LISP Working Group                                                    S. Barkai
Internet-Draft                                                B. Fernandez-Ruiz
Intended status: Experimental                                          S. ZionB
Expires: November 30, 2019                                             Nexar Inc.
                                                             A. Rodriguez-Natal
                                                                       F. Maino
                                                                  Cisco Systems
                                                           A. Cabellos-Aparicio
                                                          J. Paillissé Vilanova
                                              Technical University of Catalonia
                                                                   D. Farinacci
                                                                   June 30 2019

                  Network-Hexagons: H3-LISP Based Mobility Network


   This document specifies combined use of H3 and LISP for mobility-networks:
   - Enabling real-time localized indexed-annotation of roads, tile by tile
   - For sharing - hazards, blockages, conditions, maintenance, furniture..
   - Between MobilityClients producing and consuming road-state information
   - Via in-network-state, an indirection by an addressable physical world grid.

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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   2
   2.  Requirements Language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   3.  Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   4.  Deployment Assumptions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   5.  Mobility Clients-Network-Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
   6.  Mobility Unicast-Multicast  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
   7.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   8.  Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   9.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   10. Normative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9

1.  Introduction

  (1) The Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) [RFC6830] splits current IP
  addresses in two different namespaces, Endpoint Identifiers (EIDs) and
  Routing Locators (RLOCs). LISP uses a map-and-encap approach that relies on
  (1) a Mapping System (distributed database) that stores and disseminates
  EID-RLOC mappings and on (2) LISP tunnel routers (xTRs) that encapsulate
  and decapsulate data packets based on the content of those mappings.

  (2) H3 is a geospatial indexing system using a hexagonal grid that can be
  (approximately) subdivided into finer and finer hexagonal grids,
  combining the benefits of a hexagonal grid with hierarchical subdivisions.
  H3 supports sixteen resolutions. Each finer resolution has cells with one
  seventh the area of the coarser resolution. Hexagons cannot be perfectly
  subdivided into seven hexagons, so the finer cells are only approximately
  contained within a parent cell. Each cell is identified by a 64bit HID.

  (3) The Berkeley Deep Drive (BDD) Industry Consortium investigates state-of-
  the-art technologies in computer vision and machine learning for automotive
  applications, and, for taxonomy of published automotive scene classification.

  These standards are combined to create in-network-state which reflects the
  condition of each one-square-meter (~1sqm) hexagon road-tile. The lisp
  network maps & encapsulates traffic between MobilityClients endpoint-
  identifiers (EID, and, addressable (HID=>EID) tile-states, aggregated by
  H3Service EIDs.

  The H3-LISP mobility network bridges timing-location gaps between the
  production and consumption of information by MobilityClients:
  - vision, sensory, LIADR, AI applications - info-producers
  - driving-apps, smart-infrastructure, command & control - info-consumers
  This is achieved by putting the physical world on a shared addressable
  state-grid, an indirection.

  The tile based geo-state mobility-network solves key issues in todays' vehicle
  to vehicle networking, where observed hazards are expected to be relayed or
  "hot-potato-tossed" (v2v) between vehicles without clear convergence i.e.
  given a situation observable by some of traffic it is unclear if the rest of
  the relevant traffic will receive consistent, conflicting, multiple, or non
  what so ever peer-to-peer v2v indication.

  For example, when a vehicle experiences a sudden highway slow-down,"sees" many
  brake-lights or "feels" accelerometer, there is no clear way for it to share
  this annotation with vehicles 20-30 sec away, preventing potential pile-up.
  Or, when a vehicle crosses an intersection, observing opposite-lane
  obstruction - construction, double-park, commercial-loading / un-loading,
  garbage truck, or stopped school-bus - there is no clear way for it to alert
  vehicles turning in to that lane - as it crossed and drove away. Data may be
  replicated distorted or lost just like in a telephone-game.

