MIME Type Registrations for JPEG 2000 (ISO/IEC 15444)
draft-singer-jp2-02

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Document Type RFC Internet-Draft (individual in tsv area)
Author David Singer 
Last updated 2015-10-14 (latest revision 2003-08-18)
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Internet Engineering Task Force        Audio-Video Transport WG & Others
INTERNET-DRAFT                                                 D. Singer
draft-singer-jp2-02.doc                                   Apple Computer

                                                                R. Clark
                                                             Elysium Ltd

                                                                  D. Lee
                                                              Yahoo Inc.

                                                             Aug 14 2003
                                                    Expires: Feb 14 2004

               MIME Type Registrations for ISO/IEC 15444

Status of This Memo

   This document is an Internet-Draft and is in full conformance with
   all provisions of Section 10 of RFC2026.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that other
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   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
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   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

Distribution of this document is unlimited.

Abstract

   This document serves to register and document the standard MIME types
   associated with the ISO/IEC 15444 standards, commonly known as JPEG
   2000 (Joint Photographic Experts Group).

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1 Introduction

   This document describes the registration of the MIME sub-types
   image/jp2, video/mj2, image/jpx, and image/jpm. The image encoding is
   defined by [ISO-JPEG2000-1].

   The still image file format to which this document refers is defined
   in Annex I of [ISO-JPEG2000-1]. Note that a file format is optional
   in [ISO-JPEG2000-1], but mandatory for the MIME sub-type. This
   document is not related to the definition of the MIME sub-type
   image/jpeg, which is partly defined by [ISO-JPEG-1], and partly by
   the file format specification defined in [JFIF].

   JPEG 2000 is a new standard, intended to create a image coding system
   for many types of still images (bi-level, gray-level, color, multi-
   component) with different characteristics (natural images,
   scientific, medical, remote sensing, imagery, text, rendered
   graphics, etc.) allowing different imaging models (client/server,
   real-time transmission, image library archival, limited buffer and
   bandwidth resources, etc.) within a unified system. This coding
   system is intended to provide low bit-rate operation with rate-
   distortion and subjective image quality performance superior to
   existing standards, without sacrificing performance at other points
   in the rate-distortion spectrum.

   This standard is intended to serve still image compression needs that
   are currently not served by the current JPEG standards [ISO-JPEG-1],
   [ISO-JPEG-2], [ISO-JPEG-3], and [ISO-JPEG-4], and is intended to
   compliment, not replace, the current JPEG standards.  JPEG 2000 is a
   modern wavelet-based codec that is expected to be widely used for
   still images.  Its use for motion sequences is expected to be similar
   to JPEG:  in those environments where only a single codec is
   required, and JPEG 2000 is available (e.g. digital still cameras
   recording short motion sequences) or where frame-by-frame coding is
   desired (no inter-frame coding).

   There is a standard file format for Motion JPEG 2000 sequences.  This
   file format permits the carriage of audio in addition to the video.
   The format is derived from the ISO Base Media File Format as defined
   in [ISO-JPEG2000-12] and [ISO-MPEG4-12], The visual coder in a Motion
   JPEG 2000 file is JPEG 2000. The Motion JPEG 2000 standard is
   specified in [ISO-JPEG2000-3].  The ISO Base Media File Format is
   jointly maintained by the ISO/IEC JPEG and MPEG committees.  The MP4
   format is also derived from the ISO Base Media File Format.

   Therefore, to identify this restricted usage, a new mime type is
   desirable.

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   This file type is intended always to contain a video sequence, though
   simple audio is permitted in addition to the video.  Therefore it
   falls correctly under the "video" branch of mime types.

   Also within WG1 of ISO there is an effort underway to define a
   standard file format for Compound Images. This file format optionally
   supports other coding systems, in addition to JPEG 2000, as needed.

2. JPEG 2000 Definition

   JPEG 2000 is defined in detail in [ISO-JPEG2000-1]. The documentation
   can be obtained from any national standards body or from ISO at
   http://www.iso.ch.

   Information as to its latest status, and downloads of the initial
   drafts and some supporting documentation are available through the
   JPEG committee's official Web site at http://www.jpeg.org.

   While a brief scope and feature description is provided in this
   section as background information, the reader is directed to the
   original JPEG 2000 specification [ISO-JPEG2000-1] to obtain complete
   feature and technical details.

