in the equipment used in the experiment. There were no problems in weak load of about 30,000 CPS. In case that traffic flows suddenly change to standby equipment in redundant network, CPS performance becomes rate-limiting, so CPS performance is also important factor to minimize the effect of failures. 6.2. Redundancy features of CGN It is often referred that introduction of CGN could create Single Point of Failure(SPOF) (ex. in [RFC6269]). CGN is stateful, in contrast to stateless BR of MAP, so the redundant configuration must be achieved by the synchronization of the NAT table between redundant equipments. Moreover, introduction of CGN creates layer 3 boundary to NATed traffic, so the redundancy features may work with around routers via dynamic routing. Nevertheless, it is verified that current CGN can be configured and introduced to service providers network with the redundancy features. In the verification, CGN can be switched to another CGN with sub-sec loss of traffic even in the situation that they holds 16M concurrent sessions. Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 11] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 6.3. DNS query traffic considerations How to deal with the DNS query traffic is unignorable concern for deploiment of CGN. In the test scenario, control experiment was conducted to reveal the impact of the huge amount of DNS queries. Access Node CGN Emulated +-----------+ Subscribers +-------+ +-------+ | | +----+ | | | | | | | --+-----+ R +---------+ CGN +------+ | +----+ | | | | | Core | +---+---+ +-------+ | Network | | | | | | | | +-------+ | +-------+ | | | | | | | | +-------------+ DNS +------+ | DNS | | | | | | | | +-------+ | +-------+ | +-----------+ DNS Forwarder Figure 4: Bypassing of DNS queries using DNS forwarder. In the first case, the original DNS server IP address in the service provider network is distributed to the subscribers. The emulated subscribers use the DNS server to get host IP address by name, so all query packets go through the CGN. The generated DNS query is 12M at the speed of 10k query per sec. In the second case, IP address of a DNS server placed in the bypassing position of CGN is used instead. The second DNS server works as a forwarder, so all queries are forwarded to the first DNS server. Therefore, all DNS queries are bypassed from the CGN while data traffic is still going through the CGN. As the result, it was shown that DNS query almost does not affect the performance of the CGN. The max concurrent sessions of DNS packet was only 40k. NAT table of DNS timeouts in 3 seconds, thus It saves the consumption of NAT tables. However NAT log was generated for every query and it doubled the total amount of the log. It would be rare that the NAT log of DNS is needed to react to a legal request. The impact of the DNS query traffic is relatively small if DNS timeout is adjusted. Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 12] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 6.4. Separation of traffic In the existing network, IPv4 communication and IPv6 communication may already be mixed in the dual stack. In this case, by introducing CGN which can route IPv6 and existing IPv4 aside from NAT function, the influence for the network architecture could be suppressed and so a flexible design is possible. However, though current CGN is scalable enough to be deployed in core of the service providers network, the feature of routing is insufficient to replace the exsisting routers. Such a CGN is desirable, otherwise the design which makes IPv6 traffic and traditional IPv4 traffic bypass from CGN is effective choice for providers. In dividing NAT flows and non-NAT flows routers around the CGN, VRF (Virtual Routing and Forwarding) and PBR (policy based routing) are needed in a router under CGN. In that case it is indispensable to configure routers so that the hairpining communication between the NAT user and non-NAT user to be possible. The considerations about the separation of traffic and effective deployment configuration are discussed in detail in [I-D.ietf-opsawg-lsn-deployment]. 