  These limitations are inherit since in most road situations vehicles are not
  really proper peers. They just happen to be in the same place at the same time.
   The H3-LISP mobility network solves limitations of direct vehicle to vehicle
  communication because it anchors per this place: timing, privacy,
  interoperability. This anchoring is done by MobilityClients (EIDs)
  communicating through in-network road-tile geo-states. Geo-states are
  aggregated and maintained by LISP addressable H3ServiceEIDs.

  An important set of use-cases for state propagation of information to
  MobilityClients is to provide drivers heads-up alerts on hazards and obstacles
  beyond line of sight of both the drivers and in-car sensors: over traffic,
  around blocks, far-side-junction, beyond turns, and surface-curvatures.
  This highlights the importance of networks in providing road-safety.

  To summarize the H3-LISP solution outline:

  (1) Partition: 64bit indexed geo-spatial H3.r15 (~1sqm) road-tiles
  (2) State: 64bit state values compile tile condition representation
  (3) Aggregation: H3.r9 H3ServiceEID group individual H3.r15 road-tiles
  (4) Channels: H3ServiceEIDs function as multicast state update channels
  (5) Scale: H3ServiceEIDs distributed for in-network for latency-throughput
  (6) Mapped Overlay: tunneled-network routes the mobility-network traffic
  (7) Signal-free: tunneled overlay is used to map-register for mcast channels
  (8) Access: tunnels used between MobilityClients/H3ServiceEIDs <> LISP edge
  (9) Access: ClientXTRs/ServerXTRs tunnel traffic to-from the LISP EdgeRTRs
  (10) Control: EdgeRTRs register-resolve identity-location and mcast (s,g)

  |                        H3 Hexagon ID Key                      |
  |                      H3 Hexagon State-Value                   |

                          ___                                  ___
   H3ServiceEIDs   ___  /     \           H3ServiceEIDs ___  /     \
            ___  /     | H3.r9 |                 ___  /     | H3.r9 |
          /     | H3.r9 \ ___ /                /     | H3.r9 \ ___ /
         | H3.r9 \ ___ /  sXTR                | H3.r9 \ ___ /  sXTR
          \ ___ /  sXTR    |                   \ ___ /  sXTR     |
            sXTR    |      |                     sXTR     |      |
             |      |      |                      |       |      |
             |      |      |                      |       |      |
             + -  - + - - EdgeRTR           EdgeRTR - + - + - -  +
                             ||  (   (   ((  ||
                          (                        )
                        (      Network Hexagons      )
                       (        H3-LISP  Based        )
                        (      Mobility Network     )
                          ((                       )
                            ||  ((   (())   ()  ||
                            ||                  ||
                = = = = = = =                    = = = =
              ||                                        ||
           EdgeRTR                                    EdgeRTR
           ..    ..                                  ..      ..
          ..       ..                              ..          ..
    ((((|))))    ((((|))))                     ((((|))))    ((((|))))
       /|\    RAN   /|\                           /|\    RAN   /|\
      ..                                                        ..
      ..                                                        ..
      ..       Road divided by 1sqm H3.r15 ID-Ed Geo-States     ..
      ..                                                        ..
      ..                        ___    ___    ___               ..
      ..       .............. /     \/     \/     \ << cXTR::MobilityClientB
      ..       - - - - - - -  H3.r15  H3.r15 H3.r15 - - - - - - -
     MobilityClientA::cXTR >> \ ___ /\ ___ /\ ___ /..........

  - MobilityClientA has seen MobilityClientB (20-30 sec) future, and, vice versa
  - Clients share information using addressable shared-state routed by LISP Edge

  - ClientXTR (cXTR): tunnel encapsulation through access network to LISP Edge
  - ServerXTR (sXTR): tunnel encapsulation through  cloud network to LISP Edge
  - The H3-LISP Mobility overlay starts in the cXTR and terminates in the sXTR

  - The updates are routed to the appropriate tile geo-state by the LISP network
  - EdgeRTRs perform multicast replication to edges and then native or to cXTRs
  - Clients receive tile-by-tile geo-state updates via the multicast channels

  Each H3.r9 hexagon is an EID Service with corresponding H3 hexagon ID.
  Bound to that service is a LISP xTR, called a ServerXTR, resident to deliver
  encapsulated packets to and from the H3ServiceEID and LISP Edge. EdgeRTRs are
  used to re-tunnel packets from MobilityClients to H3ServiceEIDs. Each
  H3ServiceEID is also a source multicast address for updating MobilityClients
  on the state of the H3.r15 tiles aggregated-represented by the H3ServiceEID.

