TinyIPFIX for smart meters in constrained networks
draft-schmitt-ipfix-tiny-01

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Network Working Group                                         C. Schmitt
Internet-Draft                                                B. Stiller
Intended status: Standards Track                    University of Zurich
Expires: June 3, 2017                                        B. Trammell
                                                              ETH Zurich
                                                       November 30, 2016

           TinyIPFIX for smart meters in constrained networks
                      draft-schmitt-ipfix-tiny-01

Abstract

   This document specifies the TinyIPFIX protocol that serves for
   transmitting smart metering data in 6LoWPAN networks [RFC4944].
   TinyIPFIX is derived from IPFIX [RFC7101] and adopted to the needs of
   constrained networks.  This documents specifies how the TinyIPFIX
   Data and Template Records are transmitted in 6LoWPAN networks and how
   TinyIPFIX data can be converted into unTinyIPFIX data in a proxy
   device.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on June 3, 2017.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect

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   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
     1.1.  Document structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.1.  Hardware constraints  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.2.  Energy constraints  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     3.3.  Packet size constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.4.  Transport protocol constraints  . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
   4.  Application scenarios for TinyIPFIX . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   5.  Architecture for TinyIPFIX  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
   6.  TinyIPFIX Message Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     6.1.  TinyIPFIX Message Header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.2.  TinyIPFIX Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     6.3.  TinyIPFIX Template Record Format  . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
     6.4.  Field Specifier Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
     6.5.  TinyIPFIX Data Record Format  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
   7.  TinyIPFIX Mediation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  19
     7.1.  Expanding the Message header  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
     7.2.  Translating the Set Headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  22
     7.3.  Expanding the Template Record Header  . . . . . . . . . .  23
   8.  Template Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     8.1.  TCP / SCTP  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     8.2.  UDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
   9.  Security considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   10. IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   11. Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
   12. References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     12.1.  Norminative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     12.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26

1.  Introduction

   Smart meters that form a constrained wireless network need an
   application layer protocol that allows the efficient transmission of
   metering data from the devices to some kind of central analysis
   device.  The meters used to build such networks are usually equipped
   with low-cost and low-power hardware.  This leads to constraints in
   computational capacities, available memory and networking resources.

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   The devices are often battery powered and are expected to run for a
   long time without having the possibility to re-charge themselves.  In
   order to save energy, smart meters often power off their wireless
   networking device.  Hence, they don't have a steady network
   connection, but are only part of the wireless network as needed when
   there is data that needs to be exported.  A push protocol like
   TinyIPFIX, where data is transmitted autonomically from the meters to
   one or more collectors, is suitable for reporting metering data in
   such networks.

   TinyIPFIX is derived from IPFIX [RFC7101] and therefore inherits most
   of its properties.  One of these properties is the separation of data
   and its data description by encoding the former in Data Sets and the
   latter in Template Sets.

   Transforming TinyIPFIX to IPFIX as per [RFC7101] is very simple and
   can be done on the border between the constrained network and the
   more general network.  The transformation between one form of IPFIX
   data into another is known as IPFIX Mediation [RFC5982].  Hence,
   smart metering networks that are based on TinyIPFIX can be easily
   integrated into an existing IPFIX measurement infrastructure.

1.1.  Document structure

   Section 2 introduces the terminology used in this draft.  Afterwards,
   hardware and software constraints in constrained networks, which will
   motivate our modifications to the IPFIX protocol, are discussed in
   Section 3.  Section 4 describes the application scenarios and
   Section 5 describes the architecture for TinyIPFIX.  Section 6
   defines the TinyIPFIX protocol itself and discusses the differences
   between TinyIPFIX and IPFIX.  The Mediation Process from TinyIPFIX to
   IPFIX is described in Section 7.  Section 8 defines the process of
   Template Management on the Exporter and the Collector.  Section 9 and
   Section 10 discuss the security and IANA considerations for
   TinyIPFIX.

2.  Terminology

   The term smart meter is used to refer to constrained devices like
   wireless senor nodes, motes or any other kind of small constraint
   device that can be part of a network that is based on IEEE802.15.4
   and 6LoWPAN [RFC4944].

   Most of the terms used in this draft are defined in [RFC7101].  All
   these terms are written with their first letter being capitalized.
   Most of the terms that are defined for IPFIX can be used to describe
   TinyIPFIX.  The term "TinyIPFIX" is used in front of the IPFIX term
   to distinguish between the IPFIX version and the TinyIPFIX version.

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   This draft uses the term IPFIX to refer to IPFIX as per RFC 7101 and
   the term TinyIPFIX for the IPFIX version defined in this draft.

   The terms IPFIX Message, IPFIX Device, Set, Data Set, Template Set,
   Data Record, Template Record, Collecting Process, Collector,
   Exporting Process and Exporter are defined as in [RFC7101].  The term
   IPFIX Mediator is defined in [RFC5982].  The terms Intermediate
   Process, IPFIX Proxy, IPFIX Concentrator are defined in [RFC6183].

   All these terms above have been adapted from the IPFIX definitions.
   As they keep a similar notion but in a different context of
   constrained networks, the term "TinyIPFIX" now complements the
   defined terms.

   TinyIPFIX Exporting Process

      The TinyIPFIX Exporting Process is a process that exports
      TinyIPFIX Records.

   TinyIPFIX Exporter

      A TinyIPFIX Exporter is a smart metering device that contains at
      least one TinyIPFIX Exporting Process.

   TinyIPFIX Collecting Process

      The TinyIPFIX Collecting Process is a process inside a device that
      is able to receive and process TinyIPFIX Records.