2.1 JPEG 2000 Scope

   JPEG 2000 is used to compress image data that typically comes from
   digital cameras, scanners, frame grabbers, complex image capture
   devices such as medical or satellite systems, and paint- and photo-
   retouching programs. Unlike previous JPEG standards, it includes
   information necessary to allow its use as a complete coding
   architecture.  [ISO-JPEG2000-1] defines a set of lossless (bit-
   preserving) and lossy compression methods for coding continuous-tone,
   bi-level, gray-scale, or colour digital still images. It therefore:
   - specifies decoding processes for converting compressed image data
      to reconstructed image data;
   - specifies a codestream syntax containing information for
      interpreting the compressed image data;
   - specifies a file format;
   - provides guidance on encoding processes for converting source image
      data to compressed image data;
   - provides guidance on how to implement these processes in practice .

   [ISO-JPEG2000-1] is one of a series of standards which will cover the
   full range of facilities the new architecture is intended to offer.
   Approval has been given for JPEG to develop the following documents
   in addition to [ISO-JPEG2000-1].
   - Part 2 - Coding extensions [ISO-JPEG2000-2]. This includes a more

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      comprehensive file format and other extensions to the definitions
      in [ISO-JPEG2000-1]. The mime sub-type image/jpx is recommended to
      describe files based on this Part, and a separate RFC is planned
      to describe this usage and its associated file extensions of jpf
      and jpx.
   - Part 3 - Motion JPEG 2000 [ISO-JPEG2000-3]. This provides
      definitions of how the standard may be extended for use in
      recording time series of JPEG 2000 images with associated metadata
      such as audio objects. This document  registers the mime sub-type
      video/mj2 for motion JPEG 2000, with associated file extensions
      mj2 and mjp2
   - Part 4 - Conformance [ISO-JPEG2000-4]. This deals with testing of
      equipment and systems claimed to conform to the JPEG 2000
      standards
   - Part 5 - Reference software [ISO-JPEG2000-5]. This will provide
      developers with a source of publicly available reference software.
      Its role is envisaged as similar in concept to that played by the
      Independent JPEG Group (IJG) in publicizing the current [ISO-
      JPEG-1] standard
   - Part 6 - Compound Image File Format [ISO-JPEG2000-6]. This
      describes a file format used to store compound documents using
      JPEG 2000 compression. These may contain scanned images, synthetic
      images or both. This work is based on the multi-layer Mixed Raster
      Content (MRC) imaging model, defined in ITU-T T.44 | ISO 16485.
      The mime sub-type image/jpm is recommended to describe files based
      on this Part.
   - Part 7 - Has been withdrawn
   - Part 8 - JPSEC (Security aspects) [ISO-JPEG2000-8]. This provides
      standardised tools and solutions in terms of specifications in
      order to ensure the security of transaction, protection of
      contents (IPR), and protection of technologies (IP), and to allow
      applications to generate, consume, and exchange JPEG 2000 Secured
      bitstreams.
   - Part 9 - JPIP (Interactive protocols) [ISO-JPEG2000-9]. This
      client-server protocol has been designed to exploit JPEG 2000's
      flexibility with respect to random access, codestream reordering
      and incremental decoding in a networked environment.
   - Part 10 - JP3D (Volumetric imaging) [ISO-JPEG2000-10]. This will
      provide extensions of JPEG 2000 for logically rectangular
      3-dimensional data sets with no time component.
   - Part 11 - JPWL (Wireless applications) [ISO-JPEG2000-11]. This
      extends the elements in [ISO-JPEG2000-1] with mechanisms for error
      protection and correction.
   - Part 12 - ISO Base Media File Format [ISO-JPEG2000-12].  This is
      the part of the file format used by JPEG 2000 which is common with
      that used within MPEG-4 [ISO-MPEG4].

