Architecture Based on IPv6 and 5G for IIoT

Document Type Active Internet-Draft (individual)
Authors Chaowei Tang  , Wen Haotian  , Ruan Shuai  , Baojin Huang  , Feng Xinxin 
Last updated 2021-06-08
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Industrial Internet of Things                                    C. Tang
Internet-Draft                                                    H. Wen
Intended status: Informational                                   S. Ruan
Expires: 10 December 2021                                       B. Huang
                                                                 X. Feng
                                                    Chongqing University
                                                             8 June 2021

               Architecture Based on IPv6 and 5G for IIoT


   As the foundation of the current new round of industrial revolution,
   the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) based on cyber-physical
   systems (CPS) [smart-factory] has become the focus of research in
   various countries.  One of the key issues in the entire development
   stage of IIoT is the standardization of the IIoT architecture.  With
   the development of intelligent manufacturing technology, the number
   of IIoT devices is expected to increase sharply, and large amounts of
   data will be generated in the industrial manufacturing process.
   However, traditional industrial networks cannot meet the IIoT
   requirements for high data rates, low latency, massive connections,
   interconnection, and interoperability.  Current IIoT architectures
   also have various limitations, including those in mobility, security,
   scalability, and communication reliability.  These limitations hinder
   the development and implementation of IIoT.  As a network layer
   protocol, IPv6 can solve the problem of IPv4 address exhaustion.
   Meanwhile, as a high-speed, low-latency, wireless communication
   technology, 5G has great potential in promoting IIoT.  To solve the
   aforementioned problems, this draft proposes an IIoT architecture
   based on IPv6 and 5G.  The architecture can provide high-speed, low-
   latency communication services and possesses massive connectivity,
   mobility, scalability, security, and other features for industrial
   devices.  It can also provide generalized, refined, flexible network
   services for devices outside factories.  Moreover, an information
   model is defined to standardize the representation of information in
   IIoT.  The security challenges in and recommendations for IIoT are
   also discussed.

Status of This Memo

   This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the
   provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  IIoT Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   3.  Factory Internal Network  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  Status and Development Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.2.  Functional View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.3.  Network View  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     3.4.  Communication Manner  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   4.  Factory External Network  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.1.  Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.2.  Development Trend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  15
     4.3.  Enterprise Dedicated Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16
     4.4.  Mobile Communication Network  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  18
   5.  Information Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  20
   6.  Security Challenges and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     6.1.  Sensing Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  23
     6.2.  Transport Layer Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     6.3.  Application Layer Security  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  24
     6.4.  IIoT Security Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  25
   7.  Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  26
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31

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   9.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   10. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  31
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  32

1.  Introduction

   IIoT is an industrial and application ecology formed by the
   comprehensive and deep integration of the Internet, information
   technology, and industrial systems, and it is a key information
   infrastructure for the development of industrial intelligence.  Its
   essence is based on the network interconnection between machines, raw
   materials, control systems, information systems, products, and
   people.  Intelligent control, operation optimization, and production
   organization reform can be achieved through comprehensive in-depth
   perception of industrial data, real-time transmission and exchange,
   fast calculation and processing, and advanced modeling analysis.  The
   IIoT foundation is the system architecture, which pertains to the
   interconnection and intercommunication of the entire industrial
   system through technologies, such as the Internet of Things and the
   Internet, to promote the full circulation and seamless integration of
   industrial data.

   The communication technology in the industrial network
   interconnection architecture needs to meet the following major

   *  (1) High communication rate.  The increasing number of
      manufacturing activities, such as real-time monitoring of all
      production factors and the entire production process, and the
      application of cloud computing, edge computing, virtual reality,
      and augmented reality in the manufacturing industry are expected
      to generate large amounts of manufacturing data, which need a
      stable and fast network where data should be more than 25 Mbps

   *  (2) High coverage.  The goal of IIoT is to establish "ubiquitous
      communication."  In other words, any area in a manufacturing plant
      should achieve 100% networking coverage.  However, in actual
      factories, the current communication technology cannot meet the
      requirements of high coverage due to the complex production
      environment, such as electromagnetic interference and obstacles.

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   *  (3) Low latency.  Advanced manufacturing activities, such as
      human-machine cooperation, machine-machine cooperation, and remote
      real-time control, have strict requirements on communication
      delays and generally require low delays (about 1 ms).  Although
      current wireless communication technology has made great progress
      and the end-to-end delay is about 20-100 ms [iiot-5g], it still
      cannot meet the urgent need for low delay in IIoT.

   *  (4) Massive connections.  Owing to the interconnection of all
      things in IIoT, the connected devices and the data generated
      increase exponentially throughout the production process.  Wired
      communication cannot meet the requirements of massive connections
      due to the difficulty in arranging lines, and wireless
      communication cannot meet the said requirements due to the
      limitation in the number of access nodes.

   *  (5) Interconnection.  Many communication protocols are adopted in
      the development of industrial networks.  Fieldbus protocols
      include PROFIBUS, Modbus, and HART.  Industrial Ethernet protocols
      include Ethernet/IP, PROFINET, and Modbus TCP, and industrial
      wireless protocols cover WLAN, Bluetooth, and WirelessHART.  The
      interconnection and interoperability of these protocols are not
      ideal because they use different technologies at the physical,
      link, and application layers.  This affects the expansion of IIoT
      to some extent.

   The main work of the proposed architecture is introduced as follows.

   An industrial network interconnection architecture based on IPv6 and
   5G communication technology is designed by combining actual scenarios
   of factory intelligent manufacturing and the requirements of IIoT for
   communication technology.  The architecture can provide high-speed,
   high-reliability, low-latency communication services, including
   factory internal and external networks.  The factory internal network
   provides massive connection, mobility, device registration and
   discovery, and security for industrial production-related devices.
   The factory external network provides generalized, refined, flexible
   network services for devices outside the factory.  An information
   model is defined to standardize the representation of information in
   IIoT.  The current security challenges in IIoT are presented, and
   security recommendations are provided.

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2.  IIoT Architecture

   In the IIoT architecture, the network is the foundation; it provides
   infrastructure for the comprehensive interconnection of people,
   machines, and things and promotes the full flow and seamless
   integration of various industrial data.  The industrial Internet
   network connection involves different technical fields with multiple
   elements and subjects inside and outside the factory and covers a
   large scope of influence and many optional technologies.  Various
   network connection technologies are available in the industrial
   field.  These technologies are designed for specific scenarios in the
   industrial field and play a crucial role in specific scenarios.
   However, in terms of data interoperability and seamless integration,
   they often cannot meet the growing demands of IIoT.

   The overall goal of IIoT network connection is to enhance the
   interconnection and intercommunication between systems, unlock data
   from isolated systems and networks, and make data achieve a high
   value for applications within and across industries.