   TinyIPFIX Collector

      A TinyIPFIX Collector is a device that contains at least one
      TinyIPFIX Collecting Process.

   TinyIPFIX Device

      A TinyIPFIX Device is a device that contains one or more TinyIPFIX
      Collector or one or more TinyIPFIX Exporter.

   TinyIPFIX Smart Meter

      A TinyIPFIX Smart Meter is a device that contains the
      functionality of a TinyIPFIX device.  It is usually equipped with
      one or more sensors that meter a physical quantity, like power
      consumption, temperature, or physical tempering with the device.
      Every TinyIPFIX Smart Meter MUST at least contain a TinyIPFIX
      Exporting Process.  It MAY contain a TinyIPFIX Collecting Process
      in order to work as a TinyIPFIX Proxy or Concentrator.

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   TinyIPFIX Message

      The TinyIPFIX Message is a message originated by a TinyIPFIX
      Exporter.  It is composed of a TinyIPFIX Message Header and one or
      more TinyIPFIX Sets.  The TinyIPFIX Message Format is defined in
      Section 6.

   TinyIPFIX Data Record

      A TinyIPFIX Data Record equals a Data Record in [RFC7101].  The
      term is used to distinguish between IPFIX and TinyIPFIX throughout
      the document.

   TinyIPFIX Template Record

      A TinyIPFIX Template Record is similar to a Template Record.  The
      Template Record Header is substituted with a TinyIPFIX Template
      Record Header and is otherwise equal to a Template Record.  See
      Section 6.3.

   TinyIPFIX Set

      The TinyIPFIX Set is a group of TinyIPFIX Data Records or
      TinyIPFIX Template Records with a TinyIPFIX Set Header.  Its
      format is defined in Section 6.2.

   TinyIPFIX Data Set

      The TinyIPFIX Data Set is a TinyIPFIX Set that contains TinyIPFIX
      Data Records.

   TinyIPFIX Template Set

      A TinyIPFIX Template Set is a TinyIPFIX Set that contains
      TinyIPFIX Template Records.

   TinyIPFIX Intermediate Process

      A TinyIPFIX Intermediate Process is an Intermediate Process that
      can handle TinyIPFIX Messages.

   TinyIPFIX Proxy

      A TinyIPFIX Proxy is an IPFIX Proxy that can handle TinyIPFIX
      Messages.

   TinyIPFIX Concentrator

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      A TinyIPFIX Concentrator is an IPFIX Concentrator that can handle
      TinyIPFIX Messages.

   A TinyIPFIX Transport Session is defined by the communication between
   a TinyIPFIX Exporter (identified by an 6LowPAN-Address, the Transport
   Protocol, and the Transport Port) and a TinyIPFIX Collector
   (identified by the same properties).

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3.  Constraints

3.1.  Hardware constraints

   The target devices for TinyIPFIX are usually equipped with low-cost
   hardware and therefore face several constraints concerning CPU and
   memory [Schmitt09].  For example, the IRIS mote from Crossbow
   Technologies Inc.  has a size of 58 x 32 x 7 mm (without a battery
   pack) [Crossbow].  Thus, there is little space for micro controller,
   flash memory (128 kb) and radio frequency transceiver, which are
   located on the board.

   Network protocols used on such hardware need to respect these
   constraints.  They must be simple to implement using little code and
   little run time memory and should produce little overhead when
   encoding the application payload.

3.2.  Energy constraints

   Smart meters that are battery powered have hard energy constraints
   [Schmitt09].  By power supply of two 2 AA 2,800-mAh batteries this
   means approximately 30,240J.  If they run out of power, their battery
   has to be changed, which means physical manipulation to the device is
   necessary.  Using as little energy as possible for network
   communication is therefore desired.

   A smart metering device can save a lot of energy, if it powers down
   its radio frequency transceiver.  Such devices do not have permanent
   network connectivity but are only part of the network as needed.  A
   push protocol, where only one side is sending data, is suitable for
   transmitting application data under such circumstances.  As the
   communication is unidirectional, a meter can completely power down
   its radio frequency transceivers as long as it does not have any data
   to sent.  If the metering device is able to keep a few measurements
   in memory, and if real time metering is not a requirement, the

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   TinyIPFIX Data Records can be pushed less frequently.  Therefore,
   saving some more energy on the radio frequency transceivers.

3.3.  Packet size constraints

   TinyIPFIX is mainly targeted for the use in 6LoWPAN networks, which
   are based on IEEE 802.15.4 [RFC4944].  However, the protocol can also
   be used to transmit data in other networks.  IEEE 802.15.4 defines a
   maximum frame size of 127 octets, which usually leaves 102 octets for
   user data.  IPv6 on the other hand defines a minimum MTU of 1280
   octets.  Hence, fragmentation has to be implemented in order to
   transmit such large packets.  While fragmentation allows the
   transmission of large messages, its use is problematic in networks
   with high packet loss because the complete message has to be
   discarded if only a single fragment gets lost.

   TinyIPFIX enhances IPFIX by a header compression scheme, which allows
   to reduce the overhead from header sizes significantly.
   Additionally, the overall TinyIPFIX Message size is reduced, which
   reduces the need for fragmentation.

3.4.  Transport protocol constraints

   The IPFIX standard [RFC7101] defines several transport protocol
   bindings for the transmission of IPFIX Messages.  SCTP support is
   REQUIRED for any IPFIX Device to achieve standard conformance
   [RFC7101], and its use is highly recommended.  However, sending IPFIX
   over UDP and TCP MAY also be implemented.

