A Comparison of IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnel Mechanisms
draft-steffann-tunnels-01

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Network Working Group                                        S. Steffann
Internet-Draft                               S.J.M. Steffann Consultancy
Intended status: Informational                            I. van Beijnum
Expires: September 19, 2013                     Institute IMDEA Networks
                                                             R. van Rein
                                                            OpenFortress
                                                          March 18, 2013

            A Comparison of IPv6 over IPv4 Tunnel Mechanisms
                       draft-steffann-tunnels-01

Abstract

   This document provides an overview of various ways to tunnel IPv6
   packets over IPv4 networks.  It covers mechanisms in current use,
   touches on several mechanisms that are now only of historic interest,
   and discusses some newer tunnel mechanisms that are not (yet) widely
   used at the time of publication.  The goal of the document is helping
   people with an IPv6-in-IPv4 tunneling need to select the mechanisms
   that may apply to them.

Status of this Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on September 19, 2013.

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   Copyright (c) 2013 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents

Steffann, et al.       Expires September 19, 2013               [Page 1]
Internet-Draft                IPv6 tunnels                    March 2013

   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
   2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   3.  Tunnel Mechanisms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
     3.1.  Configured Tunnels (Manual Tunnels / 6in4) . . . . . . . .  7
     3.2.  Automatic Tunneling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
     3.3.  IPv6 over IPv4 without Explicit Tunnels (6over4) . . . . .  8
     3.4.  Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE)  . . . . . . . . . . .  9
     3.5.  Connection of IPv6 Domains via IPv4 Clouds (6to4)  . . . . 10
     3.6.  Anything In Anything (AYIYA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.7.  Intra-site Automatic Tunnel Addressing (ISATAP)  . . . . . 12
     3.8.  Tunneling IPv6 over UDP through NATs (Teredo)  . . . . . . 13
     3.9.  IPv6 Rapid Deployment (6rd)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
     3.10. Native IPv6 behind NAT44 CPEs (6a44) . . . . . . . . . . . 15
     3.11. The Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)  . . . . . . . . 15
     3.12. Peer-to-Peer IPv6 on Any Internetwork (6bed4)  . . . . . . 17
   4.  Related Protocols  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     4.1.  Tunnel Setup Protocol (TSP)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
     4.2.  SixXS Heartbeat Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
     4.3.  Tunnel Information and Control protocol (TIC)  . . . . . . 19
   5.  Common Aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.1.  Protocol 41 Encapsulation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.2.  NAT and Firewalls  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
     5.3.  MTU Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
     5.4.  IPv4 Addresses Embedded in IPv6 Addresses  . . . . . . . . 22
   6.  Evaluation of Tunnel Mechanisms  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     6.1.  Efficiency of IPv4 Address Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
     6.2.  Supported Network Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
     6.3.  Robustness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
     6.4.  Gateway State  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
     6.5.  Performance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
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