A comparison of IPv6 tunneling mechanisms
draft-steffann-tunnels-00

The information below is for an old version of the document
Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Last updated 2013-02-15
Stream (None)
Intended RFC status (None)
Formats plain text pdf html
IETF conflict review conflict-review-steffann-tunnels
Stream Stream state (No stream defined)
Document shepherd None
IESG IESG state I-D Exists
Telechat date
Responsible AD (None)
Send notices to (None)
Network Working Group                                        S. Steffann
Internet-Draft                               S.J.M. Steffann Consultancy
Intended status: Informational                            I. van Beijnum
Expires: August 19, 2013                        Institute IMDEA Networks
                                                             R. van Rein
                                                            OpenFortress
                                                       February 15, 2013

               A comparison of IPv6 tunneling mechanisms
                       draft-steffann-tunnels-00

Abstract

   This document provides an overview of various ways to to tunnel IPv6
   packets over IPv4 networks.  It covers mechanisms in contemporary
   use, touches on several mechanisms that are now only of historic
   interest, and discusses some newer tunneling mechanisms that are not
   (yet) widely used at the time of publication.

Status of this Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

   Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
   Task Force (IETF).  Note that other groups may also distribute
   working documents as Internet-Drafts.  The list of current Internet-
   Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

   Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months
   and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any
   time.  It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference
   material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

   This Internet-Draft will expire on August 19, 2013.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must

Steffann, et al.         Expires August 19, 2013                [Page 1]
Internet-Draft                IPv6 tunnels                 February 2013

   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Tunnel Mechanisms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  5
     3.1.  Configured Tunnels (Manual Tunnels / 6in4) . . . . . . . .  6
     3.2.  Automatic Tunneling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
     3.3.  IPv6 over IPv4 without Explicit Tunnels (6over4) . . . . .  8
     3.4.  Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)  . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.5.  Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds (6to4)  . . . .  9
     3.6.  Anything In Anything (AYIYA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.7.  Intra-site Automatic Tunnel Addressing (ISATAP)  . . . . . 11
     3.8.  Tunneling IPv6 over UDP through NATs (Teredo)  . . . . . . 12
     3.9.  IPv6 Rapid Deployment (6rd)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
     3.10. Native IPv6 behind NAT44 CPEs (6a44) . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     3.11. Peer-to-Peer IPv6 on Any Internetwork (6bed4)  . . . . . . 15
     3.12. The Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)  . . . . . . . . 16
   4.  Related Protocols  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
     4.1.  Tunnel Information and Control protocol (TIC)  . . . . . . 17
     4.2.  Tunnel Setup Protocol (TSP)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     4.3.  Dual-Stack Lite (Softwire) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   5.  General Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.1.  Protocol 41 Encapsulation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     5.2.  NAT and Firewalls  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.3.  MTU Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
     5.4.  IPv4 Addresses Embedded in IPv6 Addresses  . . . . . . . . 22
   6.  Evaluation of Tunnel Mechanisms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     6.1.  Efficiency of IPv4 Address Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     6.2.  Supported Network Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     6.3.  Parties Involved in Tunnel Realisation . . . . . . . . . . 26
     6.4.  Robustness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
     6.5.  Performance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
   7.  IANA considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
   8.  Security considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Show full document text