   This transport protocol recommendation is not suitable for TinyIPFIX.
   A header compression scheme that allows to compress an IPv6 header
   from 40 octets down to 2 octets is defined in 6LoWPAN.  There is a
   similar compression scheme for UDP, but there is no such compression
   for TCP or SCTP headers.  If header compression can be employed, more
   space for application payload is available.

   Using UDP on the transport layer for transmitting IPFIX Messages is
   therefore recommended.  Furthermore, TCP or SCTP are currently not
   supported on some platforms, like on TinyOS [Harvan08].  Hence, UDP
   may be the only option.

   Every TinyIPFIX Exporter and Collector MUST implement UDP transport
   layer support for transmitting data in a constrained network
   environment.  It MAY also offer TCP or SCTP support.  However, using
   these protocols is NOT RECOMMENDED as their use will consume more
   power and reduces the available size of application payload compared
   to the use of UDP.  If TinyIPFIX is transmitted over a non-

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   constrained network, using SCTP as a transport layer protocol is
   RECOMMENDED.

4.  Application scenarios for TinyIPFIX

   TinyIPFIX is derived from IPFIX [RFC7101] and is therefore a
   unidirectional push protocol.  This means all communication that
   employs TinyIPFIX is unidirectional from an Exporting Process to a
   Collecting Process.  Hence, TinyIPFIX only fits for application
   scenarios where meters transmit data to one or more Collectors.

   If TinyIPFIX is used over UDP, as recommended, packet loss can occur.
   Furthermore, if an initial Template Message gets lost, and is
   therefore unknown to the Collector, all TinyIPFIX Data Sets that
   reference this Template cannot be decoded.  Hence, all these Messages
   are lost if they are not cached by the Collector.  It should be clear
   to an application developer, that TinyIPFIX can only be used over UDP
   if these TinyIPFIX Message losses are not a problem.

   TinyIPFIX over UDP is especially not a suitable protocol for
   applications where sensor data trigger policy decisions or
   configuration updates for which packet loss is not tolerable.

   Applications that use smart sensors for accounting purposes for long
   time measurements can benefit from the use of TinyIPFIX.  One
   application for IPFIX can be long term monitoring of large physical
   volumes.  In [Tolle05], Tolle et al. built a system for monitoring a
   "70-meter tall redwood tree, at a density interval of 5 minutes in
   time and 2 meters in space".  The sensor node infrastructure was
   deployed to measure the air temperature, relative humidity and
   photosynthetically active solar radiation over a long time period.

   Deploying TinyIPFIX in such scenarios seems to be a good fit.  The
   sensors of the TinyIPFIX Smart Meter can be queried over several 5
   minute time intervals and the query results can be aggregated into a
   single TinyIPFIX Message.  As soon as enough query results are stored
   in the TinyIPFIX Message, e.g. if the TinyIPFIX Message size fills
   the available payload in a single IEEE 802.15.4 packet, the wireless
   transceiver can be activated and the TinyIPFIX Message can be
   exported to a TinyIPFIX Collector.

   Similar sensor networks have been built to monitor the habitat of
   animals, e.g. in the "Great Duck Island Project" [GreatDuck],
   [SMPC04].  The purpose of the sensor network was to monitor the birds
   by deploying sensors in and around their burrows.  The measured
   sensor data was collected and stored in a database for offline
   analysis and visualization.  Again, the sensors can perform their

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   measurements periodically, aggregate the sensor data and export them
   to a TinyIPFIX Collector.

   Other application scenarios for TinyIPFIX could be applications where
   sensor networks are used for long term structural health monitoring
   in order to investigate long term weather conditions on the structure
   of a building.  For example, a smart metering network has been built
   to monitor the structural health of the Golden Gate Bridge [Kim07].
   If a sensor network is deployed to perform a long term measurement of
   the structural integrity, TinyIPFIX can be used to collect the sensor
   measurement data.

   If an application developer wants to decide whether to use TinyIPFIX
   for transmitting data from smart meters, he must take the following
   considerations into account:

   1.  The application must require a push protocol.  It is not possible
       to request data from a smart meter.  The TinyIPFIX Smart Meter
       decides for itself when to send its metering data.

   2.  The property above allows a TinyIPFIX Smart Meter to turn off its
       wireless device in order to save energy, as it does not have to
       receive any data.

   3.  If real-time is not required, the application might benefit from
       accumulated several measurements into a single TinyIPFIX Message.
       TinyIPFIX easily allows the aggregation of several into a single
       TinyIPFIX Message (or a single packet).  This aggregation can
       happen on the TinyIPFIX Smart Meter that aggregates several of
       its own measurements.  Or it can happen within a multi-hop
       wireless network where one IPFIX Proxy aggregates several
       TinyIPFIX Messages into a single TinyIPFIX Message before
       forwarding them.

   4.  The application must accept potential packet loss.  TinyIPFIX
       only fits for applications where metering data is stored for
       accounting purposes and not for applications where the sensor
       data triggers configuration changes or policy decisions (except:
       if Message loss is acceptable for some reason).

5.  Architecture for TinyIPFIX

   The TinyIPFIX architecture is similar to the IPFIX architecture which
   is described in [RFC5470].  The most common deployment of TinyIPFIX
   Smart Meters is shown in Figure 1.