2.  Requirements Language

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

3. Definition of Terms

  H3ServiceEID: Is an addressable aggregation of H3.r15 state-tiles. It is a
     designated source for physical world reported annotations, and an (s,g)
     source of multicast public-safety update channels. H3ServiceEID is itself
     an H3 hexagon, large enough to provide geo-spatial conditions context, but
     not too large as to over-burden (battery powered, cellular connected)
     subscribers with too much information. For Mobility Network it is H3.r9.
     It has a light-weight LISP protocol stack to tunnel packets aka ServerXTR.
     The EID is an IPv6 EID that contains the H3 64-bit address numbering
     scheme. See IANA consideration for details.

  ServerXTR: Is a light-weight LISP protocol stack implementation that co-exists
     with H3ServiceEID process. When the server roams, the xTR roams with it.
     The ServerXTR encapsulates and decapsulates packets to/from EdgeRTRs.

  MobilityClient: Is a roaming application that may be resident as part of an
     automobile, as part of a navigation application, part of municipal, state,
     of federal government command and control application, or part of live
     street view consumer type of application. It has a light-weight LISP
     protocol stack to tunnel packets aka ClientXTR.

  MobilityClient EID: Is the IPv6 EID used by the Mobility Client applications to
     source packets. The destination of such packets are only H3ServiceEIDs.
     The EID format is opaque and is assigned as part of the MobilityClient
     network-as-a-service (NaaS) authorization.

  ClientXTR: Is the light-weight LISP protocol stack implementation that is
     co-located with the Mobility Client application. It encapsulates packets
     sourced by applications to EdgeRTRs and decapsulates packets from EdgeRTRs.

  EdgeRTR: Is the core scale and structure of the LISP mobility network. LISP
     RTRs decapsulate packets from ClientXTRs and ServerXTRs and re-encapsulates
     packets to ServerXTRs and ClientXTRs. The EdgeRTRs glean H3ServiceEIDs and
     glean MobilityClient EIDs when it decapsulates packets. EdgeRTRs store
     H3ServiceEIDs and their own RLOC of where the H3ServiceEID is currently
     reachable from in the map-cache. These mappings are registered to the LISP
     mapping system so other EdgeRTRs know where to encapsulate for such EIDs.

4.  Deployment Assumptions

   The specification described in this document makes the following
   deployment assumptions:

   (1) Unique 64-bit HID is associated with each H3 geo-spatial tile
   (2) MobilityClients and H3ServiceEIDs share this well known index
   (3) 64-bit BDD state value is associated with each H3-indexed tile
   (4) Tile state is compiled 16 fields of 4-bits, or max 16 enums


   A MobilityClient which needs to use an H3-LISP mobility overlay network -
   instantiates a ClientXTR. It leverages DNS resolution to find EdgeRTR(s)
   in order to home to. ClientXTR is provisioned with an address for DNS
   resolvers, that help with the EdgeRTR discovery. The ClientXTR uses these
   DNS resolvers to resolve a query that includes the ClientXTR’s current H3
   index at resolution 9 (e.g. To find its current H3.r9
   index, the ClientXTR first translates its current geo-location to an H3 index
   (e.g. gps snap-to-h3.r9).As a response to the query including the H3.r9 index
   of the ClientXTR, the DNS resolver will return the IP address of the Edge RTR
   that the ClientXTR can use to home to the H3-LISP mobility overlay.