2.2 JPEG 2000 Features

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   Some of the features of JPEG 2000 include:
   - JPEG 2000 is capable of describing bi-level, grayscale, palette-
      color, and full-color image data in several color spaces
   - JPEG 2000 includes a number of compression schemes that allow
      developers to choose the best space or time tradeoff for their
      applications
   - JPEG 2000 is designed to be extensible and to evolve gracefully as
      new needs arise
   - JPEG 2000 allows the inclusion of an unlimited amount of private or
      special-purpose information within the metadata of its file format
     - These are features that JPEG 2000 shares with the definition of
      TIFF [RFC-TIFF]. In addition, JPEG 2000 offers:
   - state of the art lossless and lossy compression, based on wavelet
      technology, within a single codestream
   - low bit-rate compression performance effective down to below 0.25
      bits per pixel for high resolution gray-scale images
   - large image handling (greater than 64k x 64k pixels) without tiling
   - single decompression architecture. The current JPEG standard [ISO-
      JPEG-1] has 44 modes, many of which are application specific and
      not used by the majority of JPEG decoders.
   - features to improve transmission in noisy environments, for example
      mobile radio / telephony
   - capability to handle both natural and computer generated imagery

3 Security Considerations

   JPEG 2000 utilizes a structure that can store image data, and
   metadata corresponding to this image data. The fields defined in the
   JPEG 2000 standards are of a descriptive nature and provide
   information that may be useful to facilitate viewing, rendering and
   cataloging of images by a recipient. As such, the fields currently
   defined in the JPEG 2000 standards do not in themselves create
   additional security risks, since the fields are not used to induce
   any particular behavior by the recipient application. It should be
   noted that selected metadata fields may encompass information partly
   intended to protect the image against unauthorized use or
   distribution. In this case the intention is that alteration or
   removal of the data in the field would be treated as an offence under
   national agreements based World Intellection Property Organization
   (WIPO) treaties.

   JPEG 2000 has an extensible structure, so that it is theoretically
   possible that metadata fields could be defined in the future which
   could be used to induce particular actions on the part of the
   recipient, thus presenting additional security risks, but this type
   of capability is currently not supported in the referenced JPEG 2000
   specification.

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   Encryption, signing, or authentication of these file formats can use
   mechanisms defined in [ISO-JPEG2000-8]

4 MIME Types

4.1 Still Image Registration

   The image/jp2 content-type refers to all of the profiles and
   extensions that build on JPEG 2000 [ISO-JPEG2000-1] encoded image
   data. The file format is also defined in [ISO-JPEG2000-1], Annex I.
   The recommended file suffix is "jp2"

   To: ietf-types@iana.org
   Subject: Registration of Standard MIME media type image/jp2

MIME media type name:              image
MIME subtype name:                 jp2
Required parameters:               none
Optional parameters:               none
                                   It is up to the implementation to
                                   determine the application (if
                                   necessary) and render the image to
                                   the user.
Encoding considerations:           files are binary and should be
                                   transmitted in a suitable encoding
                                   without CR/LF conversion, 7-bit
                                   stripping etc.; base64 is a suitable
                                   encoding;
Security considerations:           see above
Interoperability considerations:   The ability of implementations to
                                   handle all the defined applications
                                   (or profiles within applications) of
                                   JPEG 2000 may not be ubiquitous. As a
                                   result, implementations may decode
                                   and attempt to display the encoded
                                   JPEG 2000 image data only to
                                   determine that the image cannot be
                                   rendered either partially or in full.
Published specification:           ISO/IEC 15444-1 defines the JPEG 2000
                                   codec and the jp2 file format
Applications which use this media type: Imaging, fax, messaging and
                                   multi-media
Additional information:
Magic number(s):                   12 byte string: X'0000 000C 6A50 2020
                                   0D0A 870A' (for all JPEG-2000 family
                                   files)
File extension(s):                 jp2 and jpg2 are both declared at
                                   http://www.nist.gov/nics/; jp2 is

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                                   preferred
Macintosh File Type Code(s):       'jp2 '
Person & email address to contact for further information:
                                   JPEG Webmaster - mimesupport@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG Convenor - convenor@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG2000 Editor - J2KEditor@jpeg.org
Intended usage:                    COMMON
Change controller:                 JPEG Webmaster

4.2 Extended Still Image Registration

   The image/jpx content-type refers to all of the profiles and
   extensions that build on JPEG 2000 [ISO-JPEG2000-2] encoded image
   data. The file format is also defined in [ISO-JPEG2000-2], Annex M.
   The recommended file suffix is "jpf"

   To: ietf-types@iana.org
   Subject: Registration of Standard MIME media type image/jpx