   This chapter proposes an industrial network system architecture based
   on the transformation of the factory IP network, which has two major
   networks (factory internal and external networks), as shown in
   Figure 1.

   The factory internal network is used to connect various elements in
   the factory, including people (e.g., production staff, designers, and
   external people), machines (e.g., devices and office equipment),
   materials (e.g., raw materials, work in progress, and finished
   products), and the environment (e.g., instruments and monitoring
   devices).  The factory internal network is interconnected with
   enterprise data centers and application servers to support business
   applications in the factory.

   The factory external network is used to connect smart factories,
   branches, upstream and downstream collaborative enterprises,
   industrial cloud data centers, smart products, and users.  The data
   center/application server in the smart factory is interconnected with
   the industrial cloud data center outside the factory through the
   factory external network.  Branches/collaborative enterprises, users,
   and smart products are also connected to the industrial cloud data
   center or enterprise data center through the factory external
   network.  The data intercommunication in IIoT realizes the seamless
   transfer of data and information among various elements and systems
   so that heterogeneous systems can "understand" each other at the data
   level, thereby realizing data interoperability and information
   integration.  IIoT requires breaking information islands, realizing
   cross-system data intercommunication, and fusion analysis.

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   Therefore, on the one hand, the factory external network needs to
   support the aggregation of the underlying data generated by various
   factory elements and factory products to the data center; on the
   other hand, it must provide upper-layer applications with access
   interfaces to heterogeneous system data to support the rapid
   development and deployment of industrial applications.

          _______________________   __________________   ________
         |Upstream and           | |Industrial        | |        |
         |downstream companies   | |Cloud Platform    | |  User  |
         |_______________________| |__________________| |________|
              \                              |               /
               \                             |              /
                \ ___________________________|_____________/_____
                 {                                               }
                 {            Factory external network           }
                 {    (Internet/mobile network/private network)  }
                 {                                               }
                           /           |         \
                          /            |          \
               {  _______   _______   _______   _______   _______  }
               { |  MES  | |  SCM  | |  ERP  | |  CRM  | |  APP  | }
               { |_______| |_______| |_______| |_______| |_______| }
            +--{                                                   }
            |  {         Factory internal cloud platform           }
            |  {___________________________________________________}
            |                /                      \
            |               /                        \
            |       _______/_____               ______\______
            |      |   Monitor   |             |   Controll  |
            |      |   System    |             |    System   |
            |      |_____________|             |_____________|
            |         _____|__________________________|_______
            |        |          |               |             |
            |     ___|__     ___|__          ___|__        ___|__
                 |______|   |______|        |______|      |______|

                        Figure 1: IIoT architecture

   Architecture advantages:

   *  (1) High communication rate.  The factory network adopts
      industrial PON and 5G technology, which can realize high-speed
      data transmission.

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   *  (2) Low communication delay.  The Ethernet-based TSN network [tsn]
      and 5G wireless network can realize low-latency communication and
      ensure real-time industrial production.

   *  (3) Massive connections.  IPv6 [I-D.ietf-6lowpan-usecases] can
      assign an IP address to each industrial IoT device, and the 5G
      network supports the wireless access of numerous IIoT devices.

   *  (4) Scalability.  When a new industrial device joins the network,
      it can register with the edge server.  The name and IP address of
      the device are registered.  When another industrial device has
      data and service requirements for the new industrial device, the
      new industrial device can be found on the edge server to access
      data or services.

   *  (5) Mobility.  After a device moves in multiple networks, it
      registers with the edge server again and obtains a new address
      from the edge server to perform subsequent communication.

   *  (6) Localization of computing and storage.  Edge computing
      technology is used to perform computing or data storage services
      in edge servers close to industrial sites [edge-computing].

   *  (7) Support multiple communication protocols.  The OPC UA
      protocol, support TCP, WebSocket, HTTP, and other transmission
      protocols are used.  These protocols can realize device-to-device
      communication; support UDP broadcast, MQTT, AMQP, and other
      protocols; and realize Pub/Sub communication

   *  (8) Cloudization of network services outside the factory.  On the
      basis of cloud computing and enterprise-dedicated line technology,
      the enterprise business system is deployed to the cloud to
      facilitate external services.  It can also provide segmented
      services for different scenarios, such as public and private
      clouds.  Network virtualization technology is used to improve the
      flexibility of network services so that the factory external
      network can quickly open and adjust services according to
      enterprise requirements.

3.  Factory Internal Network

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3.1.  Status and Development Trends

   In an IIoT factory, on the one hand, the digitization of the factory
   requires that the digitization of many existing business processes be
   carried by the corresponding network.  On the other hand, a large
   number of new networked devices (e.g., AGVs, robots, and mobile
   handheld devices) and new business processes (e.g., performance
   management, predictive maintenance, and personnel/material
   positioning) have been introduced.  The introduction of new devices
   and business processes creates new demands on the network.  As a
   result, the two traditional networks (production and office networks)
   in the factory become multiple networks, which correspondingly cause
   changes in the network architecture in the factory.

   To break information islands and improve operational efficiency,
   companies deploy business systems that were originally deployed on
   various servers, such as MES, PLM, ERP, SCM, and CRM, to the data
   center/cloud platform in the factory.  The data generated by each
   networked device and business process must be able to be aggregated
   in the data center/cloud platform in real time for joint analysis and
   rapid decision-making.  Changes in business system deployment also
   cause changes in the network architecture.

   The IIoT demand for flexible manufacturing and personalized
   customization requires the production domain to be flexibly
   reconfigured according to requirements, and intelligent machines may
   be adjusted and migrated between different production domains.  This
   procedure requires the network architecture in the factory to be able
   to adapt to the needs of fast networking and flexible adjustment.

   The factory internal network proposed in this chapter can be
   understood from two aspects: functional and network views.

3.2.  Functional View

   According to the specific functions of the system and devices and the
   location of the network, the factory internal network can be divided
   into device, control, and factory management layers, as shown in
   Figure 2.

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          _______       __________________
         |       |     |Factory management|
         |       |<--->|     device       |<-----+    Factory management layer
         |       |     |__________________|      |
         |       |               ^               |
         |       |               |               |
         |       |      _________v________       |
         |       |<--->|   Monitor device |<-----+    Monitoring control layer
         |       |     |__________________|      |
         |       |               ^               |
         |  Edge |               |               |
         | server|               |               |
         |       |      _________v________       |
         |       |<--->|  Controll device |<-----+    On-site control layer
         |       |     |__________________|      |
         |       |               ^               |
         |       |               |               |
         |       |               |               |
         |       |      _________v________       |
         |       |<--->|   Manufacturing  |<-----+    Device layer
         |       |     |      device      |
         |_______|     |__________________|

                      Figure 2: Functional View

   (1) The device layer participates in data perception and task
   execution in the manufacturing process.  The time resolution
   granularity can be seconds, milliseconds, and microseconds.  Various
   sensors, transmitters, actuators, RTUs, barcode scanners, RFID
   readers, and intelligent manufacturing devices (e.g., CNC machine
   tools, industrial robots, AGVs, and conveyor lines) run on this
   layer.  These devices are collectively referred to as field devices.