   The EdgeRTR discovery by the ClientXTR performed via DNS resolution so that:
   1) EdgeRTRs are not tightly coupled to H3.r9 areas for easy load-balance
   2) Mobility Clients do not need to constantly update EdgeRTR when it roams

   In that sense, the same EdgeRTR may serve several H3.r9 areas for smooth
   ride continuity, and, several EdgeRTRs may load balance a H3.r9 area with
   high density of originating MobilityClient rides. When a MobilityClient
   ClientXTR is homed to EdgeRTR it is able to communicate with H3ServiceEIDs.

5. Mobility Clients-Network-Services

  The mobility network functions as a standard LISP VPN overlay.
  The overlay delivers unicast and multicast packets across:
   - multiple access-network-providers / radio-access-technologies.
   - multiple cloud-edge hosting providers, public, private, hybrid.

  We use data-plane XTRs in the stack of each mobility client and server.
  ClientXTRs and ServerXTRs are homed to one or more EdgeRTRs at the LISP edge.
  This structure allows for MobilityClients to "show-up" at any time,
  behind any network-provider in a given mobility network administrative
  domain (metro), and for any H3ServiceEID to be instantiated, moved, or
  failed-over to - any rack in any cloud-provider. The LISP overlay enables
  these roaming mobility network elements to communicate un-interrupted.
  This quality is insured by the LISP RFCs. The determinism of identities for
  MobilityClients to always refer to the correct H3ServiceEID is insured by H3
  geospatial HIDs.

  There are two options for how we associate ClientXTRs with LISP EdgeRTRs:

  I. semi-random through DNS based load-balancing

  In this option we assume that in a given metro edge a pool of EdgeRTRs can
  distribute the Mobility Clients load randomly between them and that EdgeRTRs
  are topologically more or less equivalent. Each RTR uses LISP to mesh with
  the other RTRs in order to connect each Mobility Client with H3 Servers.
  Mobility Clients can (multi) home to the same RTR(s) throughout a ride.

  II. geo-spatial, where a well known any-cast RTR aggregates H3.r9 hexagons

  In this option we align an EdgeRTR with a geo-spatial cell area, very much
  like in Evolved Packet Core (EPC) solution. Mobility Clients currently roaming
  in an area home to that RTR and so is the H3 Server. There is only one hop
  across the edge overlay between clients and servers and mcast replication is
  more focused, but clients need to keep re-homing as they move.

  To summarize the H3LISP mobility network layout:

   (1) Mobility-Clients traffic is tunneled via data-plane ClientXTRs
       ClientXTRs are (multi) homed to EdgeRTR(s)
   (2) H3ServiceEID traffic is tunneled via data-plane ServerXTR
       ServerXTRs are (multi) homed to EdgeRTR(s)
   (3) EdgeRTRs use mapping service to resolve Ucast HIDs to RTR RLOCs
       EdgeRTRs also register to (Source, Group) H3ServiceEID multicasts

       MobilityClients <> ClientXTR <Access Provider > EdgeRTR  v
       v      << Map-Assisted Mobility-Network Overlay <<       v
       >> EdgeRTR <Cloud Provider> ServerXTR <> H3ServiceEID

6. Mobility Unicast and Multicast

  Which ever way a ClientXTR is homed to an Edge RTR, DNS metro load-balance
  or well known geo-spatial map of IPs (a few 10Ks per large metro area),
  an authenticated MobilityClient EID can send: [64bitH3.15ID :: 64bitState]
  annotation to the H3.r9 H3ServiceEID. The H3.r9 IP HID can be calculated by
  clients algorithmically form the H3.15 localized snapped-to-tile annotation.

  The ClientXTR encapsulates MobilityClient EID and H3ServiceEID in a packet
  sourced from the ClientXTR, destined to the EdgeRTR RLOC IP, Lisp port.
  EdgeRTRs then re-encapsulate annotation packets either to remote EdgeRTR
  (optionI) or to homed H3ServiceEID ServerXTR (option2).
  The remote EdgeRTR aggregating H3ServiceEIDs re-encapsulates MobilityClient
  EID to ServerXTR and from there to the H3ServiceEID.