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                              +----------------+     +----------------+
                              |[*Application 1]| ... |[*Application n]|
                              +--------+-------+     +-------+--------+
                                       ^                     ^
                                       |                     |
                                       +----------+----------+
                                                  ^
                                                  |
   +------------------------+            +--------+-------------------+
   |     TinyIPFIX S.M.     | TinyIPFIX  |    TinyIPFIX Collector     |
   |   [Exporting Process]  |----------->|  [Collecting Process(es)]  |
   +------------------------+            +----------------------------+

      Figure 1: Direct transmission between sensors and applications

   A TinyIPFIX Smart Meter (S.M.) queries its internal sensors to
   retrieve the sensor data.  It then encodes the results into a
   TinyIPFIX Message and exports this TinyIPFIX Message to one or more
   TinyIPFIX Collectors.  The TinyIPFIX Collector runs one or more
   applications that process the collected sensor data.  The TinyIPFIX
   Collector can be deployed on non-constrained devices at the
   constrained network border.

   A second way to deploy TinyIPFIX Smart Meter can employ aggregation
   on TinyIPFIX Messages during their journey through the constrained
   network as shown in Figure 2.  This aggregation can be performed by
   special TinyIPFIX Smart Meter that act as TinyIPFIX Concentrators.
   Such devices must have enough resources to perform the aggregation.

 +-------------------------+                  +------------------------+
 |      TinyIPFIX S.M.     |    TinyIPFIX     | TinyIPFIX Concentrator |
 |   [Exporting Process]   |----------------->|  [Collecting  Process] |
 +-------------------------+        +-------->|  [Exporting Process]   |
                                    |         +------------------------+
 +-------------------------+        |                     |
 |      TinyIPFIX S.M.     |        |            TinyIPFIX|
 |   [Exporting Process]   |--------+                     |
 +-------------------------+                              v
                                            +-------+------------------+
                                            |      Collector(1)        |
                                            | [Collecting Process(es)] |
                                            +--------------------------+

                    Figure 2: Aggregation on TinyIPFIX

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   TinyIPFIX Smart Meters send their data to TinyIPFIX Concentrator
   which needs to have enough storage space to store the incoming data.
   It may also aggregate the incoming data with its own measurement
   data.  The aggregated data can then be re-exported again to one or
   more Collectors.

   The last deployment, shown in Figure 3, employs another TinyIPFIX
   Mediation process.

  +------------------------+                  +------------------------+
  |     TinyIPFIX S.M      |   TinyIPFIX      |     TinyIPFIX Proxy    |
  |  [Exporting Process]   |----------------->|  [Collecting Process]  |
  +------------------------+                  |  [Exporting Process]   |
                                              +------------------------+
                                                         |
                                                 IPFIX   |
                                                         v
                                            +--------------------------+
                                            |    IPFIX Collector(1)    |
                                            | [Collecting Process(es)] |
                                            +--------------------------+

                    Figure 3: Aggregation on TinyIPFIX

   The TinyIPFIX Smart Meters transmit their TinyIPFIX Messages to one
   node, e.g. the base station, which translates the TinyIPFIX Messages
   to IPFIX Messages.  The IPFIX Messages can then be exported into an
   existing IPFIX infrastructure.  The Mediation process from TinyIPFIX
   to IPFIX is described in Section 7.

6.  TinyIPFIX Message Format

   A TinyIPFIX IFPIX Message starts with a TinyIPFIX Message Header,
   followed by one or more TinyIPFIX Sets.  The TinyIPFIX Sets can be
   any of the possible two types: TinyIPFIX Template Set and TinyIPFIX
   Data Set.  A TinyIPFIX Message MUST only contain one type of
   TinyIPFIX Set.  The format of the TinyIPFIX Message is shown in
   Figure 4

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   +----------------------------------------------------+
   | TinyIPFIX Message Header                           |
   +----------------------------------------------------+
   | TinyIPFIX Set                                      |
   +----------------------------------------------------+
   | TinyIPFIX Set                                      |
   +----------------------------------------------------+
   ...
   +----------------------------------------------------+
   | TinyIPFIX Set                                      |
   +----------------------------------------------------+

                    Figure 4: TinyIPFIX Message Format

6.1.  TinyIPFIX Message Header

   The TinyIPFIX Message Header is derived from the IPFIX Message
   Header, with some optimization using field compression.  The IPFIX
   Message Header from [RFC7101] is shown in Figure 5.

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Version Number              |        Length               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Export Time                            |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                     Sequence Number                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Observation ID                         |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                      Figure 5: IPFIX Message Header

   The length of the IPFIX Message Header is 16 octets and every IPFIX
   Message has to be started with it.  The TinyIPFIX Message Header
   needs to be smaller due to the packet size constraints discussed in
   Section 3.3.  TinyIPFIX introduces a TinyIPFIX Message Header that
   has a smaller size.  The TinyIPFIX header consists of a fixed part of
   three octets and a variable length "Remaining Header" as shown in
   Figure 6.

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   0                             1
   0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  1  2  3  4  5  6
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |E1|E2|    SetID  |        Length               |
   |  |  |   Lookup  |                             |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |   Sequence            |  Ext. Sequence        |
   |    Number             |     Number            |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   | Ext. SetID            |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

             Figure 6: Format of the TinyIPFIX Message header

   The first part has a fixed length of thre octets and consists of the
   "E1" field (1 bit), the "E2" field (1 bit), the "SetID Lookup" field
   (4 bit), the "Length" field (10 bit), and the "Sequence Number" field
   (8 bit).  The second part (the "Remaining Header") has a variable
   length.  Its length is defined by the "E1" and "E2" field in the
   fixed header part.  The four variants are illustrated in the figures
   below.