   (2) The control layer realizes the monitoring and control of field
   devices in the manufacturing process.  The time resolution
   granularity can be hours, minutes, seconds, and milliseconds.
   According to different functions, this level can be further
   subdivided into the following:

   *  (i) Monitoring control layer: With operation monitoring as the
      main task, it has other management functions, such as advanced
      control and fault diagnosis.  The visual data acquisition and
      monitoring system (SCADA), human-machine interface (HMI), DCS
      operator station, real-time database server, and other components
      run on this layer.

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   *  (ii) On-site control layer: It measures and controls the
      production process, collects process data, performs data
      conversion and processing, outputs control signals, and realizes
      logic control, continuous control, and batch control functions.
      Various programmable control devices, such as PLC, DCS controller,
      industrial computer (IPC), and other special controllers, run on
      this layer.

   (3) The factory management layer realizes the production management
   of the factory and manages workflow/recipe control activities,
   including maintenance records, detailed production scheduling, and
   reliability assurance.  The time resolution granularity can be days,
   shifts, hours, minutes, or seconds.  The manufacturing execution
   system (MES), supply chain management (SCM), enterprise resource
   management (ERP), and customer relationship management (CRM) run on
   this layer.

   To achieve IIoT scalability (after a new device joins the network,
   other devices can access data or call-related services), this
   architecture adopts device registration and device discovery

   Device registration: When a new device is connected to the network,
   it registers its name with the edge gateway.  The format of the
   registered name is /Service-Name/Gateway-Name/Device-Name, and the IP
   address of the device is stored and bound with the name.

   Device discovery: When a device needs to access data in other devices
   or call services in other devices, it can make a query in the edge
   gateway.  It can find the IP address of a corresponding group of
   devices based on the service name and gateway name; it can also find
   the corresponding IP address of a certain device based on the service
   name, gateway name, and device name.  After finding the IP address,
   the device can communicate with the corresponding device.

3.3.  Network View

   The factory internal network can be divided into three parts: edge
   network, backbone network, and factory cloud platform.  These parts
   can be interconnected through industrial PON, as shown in Figure 3.

   Given the diversification of connected production factors, the edge
   network presents various types as follows: according to business
   needs, the edge network can be an industrial control network, an
   office network, a monitoring network, a positioning network, etc.;
   according to real-time requirements, the edge network can be a real-
   time or a non-real-time network; according to the transmission
   medium, the edge network can be a wired or wireless network; and

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   according to the communication technology adopted, the edge network
   can be an industrial Ethernet network, a 5G wireless network, etc.
   The range of the edge network may be a workshop, an office building,
   a warehouse, or others.  Each edge network is composed of edge
   servers, edge gateways, and field devices.  Enterprises can
   comprehensively consider business requirements and costs and select
   appropriate technologies to deploy in accordance with edge networks.

   The backbone network is used to realize interconnection between edge
   networks, cloud platforms/data centers in the factory, and other
   parts requiring high bandwidth and high speed.  The backbone network
   can be large or small depending on the size of the enterprise.  It
   can be a cluster of fully interconnected routers, or it can include
   only one or two backbone routers.

   For example, industrial, control, and monitoring devices that need
   wired connections can be connected to switches that support
   industrial Ethernet protocols through optical fibers.  The specific
   physical layer protocol can use industrial PON, and the data link
   layer protocol can use the TSN protocol to form a TSN Ethernet edge

   Industrial, control, and monitoring devices that need wireless
   connections can be connected to 5G base stations through 5G wireless
   connections to form a 5G wireless edge network.

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               {  _______   _______   _______   _______   _______  }
               { |  MES  | |  SCM  | |  ERP  | |  CRM  | |  APP  | }
               { |_______| |_______| |_______| |_______| |_______| }
               {                                                   }
               {         Factory internal cloud platform           }
                             |                        |
                             |    Backbone network    |
                             /                      \
                            /                        \
                    _______/_____               ______\_________
                   |  Wired edge |             | Wireless edge  |
                   |   gateway   |             |    gateway     |
                   |_____________|             |________________|
             |            |                     |            |
          ___|___    _____|_________        ____|___      ___|_____
         |       |  | Manufacturing |      |Controll|    | Monitor |
         |Product|  |    device     |      | device |    | device  |
         |_______|  |_______________|      |________|    |_________|

                           Figure 3: Network view

   The IPv6 protocol can be used at the network layer to realize
   communication between edge networks of different protocols and the IP
   of industrial, control, and monitoring devices.  However, the IPv4
   protocol still has numerous devices and applications.  In the
   transition phase to the IPv6 protocol, if the number of IPv4 devices
   and applications is large, the GI DS LITE tunnel technology solution
   can be used.  If the number of IPv4 devices and applications is
   small, IPv4/IPv6 dual-stack technology solutions can be adopted.

   The backbone network is used to realize interconnection between edge
   networks and cloud platforms in the factory, and it requires high
   bandwidth and high speed.  The backbone network can be large or small
   depending on the size of the enterprise.  It can be a cluster of
   fully interconnected routers, or it may contain only one or two
   backbone routers.

   The factory cloud platform can be upgraded to a TSN network on the
   basis of the original standard Ethernet, which can meet the high
   bandwidth and low latency requirements of industrial cloud platforms.
   TSN also has excellent upper-layer support compatibility and can

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   support various upper-layer communication protocols.  For example,
   TSN and OPC UA can solve data intercommunication problems in a
   factory, and OPC UA data collection and cloud services can be
   extended to the field level.  The proposed architecture can realize
   all-around, real-time data collection and real-time operation in the
   production environment.

3.4.  Communication Manner

   Relationship between functional and network views: The communication
   between the device layer and the control layer can be realized in the
   edge network.  The factory management layer is deployed in the
   factory cloud platform, and the backbone network is responsible for
   the communication among device, control, and factory management

   (1) Communication between devices: One-to-one communication between
   devices uses the C/S architecture in OPC UA and supports the
   transmission protocols of TCP, WebSocket, and HTTP.  The OPC UA
   server and client are separately deployed in the two devices.  When a
   device needs to access data or send instructions, it can use its own
   client to initiate communication with the other device's OPC UA
   server, as shown in Figure 4.