  To Summarize Unicast:

   (1) MobilityClients can send annotation state localized an H3.r15 tile
       These annotations are sent to an H3.r9 mobility H3ServiceEIDs
   (2) MobilityClient EID and H3ServiceEID HID are encapsulated:
         XTR <> RTR <> RTR <> XTR
       * RTRs can map-resolve re-tunnel HIDs
   (3) RTRs re-encapsulate original source-dest to ServerXTRs
       ServerXTRs decapsulate packets to H3ServiceEID

  Each H3.r9 Server is used by clients to update H3.r15 tile state is also an IP
  Multicast channel Source used to update subscribers on the aggregate state of
  the H3.r15 tiles in the H3.r9 Server.

  We use rfc8378 signal free multicast to implement mcast channels in the
  overlay. The mobility network has many channels and relatively few
  subscribers per each. MobilityClients driving through or subscribing to a
  a H3.r9 area can explicitly issue an rfc4604 MLDv2 in-order to subscribe, or,
  may be subscribed implicitly by the EdgeRTR gleaning to ucast HID dest.

  The advantage of explicit client MLDv2 registration trigger to rfc8378 is
  that the clients manage their own mobility mcast hand-over according to their
  location-direction moment vectors, and that it allows for otherwise silent, or,
  non annotating clients. The advantage of EdgeRTR implicit registration is
  less signaling required.

  MLDv2 signaling messages are encapsulated between the ClientXTR and the LISP
  EdgeRTR, therefore there is no requirement for the underlying network to
  support native multicast. If native access multicast is supported (for example
  native 5G multicast), then MobilityClient registration to H3ServiceEID
  safety channels may be integrated to it, in which case the evolved-packet-core
  (EPC) element supporting it (eNB) will use this standard to register with the
  appropriate H3.r9 channels in its area.

  EdgeRTRs note the subscribed MobilityClient stack XTRs and register as channel
  subscribers in the mapping system (Source, Group) entry. This is done at the
  first subscription request, if additional MobilityClients homed to the same
  EdgeRTR register for the same channels the EdgeRTR registration covers them.

  Upon receiving a multicast packet the EdgeRTR homing H3.r9 Servers resolve
  the (S,G) remote EdgeRTRs registered for the channel and replicates the packet.
` The remote EdgeRTRs homing MobilityClients in-turn replicate the packet to the
  MobilityClients registered with them.

  We expect an average of 600 H3.r15 tiles of the full 7^6 (~100K) possible in
  H3.r9 to be part of any road. The H3.r9 server can transmit the status of all
  600 or just those with meaningful state based on update SLA and policy.

  To Summarize:

   (1) H3LISP Clients tune to H3.r9 mobility updates using rfc8378
       H3LISP Client issue MLDv2 registration to H3.r9 HIDs
       ClientXTRs encapsulate MLDv2 to EdgeRTRs who register (s,g)

   (2) ServerXTRs encapsulate updates to EdgeRTRs who map-resolve (s,g) RLOCs
       EdgeRTRs replicate mobility update and tunnel to registered EdgeRTRs
       Remote EdgeRTRs replicate updates to registered ClientXTRs

7.  Security Considerations

   The way to provide a security association between the ITRs and the
   Map-Servers must be evaluated according to the size of the
   deployment.  For small deployments, it is possible to have a shared
   key (or set of keys) between the ITRs and the Map-Servers.  For
   larger and Internet-scale deployments, scalability is a concern and
   further study is needed.