   0                             1
   0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  1  2  3  4  5  6
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |0 |0 |    SetID  |        Length               |
   |  |  |   Lookup  |                             |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |   Sequence            |
   |    Number             |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

         Figure 7: TinyIPFIX Message Header format if E1 = E2 = 0

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   0                             1
   0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  1  2  3  4  5  6
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |1 |0 |    SetID  |        Length               |
   |  |  |   Lookup  |                             |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |   Sequence            |  Ext. SetID           |
   |    Number             |                       |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

      Figure 8: TinyIPFIX Message Header format if E1 = 1 and E2 = 0

   0                             1
   0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  1  2  3  4  5  6
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |0 | 1|    SetID  |        Length               |
   |  |  |   Lookup  |                             |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |   Sequence            |  Ext. Sequence        |
   |    Number             |     Number            |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

      Figure 9: TinyIPFIX Message Header format if E1 = 0 and E2 = 1

   0                             1
   0  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  0  1  2  3  4  5  6
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |1 |1 |    SetID  |        Length               |
   |  |  |   Lookup  |                             |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   |   Sequence            |  Ext. Sequence        |
   |    Number             |     Number            |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+
   | Ext. SetID            |
   +--+--+--+--+--+--+--+--+

         Figure 10: TinyIPFIX Message Header format if E1 = E2 = 1

   The fixed header fields are defined as follows [kothmayr10]
   [schmitt2014]:

   E1 and E2

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      The bits marked "E1" and "E2" control the presence of the file
      "Ext.  SetID" and the length of the field "Ext.  Sequence Number"
      respectively.  In case E1 = E2 = 0 the TinyIPFIX message header
      has the format as shown in Figure 7.  No Ext. Sequence Number and
      Ext. SetID are required.  In case E1 = 1, custom SetIDs can be
      specified in the extended SetID field (cf.  Figure 8.)  When
      evaluated, the value specified in the extended SetID field is
      shifted left by 8 bits to prevent collisions with the reserved
      SetIDs 0-255.  To reference these, shifting can be disabled by
      setting all SetID lookup bits to 1.  Depending on the application
      sampling rates might be larger than in typical WSNs and, thus,
      they may have a large quantity of records per packet.  In order to
      make TinyIPFIX applicable for those cases E2 = 1 is set (cf.
      Figure 9.)  This means the Ext. Sequence Number field is available
      offering 8-bit more sequence numbers as usual.  Depending on the
      WSN settings the also the combination E1 = E2 = 1 is possible
      resulting in the maximum TinyIPFIX Message header shown in
      Figure 10where Ext. Sequence Number field and Ext. SetID field are
      required.

   SetID Lookup

      This field acts as a lookup field for the SetIDs and provides
      shortcuts to often used SetIDs.  So far only four values are
      defined: Value = 0 means Lookup extended SetID field, Shifting
      enabled.  Value = 1 means SetID = 2 and message contains a
      Template definition.  Value = 2 means SetID = 256 and message
      containts Data Record for Template 256.  This places special
      importance on a single template ID, but since most sensor nodes
      only define a single template directly after booting and continue
      to stream data with this template ID during the whole session
      lifetime, this shorthand is useful for this case.  Value = 3-14
      means SetIDs are reserved for future extensions.  Value = 15 means
      Lookup extended SetID field, shiftig enabled.

   Length

      The length field has a fixed length of 10 bits.

   Sequence Number

      Due to the low sampling rate in typical WSNs, the "Sequence
      Number" field is only one byte long.  However, some applications
      may have a large quantity of records per packet.  In this case the
      sequence field can be extended to 16 bit by setting the E2-bit to
      1.

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   Since TinyIPFIX packets are always transported via a network
   protocol, which specifies the source of the packet, the "Observation
   Domain" can be equated with the source of a TinyIPFIX packet and the
   field can be dropped from the header.  Should applications require
   several Observation Domains the information can be included in the
   TinyIPFIX data message.  The version field has been dropped since the
   SetID lookup field provides room for future extensions.  The
   specification of a 32 bit time stamp in seconds would require the
   time synchronization across a wireless sensor network and produces
   too much overhead.  Thus, the "Export Time" field is dropped.  If
   applications should require the specification of time it can be sent
   as part of the TinyIPFIX data message.

6.2.  TinyIPFIX Set

   A TinyIPFIX Set is a set of TinyIPFIX Template or TinyIPFIX Data
   Records.  Depending on the TinyIPFIX Record type, the TinyIPFIX Set
   can either be a TinyIPFIX Template Set or a TinyIPFIX Data Set.
   Every TinyIPFIX Set is started with a TinyIPFIX Set Header and is
   followed by one or more TinyIPFIX Records.

   The IPFIX Set Header consists of an two octet "Set ID" field and a
   two octet "Length" field.  These two fields are compressed to one
   octet each for the TinyIPFIX Set Header.  The format of the TinyIPFIX
   Set Header is shown in Figure 11.

   0                   1
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Comp. Set ID  |    Length     |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                      Figure 11: TinyIPFIX Set Header

   The two fields are defined as follows:

   TinyIPFIX Set ID

      The "TinyIPFIX Set ID" (Comp.  Set ID) identifies the type of data
      that is transported in the TinyIPFIX Set.  A TinyIPFIX Template
      Set is identified by TinyIPFIX Set ID 2.  This corresponds to the
      Set IDs that are used by Sets in IPFIX.  TinyIPFIX Set ID number 3
      MUST NOT be used.  All values from 4 to 127 are reserved for
      future use.  Values above 127 are used for TinyIPFIX Data Sets.

   Length

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      The "Length" Field contains the total length of the TinyIPFIX Set,
      including the TinyIPFIX Set Header.