                   ____________     Return data    ____________
                  |  _______   | Operation result |  _______   |
                  | |OPC UA |--|------------------|>|OPC UA |  |
                  | |Server |<-|------------------|-|Client |  |
                  | |_______|  |    Query data    | |_______|  |
                  |            |   Send operation |            |
                  |  Device A  |                  |  Device B  |
                  |            |    Return data   |            |
                  |  _______   | Operation result |  _______   |
                  | |OPC UA |<-|------------------|-|OPC UA |  |
                  | |Client |--|------------------|>|Server |  |
                  | |_______|  |    Query data    | |_______|  |
                  |____________| Send operation   |____________|

                    Figure 4: C/S architecture in OPC UA

   The communication between one-to-many devices uses the Pub/Sub
   mechanism in OPC UA and supports multiple mechanisms, such as UDP
   broadcast, MQTT, and AMQP.  If multiple devices have requirements for
   the data in one device, these multiple devices can subscribe to this
   device.  This device will publish the data to the multiple devices
   when it collects or detects data changes, as shown in Figure 5.

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                       _____________  message _____________
                      |             |<-------|   OPC UA    |
                      |             |------->| Subscriber  |
                      |             |publish |_____________|
                      |   OPC UA    |message
                      |  Publisher  |
                      |             |subscribe
                      |             | message _____________
                      |             |<-------|   OPC UA    |
                      |             |------->| Subscriber  |
                      |_____________|publish |_____________|

                   Figure 5: Pub/Sub mechanism in OPC UA

   (2) Communication between a device and the edge server:

   (i) The C/S mode in OPC UA, which is suitable for application
   scenarios involving a large data volume and industrial automation
   control, is used.  For example, in machine vision product quality
   inspection, a device uses a camera to collect machine vision pictures
   of the product after the product is manufactured or assembled.  The
   pictures are sent to the edge server's intelligent detection
   algorithm for analysis and processing through the OPC UA protocol.
   Then, the edge server returns the detection result to the industrial
   device, and the industrial device performs the next step in
   accordance with the detection result.

   (ii) The Pub/Sub mode in MQTT, which is suitable for communication
   between devices with a small data volume, low bandwidth, and low
   hardware resources and edge servers, is utilized.  For example, in
   factory temperature intelligent adjustment, the energy-saving
   management program in the edge server needs to automatically turn on
   or control the adjustment device according to the change in
   temperature and humidity.  The energy-saving management program in
   the edge server can initially subscribe to the edge gateway with the
   theme of temperature and humidity.  After the sensor device in the
   factory periodically collects temperature and humidity data, it
   publishes relevant messages to the edge gateway with the theme of
   temperature and humidity.  Then, the edge gateway pushes the messages
   to the energy-saving management program in the edge server and
   realizes automatic adjustment.

   (3) Communication between a device and the cloud server: Various
   production management applications run on the factory cloud platform,
   which realizes data collection, process monitoring, industrial device
   management, quality management, production scheduling, and data

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   statistical analysis for the entire production process to achieve the
   informatization, intelligence, and flexibility of the smart
   manufacturing management.  To realize communication between a device
   and the cloud server, the OPC UA protocol can be utilized to deploy
   the OPC UA server on the device and to deploy the client on the cloud
   server so that the cloud server can read real-time production data on
   the device and send it control instructions.  Alternatively, the
   cloud server subscribes to the device for data, and when the data are
   ready, the device sends the data to the cloud server.  The cloud
   server sends instructions or management data to the device.

4.  Factory External Network

   The factory external network is designed to support various
   activities in the entire life cycle of the industry and used to
   connect the upstream and downstream of the enterprise, the enterprise
   and the product, and the enterprise and the user.

4.1.  Situation

   The breadth and depth of the development and utilization of
   industrialized data and information vary because of the different
   levels of informatization development in different industries and
   fields of industry.  Thus, uneven network construction and
   development exist outside the factory, and several industrial
   enterprises only apply for ordinary Internet access.  Islands of
   information are still present between different areas of several
   industrial enterprises.

4.2.  Development Trend

   With the development of industrial networking and intelligence, the
   systems and applications in factories are gradually expanding
   outward, and the industrial Internet services outside factories are
   showing a trend of generalization, refinement, and flexibility.

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   Network services outside factories are universal.  The traditional
   network outside factories mainly facilitates the communication of
   commercial information, and the information systems of the enterprise
   are deployed on the network inside its factory.  The network outside
   factories has few connection objects and a single service.  With the
   development of cloud platform technology, several enterprise
   information systems (e.g., ERP and CRM) are being externalized, and
   an increasing number of IT software programs are being developed
   based on cloud computing to provide services on the cloud.  With the
   development of the remote service business of industrial products and
   devices, remote monitoring, maintenance, management, and optimization
   of massive devices will be carried out based on the network outside
   factories in the future.

   With regard to refined network services outside factories, the
   factory external network realizes the ubiquitous interconnection of
   the entire industrial chain and the value chain.  The complex and
   diverse connection scenarios promote the refined development of
   services.  On the one hand, the connection demand of massive devices
   has promoted the construction of mobile networks outside factories
   and the rapid development of wide-coverage services.  On the other
   hand, enterprises need to deploy services to the cloud, which
   promotes the refinement of dedicated line services, and they must
   provide segmented services for different scenarios, such as
   enterprise Internet access, business system cloud access, and public
   and private cloud interoperability.

   With regard to flexible network services outside factories, the
   development of network virtualization and softwareization has
   improved the flexibility of network services so that the network
   outside a factory can quickly open and adjust services according to
   enterprise requirements.  The application of a large number of mobile
   communication network technologies has improved the convenience of
   network access.  The speed of deployment provides a flexible means
   for enterprises to achieve extensive interconnection.

4.3.  Enterprise Dedicated Line

   The wide-area Internet business requirements of industrial entities
   include the following main aspects: the Internet access requirements
   of industrial entities, the interconnection and isolation
   requirements between industrial entities across regions, the
   interconnection requirements of industrial networks and hybrid
   clouds, and the differentiated requirements (QoS, security/
   protection, etc.) of industrial Internet for wide-area bearer
   networks.  The most widely used carrier private line services for
   meeting these requirements mainly include MPLS VPN dedicated line and
   OTN-based optical network dedicated line.

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   The MPLS VPN virtual private network builds an enterprise virtual
   private network on the public MPLS network to achieve safe, fast, and
   reliable industrialized communication between branches in different
   cities (international and domestic).  It can support multimedia
   services that require high quality and high reliability, such as
   office, data, voice, and images.

   The MPLS VPN dedicated line is based on IP and high-speed label
   forwarding technology.  The distinction of service levels and quality
   service guarantee can be realized through the setting of QoS bits.

   The intelligent optical network based on the optical transport
   network (OTN) is an ideal solution for large-particle broadband
   service transmission.  If the main dispatching particle of the
   external private network of an enterprise reaches the Gb/s level, OTN
   technology can be considered a priority for network construction.

   With the increase in enterprise network application requirements, the
   need of large enterprises for large-particle circuit scheduling also
   increases.  The introduction of OTN technology can realize flexible
   large-particle circuit scheduling.  Compared with MPLS VPN, OTN
   technology can realize an end-to-end physical private network, which
   is attractive for specific enterprises that require large bandwidth
   (above 1 Gbps) and high data and service reliability and security.