8.  Acknowledgments

   This work is partly funded by the ANR LISP-Lab project #ANR-
   13-INFR-009 (

9.  IANA Considerations

I. Formal H3 to IPv6 EID mapping

II. State enum fields of H3 tiles:

Field 0x describes the "freshness" of the state {
 0x: less than 1Sec
 1x: less than 10Sec
 2x: less than 20Sec
 3x: less than 40Sec
 4x: less than 1min
 5x: less than 2min
 6x: less than 5min
 7x: less than 15min
 8x: less than 30min
 9x: less than 1hour
 Ax: less than 2hours
 Bx: less than 8hours
 Cx: less than 24hours
 Dx: less than 1week
 Ex: less than 1month
 Fx: more than 1month

field 1x: persistent weather or structural {
 0x - null
 1x - pothole
 2x - speed-bump
 3x - icy
 4x - flooded
 5x - snow-cover
 6x - snow-deep
 7x - construction cone
 8x - curve

field 2x: transient or moving obstruction {
 0x - null
 1x - pedestrian
 2x - bike
 3x - stopped car / truck
 4x - moving car / truck
 5x - first responder vehicle
 6x - sudden slowdown
 7x - oversized-vehicle
 8x - red-light-breach

field 3x: traffic-light timer countdown {
 0x - green now
 1x - 1 seconds to green
 2x - 2 seconds to green
 3x - 3 seconds to green
 4x - 4 seconds to green
 5x - 5 seconds to green
 6x - 6 seconds to green
 7x - 7 seconds to green
 8x - 8 seconds to green
 9x - 9 seconds to green
 Ax - 10 seconds or less
 Bx - 20 seconds or less
 Cx - 30 seconds or less
 Dx - 40 seconds or less
 Ex - 50 seconds or less
 Fx - minute or more left

field 4x: impacted tile from neighboring {
 0x - not impacted
 1x - light yellow
 2x - yellow
 3x - light orange
 4x - orange
 5x - light red
 6x - red
 7x - light blue
 8x - blue

field 5x: incidents {
 0x - clear
 1x - light collision (fender bender)
 2x - hard collision
 3x - collision with casualty
 4x - recent collision residues
 5x - hard brake
 6x - sharp cornering
field 6x - compiled tile safety rating {

field 7x: LaneRightsSigns {
 0x - stop
 1x - yield
 2x - speedLimit
 3x - straightOnly
 4x - noStraight
 5x - rightOnly
 6x - noRight
 7x - leftOnly
 8x - noLeft
 9x - noUTurn
 10x - noLeftU
 11x - bikeLane
 12x - HOVLane

field 8x: MovementSigns {
0x - noPass
1x - keepRight
2x - keepLeft
3x - stayInLane
4x - doNotEnter
5x - noTrucks
6x - noBikes
7x - noPeds
8x - oneWay
9x - parking
10x - noParking
11x - noStandaing
12x - loadingZone
13x - truckRoute
14x - railCross
15x - School

field 9x: CurvesIntersectSigns {
0x - turnsLeft
1x - turnsRight
2x - curvesLeft
3x - curvesRight
4x - reversesLeft
5x - reversesRight
6x - windingRoad
7x - hairPin
8x - 270Turn
9x - pretzelTurn
10x - crossRoads
11x - crossT
12x - crossY
13x - circle
14x - laneEnds
15x - roadNarrows
field Ax - reserved
field Bx - reserved
field Cx - reserved
field Dx - reserved
field Ex - reserved
field Fx - reserved

10.  Normative References

              Fuller, V., Farinacci, D., and A. Cabellos-Aparicio,
              "Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP) Control-Plane",
              draft-ietf-lisp-rfc6833bis-07 (work in progress), December

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,

   [RFC6830]  Farinacci, D., Fuller, V., Meyer, D., and D. Lewis, "The
              Locator/ID Separation Protocol (LISP)", RFC 6830,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6830, January 2013,

   [RFC8378]  Farinacci, D., Moreno, V., "Signal-Free Locator/ID Separation
              Protocol (LISP) Multicast", RFC8378,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC8378, May 2018,

Authors' Addresses

   Sharon Barkai


   Bruno Fernandez-Ruiz


   S ZionB


   Alberto Rodriguez-Natal
   Cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA


   Fabio Maino
   Cisco Systems
   170 Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA


   Albert Cabellos-Aparicio
   Technical University of Catalonia


   Jordi Paillissé-Vilanova
   Technical University of Catalonia


   Dino Farinacci
   San Jose, CA