6.3.  TinyIPFIX Template Record Format

   The format of the TinyIPFIX Template Records is shown in Figure 12.
   The TinyIPFIX Template Record starts with a TinyIPFIX Template Record
   Header and is followed by one or more Field Specifiers.  The Field
   Specifier format is defined as in Section 6.4 and is identical to the
   Field Specifier definition in [RFC7101].

   +--------------------------------------------------+
   | TinyIPFIX Template Record Header                 |
   +--------------------------------------------------+
   | Field Specifier                                  |
   +--------------------------------------------------+
   | Field Specifier                                  |
   +--------------------------------------------------+
   ...
   +--------------------------------------------------+
   | Field Specifier                                  |
   +--------------------------------------------------+

                   Figure 12: TinyIPFIX Template Format

   The format of the TinyIPFIX Template Record Header is shown in
   Figure 13.

   0                   1
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   | Comp. Temp ID |  Field Count  |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 13: TinyIPFIX Template Record Header

   TinyIPFIX Template ID

      Each TinyIPFIX Template Record must have a unique TinyIPFIX
      Template ID (Comp.  Temp ID) between 128 and 255.  The TinyIPFIX
      Template ID must be unique for the given TinyIPFIX Transport
      Session.

   Field Count

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      The number of fields placed in the TinyIPFIX Template Record.

6.4.  Field Specifier Format

   The type and length of the transmitted data is encoded in Field
   Specifiers within TinyIPFIX Template Records.  The Field Specifier is
   shown in Figure 14 and is identical with the Field Specifier that was
   defined for IPFIX [RFC7101].  The following text has been copied from
   [RFC7101] for completeness.

   0                   1                   2                   3
   0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |E|  Information Element ident. |        Field Length           |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      Enterprise Number                        |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                 Figure 14: TinyIPFIX Dta Field Specifier

   Where:

   E

      Enterprise bit.  This is the first bit of the Field Specifier.  If
      this bit is zero, the Information Element Identifier identifies an
      IETF-specified Information Element, and the four-octet Enterprise
      Number field MUST NOT be present.  If this bit is one, the
      Information Element Identifier identifies an enterprise-specific
      Information Element, and the Enterprise Number field MUST be
      present.

   Information Element Identifier

      A numeric value that represents the type of Information Element.

   Field Length

      The length of the corresponding encoded Information Element, in
      octets.  Refer to [RFC7012].  The value 65535 is illegal as there
      are no variable size encoded elements as they are defined in
      IPFIX.

   Enterprise Number

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      IANA Private Enterprise Number of the authority defining the
      Information Element identifier in this Template Record.

   Vendors can easily define their own data model by registering a
   Enterprise ID with IANA.  Using their own Enterprise ID, they can use
   any ID in the way they want them to use.

6.5.  TinyIPFIX Data Record Format

   The Data Records are sent in TinyIPFIX Data Sets.  The format of the
   Data Records is shown in Figure 15 and matches the Data Record format
   from IPFIX.

   +--------------------------------------------------+
   | Field Value                                      |
   +--------------------------------------------------+
   | Field Value                                      |
   +--------------------------------------------------+
   ...
   +--------------------------------------------------+
   | Field Value                                      |
   +--------------------------------------------------+

                       Figure 15: Data Record Format

7.  TinyIPFIX Mediation

   There are two types of TinyIPFIX Intermediate Processes.  The first
   one can occur on the transition between a constraint 6LoWPAN and the
   non-constrained network.  This mediation changes the network and
   transport protocol from 6LowPAN/UDP to IP/(SCTP|TCP|UDP) and is shown
   in Figure 16.

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    +-----------------------+  TinyIPFIX     +-------------------------+
    |    TinyIPFIX S.M.     |  6LoWPAN/UDP   |   TinyIPFIX mediator    |
    | [Exporting Process]   |--------------->|   [Collecting Process]  |
    +-----------------------+                |   [Exporting Process]   |
                                             +-------------------------+
                                                          |
                                       TinyIPFIX          |
                                       IP/(UDP/SCTP|TCP)  |
                                                          v
                                            +--------------------------+
                                            |      Collector(1)        |
                                            | [Collecting Process(es)] |
                                            +--------------------------+

    Figure 16: Translation from TinyIPFIX over 6LowPAN/UDP to TinyIPFIX
                          over IP/(SCTP|TCP|UDP)

   The mediator removes the TinyIPFIX Messages from the 6LowPAN/UDP
   packets and wraps them into the new network and transport protocols.
   Templates MUST be managed the same way as in the constraint
   environment after the translation to IP/(SCTP|UDP|TCP) (see
   Section 8).

   The second type of mediation transforms TinyIPFIX into IPFIX.  This
   process MUST be combined with the transport protocol mediation as
   shown in Figure 17.

    +------------------------+    TinyIPFIX    +-----------------------+
    |    TinyIPFIX S.M.      |    6LoWPAN/UDP  |    IPFIX mediator     |
    |[Exporting Processes]   |---------------->| [Collecting Process]  |
    +------------------------+                 | [Exporting Process]   |
                                               +-----------------------+
                                                          |
                                             IPFIX        |
                                       IP/(UDP/SCTP|TCP)  |
                                                          v
                                            +--------------------------+
                                            |      Collector(1)        |
                                            | [Collecting Process(es)] |
                                            +--------------------------+

             Figure 17: Transformation from TinyIPFIX to IPFIX

   This mediation can also be performed by an IPFIX Collector before
   parsing the IPFIX message as shown in Figure 18.  There is no need

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   for a TinyIPFIX IPFIX parser if such a mediation process can be
   employed in front of an already existing IPFIX collector.