7. Tested web sites and applications (Excerpts) - Web Mail gmail yahoo mail hot mail - Video ustream youtube nicovideos Hulu dailymotion daum qq fc2 xvideos - Portal&EC site yahoo rakuten amazon apple - Blog livedoor blog Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 13] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 ameba blog - Search Engine google - Online Banking mizuho bank DC card - Cloud Service drop box Evernote - InstantMessenger & VoIP skype Line - facebook - twitter - google map - Online PC Game aeria games ameba pigg nexon hangame - Consumer Game Armored Core V (Play Station3) Dark Souls 2 (Play Station3) Gundam Extreme VS. (Play Station3) Kinect adventure (XBox) Persona 4 the ultimate in mayonaka arena (XBox) Mingol 4 (WiiU) Monster Hunter 3G (DS-lite) Keri-hime sweets (iOS) PuzzDra (iOS) 8. IANA Considerations This document makes no request of IANA. 9. Security Considerations TBD 10. Acknowledgments This research and experiment are conducted under the great support of Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications of Japan. Many thanks to MIC, JAIST members and Shin Miyakawa for their ideas and feedback in documentation. Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 14] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 11. References 11.1. Normative References [I-D.donley-behave-deterministic-cgn] Donley, C., Grundemann, C., Sarawat, V., Sundaresan, K., and O. Vautrin, "Deterministic Address Mapping to Reduce Logging in Carrier Grade NAT Deployments", draft-donley-behave-deterministic-cgn-05 (work in progress), January 2013. [I-D.ietf-behave-lsn-requirements] Perreault, S., Yamagata, I., Miyakawa, S., Nakagawa, A., and H. Ashida, "Common requirements for Carrier Grade NATs (CGNs)", draft-ietf-behave-lsn-requirements-10 (work in progress), December 2012. [I-D.ietf-opsawg-lsn-deployment] Kuarsingh, V. and J. Cianfarani, "CGN Deployment with BGP/ MPLS IP VPNs", draft-ietf-opsawg-lsn-deployment-02 (work in progress), February 2013. [RFC2663] Srisuresh, P. and M. Holdrege, "IP Network Address Translator (NAT) Terminology and Considerations", RFC 2663, August 1999. [RFC2993] Hain, T., "Architectural Implications of NAT", RFC 2993, November 2000. [RFC6269] Ford, M., Boucadair, M., Durand, A., Levis, P., and P. Roberts, "Issues with IP Address Sharing", RFC 6269, June 2011. 11.2. Informative References [I-D.chen-sunset4-cgn-port-allocation] Chen, G., "Analysis of NAT64 Port Allocation Method", draft-chen-sunset4-cgn-port-allocation-01 (work in progress), February 2013. [I-D.ietf-softwire-map] Troan, O., Dec, W., Li, X., Bao, C., Matsushima, S., and T. Murakami, "Mapping of Address and Port with Encapsulation (MAP)", draft-ietf-softwire-map-04 (work in progress), February 2013. [I-D.ietf-v6ops-464xlat] Mawatari, M., Kawashima, M., and C. Byrne, "464XLAT: Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 15] Internet-Draft CGN Deployment Considerations Mar 2013 Combination of Stateful and Stateless Translation", draft-ietf-v6ops-464xlat-10 (work in progress), February 2013. [I-D.tsou-behave-natx4-log-reduction] ZOU), T., Li, W., and T. Taylor, "Port Management To Reduce Logging In Large-Scale NATs", draft-tsou-behave-natx4-log-reduction-02 (work in progress), September 2010. [RFC6146] Bagnulo, M., Matthews, P., and I. van Beijnum, "Stateful NAT64: Network Address and Protocol Translation from IPv6 Clients to IPv4 Servers", RFC 6146, April 2011. [RFC6302] Durand, A., Gashinsky, I., Lee, D., and S. Sheppard, "Logging Recommendations for Internet-Facing Servers", BCP 162, RFC 6302, June 2011. [RFC6333] Durand, A., Droms, R., Woodyatt, J., and Y. Lee, "Dual- Stack Lite Broadband Deployments Following IPv4 Exhaustion", RFC 6333, August 2011. [RFC6346] Bush, R., "The Address plus Port (A+P) Approach to the IPv4 Address Shortage", RFC 6346, August 2011. Author's Address Kaname Nishizuka NTT Communications Corporation Granpark Tower 3-4-1 Shibaura, Minato-ku Tokyo 108-8118 Japan Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Nishizuka Expires September 30, 2013 [Page 16]