RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks
draft-pthubert-roll-rfc6550bis-00

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Pascal Thubert  , Tim Winter 
Last updated 2020-12-04
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ROLL                                                     P. Thubert, Ed.
Internet-Draft                                             Cisco Systems
Updates: 6550 (if approved)                               T. Winter, Ed.
Intended status: Standards Track                         4 December 2020
Expires: 7 June 2021

      RPL: IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks
                   draft-pthubert-roll-rfc6550bis-00

Abstract

   Low-Power and Lossy Networks (LLNs) are a class of network in which
   both the routers and their interconnect are constrained.  LLN routers
   typically operate with constraints on processing power, memory, and
   energy (battery power).  Their interconnects are characterized by
   high loss rates, low data rates, and instability.  LLNs are comprised
   of anything from a few dozen to thousands of routers.  Supported
   traffic flows include point-to-point (between devices inside the
   LLN), point-to-multipoint (from a central control point to a subset
   of devices inside the LLN), and multipoint-to-point (from devices
   inside the LLN towards a central control point).  This document
   specifies the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks
   (RPL), which provides a mechanism whereby multipoint-to-point traffic
   from devices inside the LLN towards a central control point as well
   as point-to-multipoint traffic from the central control point to the
   devices inside the LLN are supported.  Support for point-to-point
   traffic is also available.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on 7 June 2021.

Thubert & Winter           Expires 7 June 2021                  [Page 1]
Internet-Draft                     RPL                     December 2020

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     1.1.  Design Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     1.2.  Expectations of Link-Layer Type . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   3.  Protocol Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     3.1.  Topologies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       3.1.1.  Constructing Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
       3.1.2.  RPL Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
       3.1.3.  Instances, DODAGs, and DODAG Versions . . . . . . . .  13
     3.2.  Upward Routes and DODAG Construction  . . . . . . . . . .  15
       3.2.1.  Objective Function (OF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.2.2.  DODAG Repair  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.2.3.  Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
       3.2.4.  Grounded and Floating DODAGs  . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       3.2.5.  Local DODAGs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       3.2.6.  Administrative Preference . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
       3.2.7.  Data-Path Validation and Loop Detection . . . . . . .  17
       3.2.8.  Distributed Algorithm Operation . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     3.3.  Downward Routes and Destination Advertisement . . . . . .  18
     3.4.  Local DODAGs Route Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     3.5.  Rank Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
       3.5.1.  Rank Comparison (DAGRank()) . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
       3.5.2.  Rank Relationships  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     3.6.  Routing Metrics and Constraints Used by RPL . . . . . . .  22
     3.7.  Loop Avoidance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
       3.7.1.  Greediness and Instability  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
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