    +------------------------+    TinyIPFIX     +----------------------+
    |     TinyIPFIX S.M.     |    6LoWPAN/UDP   |     IPFIX Mediator   |
    | [Exporting Processes]  |----------------->| [Collecting Process] |
    +------------------------+                  |  [Exporting Process] |
                                                |         |            |
                                                |         |IPFIX       |
                                                |         |            |
                                                |         v            |
                                                |   Collector(1)       |
                                                | [Collecting Process] |
                                                +----------------------+

             Figure 18: Transformation from TinyIPFIX to IPFIX

   The TinyIPFIX Mediation Process has to translate the TinyIPFIX
   Message Header, the TinyIPFIX Set Headers and the TinyIPFIX Template
   Record Header into their counterparts in IPFIX Afterwards, the new
   IPFIX Message Length needs to be calculated and inserted into the
   IPFIX Message header.

7.1.  Expanding the Message header

   The fields of the IPFIX Message Header that are shown in Figure 5 can
   be determined as follows:

   Version

      This is always 0x000a.

   Length

      The IPFIX Message Length can only be calculated after the complete
      TinyIPFIX Message has been translated.  The new length can be
      calculated by adding the length of the IPFIX Message Header, which
      is 16 octets, and the length of all Sets that are contained in the
      IPFIX Message.

   Export Time

      If the "Export Time" in the TinyIPFIX Message Header has a length
      of 4 octets, the value from the TinyIPFIX Message Header MUST be
      used for the IPFIX Message Header.  If it was omitted, the "Export
      Time" MUST be generated by the Mediator.  If the IPFIX Message is

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      exported again, the "Export Time" field MUST contain the time in
      seconds since 0000 UTC Jan 1, 1970, at which the IPFIX Message
      leaves the Exporter.  If the Message is passed to an IPFIX
      Collector for decoding directly, the "Export Time" field is the
      time in seconds since 0000 UTC Jan 1 1970 at which the TinyIPFIX
      Message has been received by the TinyIPFIX Exporter.

   Sequence Number

      If the TinyIPFIX Sequence Number has a length of 4 octets, the
      original value MUST be used for the IPFIX Message.  If the
      TinyIPFIX Sequence Number has a size of one or two octets, the
      TinyIPFIX Mediator MUST expand the TinyIPFIX Sequence Number into
      a four octet field.  If the TinyIPFIX Sequence Number was omitted,
      the Mediator needs to calculate the Sequence Number as per
      [RFC7101].

   Observation Domain ID

      Since the Observation Domain ID is used to scope templates in
      IPFIX, it MUST be set to a unique value per TinyIPFIX Exporting
      Process, using either a mapping algorithmically determined by the
      Intermediate Process or directly configured by an administrator.

7.2.  Translating the Set Headers

   Both fields in the TinyIPFIX Set Header have a size of one octet and
   need to be expanded:

   Set ID

      The field needs to be expanded from one octet to two octets.  If
      the Set ID is below 128, no recalculation needs to be performed.
      This is because all IDs below 128 are reserved for special
      messages and match the IDs used in IPFIX.  The TinyIPFIX Set IDs
      starting with 128 identify TinyIPFIX Data Sets.  Therefore, every
      TinyIPFIX Set ID above 127 needs to be incremented by 128 because
      IPFIX Data Set IDs are located above 255.

   Set Length

      The field needs to be expanded from one octet to two octets.  It
      needs to be recalculated by adding a value of 2 octet to match the
      additional size of the Set Header.  For each TinyIPFIX Template
      Record that is contained in the TinyIPFIX Set, 2 more octets need
      to be added to the length.

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7.3.  Expanding the Template Record Header

   Both fields in the TinyIPFIX Template Record Header have a length of
   one octet and therefore need translation:

   Template ID

      The field needs to be expanded from one octet to two octets.  The
      Template ID needs to be increased by a value of 128.

   Field Count

      The field needs to be expanded from one octet to two octets.

8.  Template Management

   As with IPFIX, TinyIPFIX templates management depends on the
   transport protocol used.  If TCP or SCTP is used, it can be ensured
   that TinyIPFIX Templates are delivered reliably.  If UDP is used,
   reliability cannot be guaranteed, and template loss can occur.  If a
   Template is lost on its way to the Collector, all following TinyIPFIX
   Data Records that refer to this TinyIPFIX Template cannot be decoded.
   Template withdrawals are not supported in TinyIPFIX.  This is
   generally not a problem, because most sensor nodes only define a
   single template directly after booting.

8.1.  TCP / SCTP

   If TCP or SCTP is an option and can be used for the transmission of
   TinyIPFIX, Template Management MUST be performed as defined in
   [RFC7101] for IPFIX, with the exception of template withdrawals,
   which are not supported in TinyIPFIX.  Template withdrawals MUST NOT
   be sent by TinyIPFIX exporters.

8.2.  UDP

   All specifications for Template management from [RFC7101] apply
   unless specified otherwise in this document.

   TinyIPFIX Templates MUST be sent by a TinyIPFIX Exporter before any
   TinyIPFIX Data Set that refers to the TinyIPFIX Template is
   transmitted.  TinyIPFIX Templates are not expected to change over
   time in TinyIPFIX.  Hence, a TinyIPFIX Template that has been sent
   once MAY NOT be withdrawn and MUST NOT expire.  If a TinyIPFIX Smart
   Meter wants to use another TinyIPFIX Template it MUST use a new
   TinyIPFIX Template ID for the TinyIPFIX Template.