   In addition, emerging technologies, such as SD-WAN and CloudVPN, can
   complement existing technologies, integrate various dedicated line
   resources, and open the call platform through a unified capability to
   form a transparent, integrated, shielded part of the technical
   complexity for users.  A factory's extranet solution can economically
   meet the rapidly changing needs of enterprises for private line

   (1) The CloudVPN dedicated line is a new-generation enterprise
   private line network solution that redefines enterprise
   interconnection centered on cloud services, thus simplifying business
   deployment to the greatest extent.  CloudVPN can reduce the time for
   opening and adjusting VPNs traditionally on a weekly or monthly basis
   to the minute level, thereby providing convenient and flexible
   business options and realizing enterprise interconnection on demand.
   The CloudVPN private line solution includes the basic network device
   layer, management control layer, collaboration layer, and user
   interface.  The operator's private line access capability is
   encapsulated as a simple OpenAPI interface.  It supports developers'
   applications to realize enterprise private line services by directly
   calling the interface and supports fast ordering, opening, and on-
   demand adjustment of services, such as Internet access dedicated
   lines.  The CloudVPN dedicated line network can be opened on demand

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   in real time and elastically expanded; it also supports real-time
   adjustment of dedicated line network bandwidth in industrial
   environments, such as distance education, data intercommunication,
   and video conferencing.

   (2) SD-WAN is an extranet interconnection service formed by applying
   new SDN technology to WAN scenarios.  This type of service is used to
   connect enterprise networks, data centers, Internet applications, and
   cloud services in a wide geographical area.  The technical features
   of SD-WAN include the following:

   (i) SD-WAN "cloudizes" the control capabilities of hardware networks
   through software, thereby supporting the opening of user-perceivable
   network capabilities.

   (ii) The introduction of SD-WAN technology reduces the complexity and
   technical threshold of user-side WAN operation and maintenance.

   (iii) SD-WAN technology has a high degree of self-service capability,
   and users can open, modify, and adjust private network
   interconnection parameters.  The core concept of SD-WAN is the users'
   networking requirements and networking intentions, which can be
   translated and managed through the centralized control orchestrator
   provided by the communication service provider, thus shielding users
   from the complexity of the underlying network technology.

   (iv) SD-WAN supports heterogeneous networks (access can be done in
   many different ways, including the Internet, other access methods
   such as OTN, other dedicated lines, etc.).  The access device is
   generally on the user side, and the service differentiation point is
   also on the user side.  It helps users make flexible business
   adjustments through its self-service interface.

   SD-WAN has a heterogeneous network and flexible operation, but
   because its virtual private network may be implemented based on
   Internet access, it may cause hidden dangers in network attacks and
   data security, and end-to-end encryption needs to be implemented
   through encryption protocols.

4.4.  Mobile Communication Network

   With the development of IIoT, the industrial production process is no
   longer limited to the factory.  Industrial production is gradually
   integrated with Internet business models, factories and products, and
   customers through the factory external network.  In certain
   production processes, the communication demand between the factory
   and the devices outside the factory has also increased significantly.

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   In these scenarios, mobile communication networks have been
   increasingly used in industrial production due to their
   characteristics of wide coverage, high speed, high network
   reliability, and mature industrial chain, which greatly expand the
   connotation and extension of traditional industrial networks.  Mobile
   communication networks have provided a good foundation for the
   development of IIoT.

   3GPP's 5G defines three types of application scenarios: enhanced
   mobile broadband (eMBB), large-scale machine communication (mMTC),
   and high-reliability low-latency communication (uRLLC).  The eMBB
   scenario can support the gradual emergence of high-traffic services
   on IIoT, such as virtual factories and high-definition video remote
   maintenance.  Large-scale machine communication scenarios are mainly
   aimed at massive field device communication.

   The 5G network separates control and forwarding.  The forwarding
   plane focuses on the efficient routing and forwarding of business
   data.  It has the characteristics of simplicity, stability, and high
   performance to meet the forwarding needs of massive mobile traffic in
   the future.  The control plane uses a logically centralized approach
   to achieve unified policy control and ensure flexible traffic
   scheduling and connection management.  The centralized control plane
   realizes the programmable control of the forwarding plane through the
   mobile flow control interface.

   The 5G core network supports various services with low latency, large
   capacity, and high speed.  The core network forwarding plane further
   simplifies the sinking and moves the business storage and computing
   capabilities from the network center down to the network edge to
   support high traffic and low time delay business requirements, thus
   realizing flexible and balanced traffic load scheduling.

   Main features and advantages: The 5G network is a new type of network
   based on the separation of control and forwarding.  It improves the
   overall access performance of the access network in complex 5G-
   oriented scenarios, simplifies the core network structure, provides
   flexible and efficient control forwarding functions, supports high
   intelligence operations, opens network capabilities, and improves the
   overall service level of the entire network.  The separation of the
   control and forwarding planes makes the network architecture flat,
   and the gateway device can be deployed in a distributed manner,
   thereby effectively reducing the service transmission delay.
   Different business scenarios have diverse performance and functional
   requirements for 5G networks.  The 5G network can adapt to business
   scenarios and provide appropriate network control functions and
   performance guarantees for each 5G business scenario to achieve the
   goal of on-demand networking.

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   Applicability: 5G provides a reliable, open, and on-demand network
   for IIoT.  The 5G network can efficiently support large-traffic
   services that are gradually emerging in industrial Internet, such as
   virtual factories and high-definition video remote maintenance.  This
   network also supports the monitoring of a large number of devices
   inside and outside the factory, such as remote monitoring and control
   of various devices, remote control of wireless video surveillance,
   and remote monitoring and reporting of environmental parameters and
   control machinery data, to meet the needs of IIoT applications.

5.  Information Model

   The information model is used to define information representation,
   standardize data generated in industrial production, and facilitate
   communication between different devices and applications.  The
   information model should clarify three levels of content: (1) define
   objects and the data contained in the objects, (2) organize these
   objects and data, and (3) define the data format.  The information of
   each device in the digital factory includes various parameters of the
   device itself, runtime data, and data composition of the components
   in the device.  This information is the object to be modeled.

   The device information model can be divided into static attribute,
   dynamic attribute, and component assembly sets.  The data in a device
   are defined by attributes, and the collection of all information
   contained in the device is called the attribute set.  In the
   information model, information is divided into static and dynamic.
   Static information represents data that do not change or change
   slowly after definition.  In the device, this type of information is
   mainly manifested as asset identification and order data (e.g.,
   material coding and processing device number).  Dynamic information
   represents data that are generated, disappear, or change in real time
   with the production process.  It is generally in the form of device
   status data and part production process record data, such as working
   status, part processing size, logistics information, and start and
   completion times.  In accordance with the static and dynamic nature
   of information, attributes are divided into static and process
   attributes.  Static attributes form a static attribute set, and
   process attributes form a process attribute set.