MIME media type name:              image
MIME subtype name:                 jpx
Required parameters:               none
Optional parameters:               none
                                   It is up to the implementation to
                                   determine the application (if
                                   necessary) and render the image to
                                   the user.
Encoding considerations:           files are binary and should be
                                   transmitted in a suitable encoding
                                   without CR/LF conversion, 7-bit
                                   stripping etc.; base64 is a suitable
                                   encoding;
Security considerations:           see above
Interoperability considerations:   The ability of implementations to
                                   handle all the defined applications
                                   (or profiles within applications) of
                                   JPEG 2000 may not be ubiquitous. As a
                                   result, implementations may decode
                                   and attempt to display the encoded
                                   JPEG 2000 image data only to
                                   determine that the image cannot be
                                   rendered either partially or in full.
Published specification:           ISO/IEC 15444-2, JPEG 2000 Extensions
Applications which use this media type: Imaging, fax, messaging and
                                   multi-media
Additional information:
Magic number(s):                   12 byte string: X'0000 000C 6A50 2020
                                   0D0A 870A' (for all JPEG-2000 family

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                                   files)
File extension(s):                 jpf is declared at
                                   http://www.nist.gov/nics/. jpx is
                                   also an acceptable file extension,
                                   although it is not recommended for
                                   files on a desktop computer that are
                                   not directly associated with a MIME
                                   media type
Macintosh File Type Code(s):       'jpx '
Person & email address to contact for further information:
                                   JPEG Webmaster - mimesupport@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG Convenor - convenor@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG 2000 Editor - J2KEditor@jpeg.org
Intended usage:                    COMMON
Change controller:                 JPEG Webmaster

4.3 Motion Registration

MIME media type name:              video
MIME subtype name:                 mj2

Required parameters:               none
Optional parameters:               none
Encoding considerations:           files are binary and should be
                                   transmitted in a suitable encoding
                                   without CR/LF conversion, 7-bit
                                   stripping etc.; base64 is a suitable
                                   encoding;
Security considerations:           see above
Interoperability considerations:   A number of interoperating
                                   implementations exist within the
                                   MPEG-4 community with the formats
                                   derived from the ISO Base Media File
                                   Format;  and that community has
                                   reference software for reading and
                                   writing the file format.  Reference
                                   software for MJP2 is also available.
Published specification:           ISO/IEC 15444-3, Motion JPEG 2000
Applications:                      Multimedia
Additional information:

Magic number(s):                   12 byte string: X'0000 000C 6A50 2020
                                   0D0A 870A' (for all JPEG-2000 family
                                   files)
File extension(s):                 mj2 and mjp2 are both declared at
                                   http://www.nist.gov/nics/;  mj2 is
                                   preferred

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Macintosh File Type Code(s):       mjp2 is registered with Apple

Person to contact for info:        David Singer, singer@apple.com

Intended usage:                    Common

Author/Change controller:          David Singer, MJP2 file format editor

4.4 Compound Image Registration

   The image/jpm content-type refers to all of the profiles and
   extensions that build on JPEG 2000 [ISO-JPEG2000-1] encoded image
   data. The file format is also defined in [ISO-JPEG2000-6]. The
   recommended file suffix is "jpm"

   To: ietf-types@iana.org
   Subject: Registration of Standard MIME media type image/jpm

MIME media type name:              image
MIME subtype name:                 jpm
Required parameters:               none
Optional parameters:               none
                                   It is up to the implementation to
                                   determine the application (if
                                   necessary) and render the image to
                                   the user.
Encoding considerations:           files are binary and should be
                                   transmitted in a suitable encoding
                                   without CR/LF conversion, 7-bit
                                   stripping etc.; base64 is a suitable
                                   encoding;
Security considerations:           see above
Interoperability considerations:   A number of interoperating
                                   implementations are under development
                                   within the JPEG 2000 community.
Published specification:           ISO/IEC 15444-6, JPEG 2000 Compound
                                   Image File Format
Applications:                      Imaging, fax, messaging, scanning
Additional information:
Magic number(s):                   12 byte string: X'0000 000C 6A50 2020
                                   0D0A 870A' (for all JPEG-2000 family
                                   files)
File extension(s):                 jpm and jpgm are both declared at
                                   http://www.nist.gov/nics/; jpm is
                                   preferred
Macintosh File Type Code(s):       jpgm
Person & email address to contact for further information:

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                                   JPEG Webmaster - mimesupport@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG Convenor - convenor@jpeg.org
                                   JPEG 2000 Editor - J2KEditor@jpeg.org
Intended usage:                    COMMON
Change controller:                 JPEG Webmaster

5 IANA Considerations

   This document registers the MIME types image/jp2, image/jpx,
   video/mj2, and image/jpm,  defined above.