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   As UDP is used, reliable transport of TinyIPFIX Templates cannot be
   guaranteed and TinyIPFIX Templates can be lost.  A TinyIPFIX Exporter
   MUST expect TinyIPFIX Template loss.  It MUST therefore re-send its
   TinyIPFIX Templates periodically.  A TinyIPFIX Template MUST be re-
   send after a fixed number of N TinyIPFIX Messages that contained
   TinyIPFIX Data Sets that referred to this TinyIPFIX Template.  The
   number N MUST be configured by the application developer.

9.  Security considerations

   The same security considerations as for the IPFIX Protocol [RFC7101]
   apply.

10.  IANA Considerations

   This document has no actions for IANA.

11.  Acknowledgments

   Many thanks to Lothar Braun, Georg Carle, and Benoit Claise, who
   contributed significant work to earlier versions especially to the
   document entitled "Compressed IPFIX for Smart Meters in Constrained
   Networks" (draft-braun-core-compressed-ipfix), of this work.

   Many thanks to Thomas Kothmayr, Michael Meister, and Livio Sgier, who
   implemented TinyIPFIX for TinyOS 2.x, Contiki 2.7/3.0 (except the
   mediator) for different sensor platforms (IRIS, TelosB, and
   OpenMote).

12.  References

12.1.  Norminative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC4944]  Montenegro, G., Kushalnagar, N., Hui, J., and D. Culler,
              "Transmission of IPv6 Packets over IEEE 802.15.4
              Networks", RFC 4944, DOI 10.17487/RFC4944, September 2007,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc4944>.

   [RFC7101]  Ginoza, S., "List of Internet Official Protocol Standards:
              Replaced by a Web Page", RFC 7101, DOI 10.17487/RFC7101,
              December 2013, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7101>.

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   [RFC7012]  Claise, B., Ed. and B. Trammell, Ed., "Information Model
              for IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX)", RFC 7012,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7012, September 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7012>.

   [RFC5470]  Sadasivan, G., Brownlee, N., Claise, B., and J. Quittek,
              "Architecture for IP Flow Information Export", RFC 5470,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5470, March 2009,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5470>.

   [RFC5982]  Kobayashi, A., Ed. and B. Claise, Ed., "IP Flow
              Information Export (IPFIX) Mediation: Problem Statement",
              RFC 5982, DOI 10.17487/RFC5982, August 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5982>.

   [RFC6183]  Kobayashi, A., Claise, B., Muenz, G., and K. Ishibashi,
              "IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Mediation: Framework",
              RFC 6183, DOI 10.17487/RFC6183, April 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6183>.

12.2.  Informative References

   [Schmitt09]
              Schmitt, C. and G. Carle, "Applications for Wireless
              Sensor Networks", In Handbook of Research on P2P and Grid
              Systems for Service-Oriented Computing: Models,
              Methodologies and Applications, Antonopoulos N.;
              Exarchakos G.; Li M.; Liotta A. (Eds.), Information
              Science Publishing. , 2010.

   [Tolle05]  Tolle, G., Polastre, J., Szewczyk, R., Turner, N., Tu, K.,
              Buonadonna, P., Burgess, S., Gay, D., Hong, W., Dawnson,
              T., and D. Culler, "A macroscope in the redwoods", In the
              Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Conference on Embedded
              Networked Sensor Systems (Sensys 05), San Diego, ACM
              Press , November 2005.

   [Kim07]    Kim, S., Pakzad, S., Culler, D., Demmel, J., Fenves, G.,
              Glaser, S., and M. Turon, "Health Monitoring of Civil
              Infrastructure Using Wireless Sensor Networks", In the
              Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on
              Information Processing in Sensor Networks (IPSN 2007),
              Cambridge, MA, ACM Press, pp. 254-263 , April 2007.

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   [SMPC04]   Szewczyk, R., Mainwaring, A., Polastre, J., and D. Culler,
              "An analysis of a large scale habitat monitoring
              application", The Proceedings of the Second ACM Conference
              on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems (SenSys 04) ,
              November 2004.

   [GreatDuck]
              Habitat Monitoring on Great Duck Island, ,
              "http://www.greatduckisland.net", The Proceedings of the
              Second ACM Conference on Embedded Networked Sensor Systems
              (SenSys 04) , November 2004.

   [Harvan08]
              Harvan, M. and J. Schoenwaelder, "TinyOS Motes on the
              Internet: IPv6 over 802.15.4 (6lowpan)", 2008.

   [Crossbow]
              Crossbow Technologies Inc., , "http://www.xbow.com", 2010.

   [kothmayr10]
              Kothmayr, T., "Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks
              for Autonomic Home Networking", Bachelor Thesis, Technical
              University of Munich, Germany , 2010.

   [schmitt2014]
              Schmitt, C., Kothmayr, T., Ertl, B., Hu, W., Braun, L.,
              and G. Carle, "TinyIPFIX: An Efficient Application
              Protocol for Data Exchange in Cyber Physical Systems",
              Computer Communications, ELSEVIER, DOI: 10.1016/
              j.comcom.2014.05.012 , 2014.

Authors' Addresses

   Corinna Schmitt
   University of Zurich
   Department of Informatics
   Communication Systems Group
   Binzmuehlestrasse 14
   Zurich  8050
   Switzerland

   Email: schmitt@ifi.uzh.ch

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   Burkhard Stiller
   University of Zurich
   Department of Informatics
   Communication Systems Group
   Binzmuehlestrasse 14
   Zurich  8050
   Switzerland

   Email: stiller@ifi.uzh.ch

   Brian Trammell
   Swiss Federal Institute of Technology
   Gloriastrasse 35
   Zurich  8092
   Switzerland

   Email: ietf@trammell.ch

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