   Each attribute set contains attribute data of several information
   objects.  Information objects are described by attributes, and
   attributes are composed of attribute elements.  This defines the
   hierarchical structure of the information model, as shown in
   Figure 6.  The elements of the information model are explained from
   small to large in Figure 6.

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   Attribute elements: These are the basic elements that make up
   attributes or the basic units of attributes, such as attribute
   identification, name, and data type.

   Attribute: It pertains to the data describing the nature and
   characteristics of an object.  Each attribute consists of multiple
   attribute elements, but not every attribute contains all attribute

   Information object: It refers to the body of information in the
   factory domain that describes a general, real, or abstract entity
   that can be conceptualized as a whole.  Examples of information
   objects are the spindle of a machine tool, the processing route of a
   certain part, and the receipt of a certain material.  An information
   object completes its digital definition and digital description
   through its attributes.

       |Device information |
       |       model       |
                 |     ______________________     ____________________     __________
                 +----| Static attribute set |---| Information object |---| Attribute|
                 |    |______________________|   |____________________|   |__________|
                 |     ______________________     ____________________     __________
                 +----|Process attribute set |---| Information object |---| Attribute|
                 |    |______________________|   |____________________|   |__________|
                 |     ______________________     ____________________     ______________________
                 +----|    Component set     |---|      Component     |-+-| Static attribute set |
                      |______________________|   |____________________| | |______________________|
                                                                        |  ______________________
                                                                        +-| Process attribute set|
                                                                        | |______________________|
                                                                        |  ______________________
                                                                        +-|     Component set    |

                     Figure 6: Information model

   Attribute set: This is a collection of a series of attributes.  The
   attribute set can be composed of sub-attribute sets or the attributes
   of several information objects.  In accordance with the static and
   dynamic nature of information, the attribute set is divided into
   static and process attribute sets.

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   Component: It refers to a physical or logical object, which is a
   physical or logical part of the upper-level object, and its
   characteristics are described by the attribute set.  Components can
   be nested, components can have their own subcomponents, and all
   subcomponents of the same object form a component set.

   The device information model is an expandable tree structure that
   allows nesting between attribute sets and components.  In this
   definition, the attribute set and the component set are structural
   elements that constitute the description of the factory information
   model.  They are not a mapping of an actual object and do not contain
   actual content.  They are only used to describe the framework and
   level of the organization model.

   The device information model defined above is only an abstract
   framework.  When modeling the information in an actual device and
   developing functions based on the information model, the actual
   device and function need to be based on the category and semantics of
   the frame.  Various information model elements are filled to form an
   information model object with practical meaning.  This process is
   called the instantiation of the information model.  The
   implementation of the information model needs to be based on the
   specific description method and communication mechanism to realize
   the organization and storage of the instantiated information model.
   This section provides an information model implementation scheme
   based on the OPC UA protocol, as shown in Figure 7.

   In accordance with the various information in the actual device, the
   device information is used model to model, and the OPC UA model
   generator is adopted to generate the corresponding XML file according
   to the established information model.  The file is placed in the
   process model of the OPC UA server.  The process model can obtain
   real-time data on the physical device through the data access module
   and save and update the value of the corresponding attribute in the
   information model.

   The information model can be displayed through the address space of
   the OPC UA server, and the OPC UA client accesses the address space
   of the server to obtain the data defined by the information model.
   When the OPC UA client accesses or modifies the attribute information
   defined in the information model to the server, the UA service
   accesses or modifies the corresponding attribute information in the
   process model and returns the result to the OPC UA client.

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                                |                                                                    |
        ___________________     |     _____________        _______________       ______________      |      _________________
       |    OPC UA Client  |    |    |  UA Server  |      | Process Model |     | Data Access  |     |     | Physical Device |
       |                   |<---|--->|             |<---->|               |<--->|    Module    |<----|---->|                 |
       |___________________|    |    |_____________|      |_______________|     |______________|     |     |_________________|
                                |                                                                    |
                                |                           OPC UA Server                            |

   Figure 7: Information model realization scheme based on the OPC
                             UA protocol

6.  Security Challenges and Recommendations

   With the rapid development of sensor networks, cloud computing,
   artificial intelligence, and 5G technologies, the number of network
   devices in the future will increase sharply, and the corresponding
   market scale will be enlarged, which will cause corresponding
   security problems.  These problems include information leakage, virus
   proliferation, and even the destruction of public infrastructure,
   such as the national grid, communication devices, and servers.
   Before these problems, the security of IIoT has not attracted much
   attention.  The leakage of data collected by medical devices has
   aroused widespread discussions in today's Internet era.  People are
   becoming increasingly aware of the importance of data security.  With
   the recent extensive national-level management and control, much
   attention has been paid to the security of IIoT.  This issue has also
   received attention from relevant agencies and enterprises in various
   countries.  Regardless of life or technology, IIoT security is
   expected to become a problem that must be solved for future

   The current IIoT architecture is roughly based on the classic three-
   tier model, which is divided into sensing, transport, and

6.1.  Sensing Security

   The sensing layer can perform sensing and collection of data in the
   physical world.  It uses sensors, cameras, RFID, and other smart
   devices to realize data collection, and it achieves secure data
   transmission through limited and wireless networks.  Its key
   technologies are RFID and sensor networks.  The IIoT sensing front-
   end is responsible for real-time detection and collection of data and
   uploads the data to the cloud data center for processing through the
   transmission network.  The presenter of the sense terminal is
   vulnerable to various security issues, such as virus intrusion,

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   information leakage, and tampering.  Therefore, weak terminals with a
   limited cost and performance should be equipped with two-way
   authentication, encrypted transmission, and remote upgrade
   capabilities.  Terminals with strong resource performance should have
   strong security capabilities, such as security certificate
   management, antivirus, and intrusion detection.  Smart factory
   application scenarios have low latency requirements and fast response
   to services.  Therefore, efficient and lightweight security
   algorithms must be designed to deal with security threats.  For
   example, PRESENT block ciphers [PRESENT], DES lightweight ciphers,
   KATAN/KTANTAN lightweight ciphers [KATAN], and LBlock [Lblock]
   provide different solutions.