Acknowledgments

   This draft has benefited greatly by contributions from many people,
   including Eric Edwards and Takahiro Fukuhara.  Their contribution is
   gratefully acknowledged.

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Authors' Contact Information
   David Singer
   Apple Computer, Inc.
   One Infinite Loop, MS:302-3MT
   Cupertino  CA 95014
   USA
   Email: singer@apple.com
   Tel: +1 408 974 3162

   Richard Clark (Current JPEG Webmaster)
   Elysium Ltd
   Milton House
   Whitehill Road
   Crowborough
   East Sussex TN6 1LB
   UK
   Tel: +44 1892 667411
   Fax: +44 1892 667433
   Email: richard@elysium.ltd.uk

   Dr Daniel T Lee (Current JPEG Convenor)
   Yahoo!, Inc.
   701, First Avenue
   Sunnyvale,
   California 94089,
   USA
   Tel: +1 408 349 7051,
   Fax: +1 253 830 0372
   Email: dlee@yahoo-inc.com

6. References
   [ISO-JPEG2000-1]
   ITU-T Recommendation T.800 | ISO/IEC 15444-1. International
   Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image Coding System:
   Core Coding System".

   [ISO-JPEG2000-2]
   International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image
   Coding System: Extensions", IS 15444-2.

   [ISO-JPEG2000-3]
   International Organization for Standardization, "Motion JPEG 2000",
   IS 15444-3.

   [ISO-JPEG2000-4]
   International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image
   Coding System: Conformance Testing", IS 15444-4.

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   [ISO-JPEG2000-5]
   International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image
   Coding System: Reference Software", IS 15444-5.

   [ISO-JPEG2000-6]
   International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image
   Coding System: Compound Image File Format", IS 15444-6.

   [ISO-JPEG2000-8]
   International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image
   Coding System: JPSEC - Secure JPEG 2000", IS 15444-8.

   [ISO-JPEG2000-9]
   International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image
   Coding System:  JPIP - Interactivity tools, APIs and protocols", IS
   15444-9.

   [ISO-JPEG2000-10]
   International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image
   Coding System: JP3D - 3-D and floating point data", IS 15444-10.

   [ISO-JPEG2000-11]
   International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image
   Coding System: JPWL - Wireless", IS 15444-11.

   [ISO-JPEG2000-12]
   International Organization for Standardization, "JPEG 2000 Image
   Coding System: ISO base media file format", IS 15444-12.

   [ISO-JPEG-1]
   ITU-T Recommendation T.81 | ISO/IEC 10918-1:1994, Information
   technology - Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still
   images: Requirements and guidelines.

   [ISO-JPEG-2]
   ITU-T Recommendation T.83 | ISO/IEC 10918-2:1995, Information
   technology - Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still
   images: Compliance testing.

   [ISO-JPEG-3]
   ITU-T Recommendation T.84 | ISO/IEC 10918-3:1996, Information
   technology - Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still
   images: Extensions.

   [ISO-JPEG-4]
   ITU-T Recommendation T.86 | ISO/IEC 10918-4, Information technology -
   Digital compression and coding of continuous-tone still images:
   Registration of JPEG Profiles, SPIFF Profiles, SPIFF Tags, SPIFF

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   colour Spaces, APPn Markers, SPIFF, Compression types and
   Registration authorities (REGAUT).

   [ISO-MPEG4]
   ISO/IEC 14496, Information technology - Coding of Audio-Visual
   Objects

   [JFIF]
   JPEG File Interchange Format, Version 1.02. Published and made freely
   available by C-Cube Microsystems. Corporate Communications, 1778
   McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035

   [RFC-TIFF]
   Parsons, G., Rafferty, J, and Zilles, S, "Tag Image File Format
   (TIFF) - image/tiff MIME Sub-type Registration

   [MIME1] Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
   Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies", RFC
   2045, November 1996.

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