Network In Node Advertisement

Document Type Expired Internet-Draft (individual)
Last updated 2008-09-12
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This Internet-Draft is no longer active. A copy of the expired Internet-Draft can be found at


The Internet is evolving to become a more ubiquitous network, driven by the low prices of wireless routers and access points and by the users' requirements of connectivity anytime and anywhere. For that reason, a cloud of nodes connected by wireless technology is being created at the edge of the Internet. We refer to this cloud as a Fringe Stub (FS). It is expected that networking in the FS will be highly unmanaged and ad-hoc, but at the same time will need to offer excellent service availability. The NEMO Basic Support protocol could be used to provide global reachability for a mobile access network within the FS and the Tree-Discovery mechanism could be used to avoid the formation of loops in this highly unmanaged structure. Since Internet connectivity in mobile scenarios can be costly, limited or unavailable, there is a need to enable local routing between the Mobile Routers within a portion of the FS. This form of local routing is useful for Route Optimization (RO) between Mobile Routers that are communicating directly in a portion of the FS. Network In Node Advertisement (NINA) is the second of a 2-passes routing protocol; a first pass, Tree Discovery, builds a loop-less structure -- a tree --, and the second pass, NINA, exposes the Mobile Network Prefixes (MNPs) up the tree. The protocol operates as a multi-hop extension of Neighbor Discovery (ND), to populate TD-based trees with prefixes, and establish routes towards the MNPs down the tree, from the root-MR towards the MR that owns the prefix, whereas the default route is oriented towards the root-MR. The NINA protocol introduces a new option in the ND Neighbor Advertisement (NA), the Network In Node Option (NINO). An NA with NINO(s) is called a NINA (Network In Node Advertisement). NINA is designed for a hierarchical model, and by using this NA based approach it abstracts the embedded network of a Mobile Router as a host to the upper level of network abstraction. With NINA, a Mobile Router presents its sub-tree to its parent as an embedded network and hides the inner topology and movements.


Pascal Thubert (
Carlos Bernardos (

(Note: The e-mail addresses provided for the authors of this Internet-Draft may no longer be valid.)