6.2.  Transport Layer Security

   Consistent with the security requirements of the sensing layer, the
   task of the transport layer is to responsibly retransfer the data of
   the sensing layer to the application layer for processing.  The task
   also requires the transmission network, the communication protocol,
   and the network node that has been attacked (e.g., man-in-the-middle
   and counterfeit attacks), thereby causing node paralysis, which may
   further cause the leakage of communication keys and may affect the
   security of the entire network.  The presence of many nodes and large
   amounts of data can easily cause network congestion and denial of
   service attacks, which could affect the transmission layer.  Security
   has stringent requirements.  Security issues, such as cross-network
   authentication, key negotiation, data confidentiality, and integrity
   protection of heterogeneous networks, are encountered due to the need
   for communication between networks with different architectures in
   the transport layer.  Several confrontational security, homomorphic
   encryption, secure multi-party, and anonymization technologies are

6.3.  Application Layer Security

   The application layer is the highest layer of the architecture.  The
   tasks implemented in it are numerous and complex, and the number of
   application categories, such as monitoring services, smart grids,
   industrial control, and green agriculture, differs.  The application
   layer needs to process the data from the transport layer effectively.
   Given the massive data and network nodes of IIoT, huge storage and
   computing capabilities are required.  Cloud computing technology can
   complete these tasks at a reduced cost.  The current architecture is
   based on cloud computing.  The processing response of business logic
   emphasizes the combination of IIoT and cloud computing.  Therefore,
   cloud computing also has security issues, including platform data
   storage, exchange, processing, data security, and interaction issues
   arising from the connection of different platforms.  At present, the

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   cloud platform uses WAF, firewall, and HIDS.  To a certain extent, it
   has played a role in data protection, but further security technical
   support is still required.  The distributed architecture based on
   edge computing can share the computing burden, decrease the response
   time, and limit security risks to a certain area.  It can reduce the
   security risk of the core network, so the application of edge
   computing presents a good opportunity.  The cloud intelligent
   platform needs to deal with huge amounts of data.  Many abnormal data
   and abnormal behaviors are difficult to detect and exclude.  Security
   has a strong impact, and the use of various emerging technologies,
   such as data mining, machine learning, and AI, to analyze data can
   further detect data anomalies and improve data security.  At the
   application level, many large enterprises have applications that
   collect a large amount of private data, such as health status,
   purchase behavior, travel routes, group contact, and value
   orientation, which also generate data privacy protection problems.
   Therefore, scholars have proposed homomorphic encryption algorithms.
   Blockchain also provides a new solution to this.  For example,
   blockchain can realize anonymous sharing of IIoT devices
   [permissioned-blockchains].  It is widely used in IIoT because it can
   effectively improve the lack of the traditional centralized data
   storage mode for IIoT.  The full nodes of the blockchain network
   record complete data information to jointly maintain the data
   security of the IIoT device and reduce the traditional cost of
   maintaining a centralized database for IIoT application.  The tamper-
   proof modification of blockchain technology and the timing guarantee
   the security and traceability of the data of the entire network node.
   The use of blockchain technology can thus ensure data privacy and

6.4.  IIoT Security Solutions

   By combining the security issues of the IIoT architecture, this
   section summarizes the existing security issues and corresponding
   solutions, which mainly include device protection, device
   identification, authentication mechanisms, secure communication
   mechanisms, data privacy protection, anomaly detection, and intrusion
   detection security status.  The corresponding solutions are shown in
   Figure 8.

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      | Security problem                | Solutions                                   |
      | Device protection               | Lightweight data encryption algorithm       |
      |                                 |                                             |
      | Device identification and       | RFID, blockchain                            |
      | authentication mechanism        |                                             |
      |                                 |                                             |
      | Secure communication mechanism  | Edge computing, converged gateways, routing |
      |                                 | protocols, Homomorphic encryption algorithm |
      |                                 |                                             |
      | Data privacy protection         | Blockchain, encryption algorithm, cloud     |
      |                                 | computing                                   |
      |                                 |                                             |
      | Anomaly detection and           | Machine learning, data mining               |
      | intrusion prevention            |                                             |

              Figure 8: Security problems and solutions

7.  Terms

   This draft uses the following terms:

   Cyber-physical systems (CPS) is a multi-dimensional complex system
   that integrates computing, network, and physical environments.
   Through the integrated design of computing, communication, and
   physical systems, industrial systems become increasingly reliable and
   efficient and allow for real-time collaboration.

   PROFIBUS is a fieldbus standard for automation technology.

   Modbus is a serial communication protocol that has become the
   industry standard for communication protocols in the industrial
   field.  It is now a common connection method between industrial
   electronic devices.

   Highway addressable remote transducer (HART) is a communication
   protocol used between field intelligent instruments and control room

   EtherNet/IP is an industrial Ethernet communication protocol that can
   be used in program control and other automated applications.

   PROFINET is an open industrial Ethernet communication protocol.

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   Data interoperability refers to the capability to enable distributed
   control system devices to coordinate their work through the digital
   exchange of related information to achieve a common goal.

   Information integration refers to the integration of separate
   devices, functions, and information into an interconnected, unified,
   coordinated system through a structured integrated wiring system and
   computer network technology so that resources can be fully shared to
   realize centralized, efficient, convenient management.

   Factory elements include various devices that appear in every link of
   industrial design, production, sales, and maintenance.

   Industrial passive optical network (PON) is a passive optical network
   used in industries.  It provides a comprehensive solution for the
   open platform of various industrial protocol conversions and the
   network connection in the factory to meet the requirements of various
   industrial scenarios and network applications of industries and

   Time sensitive networking (TSN) is a low-latency, high-reliability
   communication protocol based on the Ethernet/wireless network.  It
   mainly works at the physical and data link layers for vehicle
   communication, industrial Ethernet, and other applications that
   provide infrastructure.

   Edge computing refers to the use of an open platform that integrates
   network, computing, storage, and application core capabilities on the
   side close to the source of things or data to provide the nearest
   network service.

   OPC unified architecture (OPC UA) is a machine-to-machine network
   transmission protocol used by the OPC Foundation for Automation
   Technology.  It has the following characteristics:

   *  (1) The agreement focuses on communication for the purpose of
      information collection and control, which is used in industrial
      devices in the system.

   *  (2) Open source standard: The standard can be obtained for free,
      and the related device does not face licensing fees and other

   *  (3) Cross-platform: No restrictions are imposed on operating
      systems or programming languages.

   *  (4) Service-oriented architecture (SOA).

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   *  (5) Robust information security features.

   *  (6) Integrated information model.  In information integration, by
      using the advantages of OPC UA service-oriented architecture,
      manufacturers and organizations can model their complex
      information in the OPC UA namespace.

   WebSocket is a network transmission protocol that can carry out full-
   duplex communication on a single TCP connection and is located in the
   application layer of the OSI model.

   UDP broadcast uses the UDP protocol to send messages to every host in
   the same broadcast network.

   Message queuing telemetry transport (MQTT) is a message protocol
   based on the publish/subscribe (Pub-Sub) paradigm under the ISO
   standard and can be regarded as a "bridge for information
   transmission."  It works on the TCP/IP protocol suite.  It is a Pub-
   Sub message protocol designed for remote devices with low hardware
   performance and poor network conditions.  For this reason, it needs
   message middleware, such as HTTP, to solve the current heavy

   Advanced message queuing protocol (AMQP) is an open application layer
   protocol for message middleware.  Its design goal is to sort and
   route messages (including point-to-point and Pub-Sub), maintain
   reliability, and ensure safety.

   Pub-Sub is a message paradigm.  The sender of the message (called the
   publisher) does not send the message directly to the specific
   receiver (called the subscriber).  Instead, messages are divided into
   different categories and published without knowing which subscribers
   exist.  Similarly, subscribers can express interest in one or more
   categories and only receive messages of interest without knowing
   which publishers exist.

   Enterprise private lines have the characteristics of direct
   connection, and compared with ordinary access services, they possess
   higher speed, higher reliability, and better services.

   Network virtualization is the process of combining hardware and
   software network resources and functions into a single software-based
   management entity (virtual network).

   Automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a type of wheeled mobile robot that
   moves along wires, markers, or magnetic strips on the floor or
   through visual or laser navigation.  It is commonly used in
   industrial production to transport goods in workshops and warehouses.

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   Manufacturing execution system (MES) is a set of production
   information management systems for the executive level of the
   manufacturing enterprise workshop.

   Product lifecycle management (PLM) is a complete, open, interoperable
   set of application programs in the entire process of product
   management, and it covers the product life cycle from product birth
   to death.

   Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is a large-scale, modular,
   integrated, process-oriented system that integrates internal
   financial accounting, manufacturing, purchase, sales, and inventory
   information flows within the enterprise to quickly provide decision-
   making information and improve the company's operational performance
   and rapid response capabilities.

   Supply chain management (SCM) is the management of material
   (product), information, and capital flows.  SCM is an important
   component of enterprise operation management.

   Customer relationship management (CRM) is a management system for the
   relationship between an enterprise and existing and potential

   Flexible manufacturing is an engineering manufacturing system that
   allows flexible and automated production due to predictable or
   unpredictable changes in the industry.

   A transmitter is an instrument that converts non-standard electrical
   signals into standard electrical signals.

   A remote terminal unit (RTU) is an electronic device controlled by a
   microprocessor and used as an interface of the device.  It introduces
   data into a distributed control system or a data acquisition and
   monitoring system (SCADA) and transmits remote measurement data to
   the main system.  It also uses the data of the main monitoring system
   to control the connected device.

   RFID is a wireless communication technology that can identify
   specific targets and read and write related data through radio
   signals without requiring mechanical or optical contact between the
   identification system and specific targets.

   The conveyor line is an intelligent conveying system that uses PLC
   control technology through the system's automatic identification
   function and transmission system.  The production material is
   conveyed with the best path and the highest speed.

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   The programmable logic controller (PLC) is a digital logic controller
   with a microprocessor for automation control.

   The distributed control system (DCS) is a computerized control system
   used in factories.  Generally, it entails several control loops, and
   autonomous controllers are scattered in the system without the
   monitoring by a central operator.

   Gateway Initiated Dual-Stack Lite (GI DS-LITE) is an IPv4-in-IPv6
   tunnel proxy technology that can realize IPv6 communication without
   modifying the terminal.

   Homomorphic encryption is an encryption method that allows people to
   perform specific algebraic operations on ciphertext, and the result
   obtained is still encrypted.  The result obtained by decrypting it is
   the same as performing the same operation on the plaintext.  The
   result is the same.

   The theory of secure multi-party computing focuses on collaborative
   computing between participants and the protection of private
   information.  Its characteristics include input privacy, calculation
   accuracy, and decentralization.

   *  (1) Input privacy: When all parties are involved in collaborative
      computing, the privacy data of all parties are protected, with
      focus on the privacy and security of each party; that is, in the
      process of secure multi-party computing, it is necessary to ensure
      that the private input of each party is independent and that any
      local data will not be disclosed at any time when computing.

   *  (2) Calculation accuracy: For a certain agreed calculation task,
      the parties involved in the multi-party calculation perform
      collaborative calculations through the agreed MPC protocol.  After
      the calculation is completed, all parties receive correct data

   *  (3) Decentralization: In traditional distributed computing, the
      central node coordinates the computing process of each user and
      collects the input information of each user.  In secure multi-
      party computing, all participants have equal status, and no
      privileged participant or third party exists.  A decentralized
      computing model is provided.

   Anonymization technology can realize the anonymity of personal
   information records, and identifying specific "natural persons"
   becomes impossible.

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   Web application firewall (WAF) is a product that provides protection
   for web applications by implementing a series of security policies
   for HTTP/HTTPS.

   The host-based intrusion detection system (HIDS) is an intrusion
   detection system that can monitor and analyze the internal computing
   system and network packets in its network interface, similar to the
   operation mode of a network-based intrusion detection system.

8.  IANA Considerations

   This document does not require any actions by IANA.

9.  Acknowledgments

   We thank all the contributors and reviewers and are deeply grateful
   for the valuable comments offered by the chairpersons to improve this

10.  Informative References

              Chen, B., Wan, J., and S. Lei, "Smart factory of industry
              4.0: key technologies, application case, and challenges",

   [iiot-5g]  Cheng, J., Li, D., and W. Chen, "Industrial IoT in 5G
              environment towards smart manufacturing", 2018.

   [tsn]      DetNet Data Plane: IP over IEEE 802.1 Time Sensitive
              Networking, detnet., "
              ietf-detnet-ip-over-tsn-03", 2020.

              Design and Application Spaces for 6LoWPANs, ipv6.,
              10", 2012.

              Mach, P. and Z. Becvar, "Mobile edge computing: a survey
              on architecture and computation offloading", 2017.

              Publish-Subscribe Broker for the Constrained Application
              Protocol, pubsub., "
              ietf-core-coap-pubsub-09", 2020.

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   [PRESENT]  Bogdanov, A., Knudsen, L., and G. Leander, "PRESENT: An
              Ultra-Lightweight Block Cipher. Cryptographic Hardware and
              Embedded Systems", 2007.

   [KATAN]    Canniere, C. and O. Dunkelman, "KATAN and KTANTAN -- A
              Family of Small and Efficient Hardware-Oriented Block
              Ciphers", 2009.

   [Lblock]   Wu, W. and Lei. Zhang, "Lblock: a lightweight block
              cipher", 2011.

              Hardjono, T., "Cloud-Based Commissioning of Constrained
              Devices using Permissioned Blockchains", 2016.

Authors' Addresses

   Chaowei Tang
   Chongqing University
   No. 174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District


   Haotian Wen
   Chongqing University
   No. 174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District


   Shuai Ruan
   Chongqing University
   No. 174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District


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   Baojin Huang
   Chongqing University
   No. 174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District


   Xinxin Feng
   Chongqing University
   No. 174 Shazheng Street, Shapingba District


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