RAW                                                      G. Papadopoulos
Internet-Draft                                            IMT Atlantique
Intended status: Standards Track                              P. Thubert
Expires: January 6, 2020                                           Cisco
                                                            F. Theoleyre
                                                           CJ. Bernardos
                                                            July 5, 2019

                             RAW use cases


   The wireless medium presents significant specific challenges to
   achieve properties similar to those of wired deterministic networks.
   At the same time, a number of use cases cannot be solved with wires
   and justify the extra effort of going wireless.  This document
   presents deterministic wireless use cases, in continuation to the
   DetNet Use Cases document.

Status of This Memo

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   This Internet-Draft will expire on January 6, 2020.

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   Copyright (c) 2019 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   (https://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of

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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   3
   2.  Amusement Parks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.1.  Use Case Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   4
     2.2.  Specificities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   5
     2.3.  The Need for Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
     2.4.  Requirements for RAW  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   6
   3.  Wireless for Industrial Applications  . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.1.  Use Case Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.2.  Specificities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.1.  Control Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
       3.2.2.  Unmeasured Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   7
     3.3.  The Need for Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
     3.4.  Requirements for RAW  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   8
   4.  Pro Audio and Video . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.1.  Use Case Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.2.  Specificities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.2.1.  Uninterrupted Stream Playback . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
       4.2.2.  Synchronized Stream Playback  . . . . . . . . . . . .   9
     4.3.  The Need for Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     4.4.  Requirements for RAW  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
   5.  Gaming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.1.  Use Case Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  10
     5.2.  Specificities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.3.  The Need for Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
     5.4.  Requirements for RAW  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  11
   6.  UAV platooning and control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.1.  Use Case Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.2.  Specificities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.3.  The Need for Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  12
     6.4.  Requirements for RAW  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
   7.  Edge Robotics control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.1.  Use Case Description  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  13
     7.2.  Specificities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     7.3.  The Need for Wireless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
     7.4.  Requirements for RAW  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   8.  IANA Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   9.  Security Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   10. Informative References  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  14
   Authors' Addresses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  16

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1.  Introduction

   Based on time, resource reservation, and policy enforcement by
   distributed shapers, Deterministic Networking provides the capability
   to carry specified unicast or multicast data streams for real-time
   applications with extremely low data loss rates and bounded latency,
   so as to support time-sensitive and mission-critical applications on
   a converged enterprise infrastructure.

   Deterministic Networking in the IP world is an attempt to eliminate
   packet loss for a committed bandwidth while ensuring a worst case
   end-to-end latency, regardless of the network conditions and across
   technologies.  It can be seen as a set of new Quality of Service
   (QoS) guarantees of worst-case delivery.  IP networks become more
   deterministic when the effects of statistical multiplexing (jitter
   and collision loss) are mostly eliminated.  This requires a tight
   control of the physical resources to maintain the amount of traffic
   within the physical capabilities of the underlying technology, e.g.,
   by the use of time-shared resources (bandwidth and buffers) per
   circuit, and/or by shaping and/or scheduling the packets at every

   Key attributes of Deterministic Networking include:

   o  time synchronization on all the nodes,

   o  centralized computation of network-wide deterministic paths,

   o  multi-technology path with co-channel interference minimzation,

   o  frame preemption and guard time mechanisms to ensure a worst-case
      delay, and

   o  new traffic shapers within and at the edge to protect the network.

   Wireless operates on a shared medium, and transmissions cannot be
   fully deterministic due to uncontrolled interferences, including
   self-induced multipath fading.  Scheduling transmissions enables to
   alleviate those effects by leveraging diversity in the spatial, time
   and frequency domains, enabling Reliable and Available Wireless

   The wireless and wired media are fundamentally different at the
   physical level, and while the generic Problem Statement [RFC8557] for
   DetNet applies to the wired as well as the wireless medium, the
   methods to achieve RAW necessarily differ from those used to support
   Time-Sensitive Networking over wires.

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   So far, Open Standards for Deterministic Networking have prevalently
   been focused on wired media, with Audio/Video Bridging (AVB) and Time
   Sensitive Networking (TSN) at the IEEE and DetNet
   [I-D.ietf-detnet-architecture] at the IETF.  But wires cannot be used
   in a number of cases, including mobile or rotating devices,
   rehabilitated industrial buildings, wearable or in-body sensory
   devices, vehicle automation and multiplayer gaming.

   Purpose-built wireless technologies such as [ISA100], which
   incorporates IPv6, were developped and deployed to cope for the lack
   of open standards, but they yield a high cost in OPEX and CAPEX and
   are limited to very few industries, e.g., process control, concert
   instruments or racing.

   This is now changing:

   o  IMT-2020 has recognized Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communication
      (URLLC) as a key functionality for the upcoming 5G,

   o  IEEE 802.11 has identified a set of real-applications
      [ieee80211-rt-tig] which may use the IEEE802.11 standards.  They
      typically emphasize strict end-to-end delay requirements.

   o  the IETF has produced an IPv6 stack for IEEE Std. 802.15.4
      TimeSlotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) and an architecture
      [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] that enables Reliable and Available
      Wireless (RAW) on a shared MAC.

   This draft extends the "Deterministic Networking Use Cases" [RFC8578]
   and describes a number of additional use cases which require
   deterministic flows over wireless links and possibly complex multi-
   hop paths called Tracks.  This is covered mainly by the "Wireless for
   Industrial Applications" use case, as the "Cellular Radio" is mostly
   dedicated to the (wired) transport part of a Radio Access Network
   (RAN).  Whereas the "Wireless for Industrial Applications" use case
   certainly covers an area of interest for RAW, it is limited to
   6TiSCH, and thus its scope is narrower than the use cases described
   next in this document.

2.  Amusement Parks

2.1.  Use Case Description

   The digitalization of Amusement Parks is expected to decrease
   significantly the cost for maintaining the attractions.  By
   monitoring in real-time the machines, predictive maintenance will
   help to reduce the repairing cost as well as the downtime.  Besides,
   the attractions may use wireless transmissions to interconnect

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   sensors and actuators, to privilege reconfigurability, and

   Attractions may rely on a large set of sensors and actuators, which
   react in real time.  Typical applications comprise:

   o  emergency: safety has to be preserved, and must stop the
      attraction when a failure is detected;

   o  video: augmented and virtual realities are integrated in the
      attraction.  Wearable devices (e.g. glasses, virtual reality
      headset) need to offload one part of the processing tasks.

   o  real-time interactions: visitors may interact with an attraction,
      like in a real-time video game.  The vistors may virtually
      interact with their environment, triggering actions in the real
      world (through actuators) [robots]

   o  geolocation: vistors are tracked with a personal wireless tag so
      that their user experience is improved.

   o  predictive maintenance: statistics are collected to predict the
      future failures, or to compute later more complex statistics about
      the attraction's usage, the downtime, its popularity, etc.

2.2.  Specificities

   Amusement parks comprise a variable number of attractions, mostly
   outdoor, over a large geographical area.  The IT infrastructure is
   typically multi-scale:

   o  local area: the sensors and actuators controling the attractions
      are co-located.  Control loops trigger only local traffic, with a
      small end-to-end delay, typically inferior than 10 milliseconds,
      like classical industrial systems [ieee80211-rt-tig]

   o  wearable devices are free to move in the park.  They exchange
      traffic locally (identification, personalization, multimedia) or
      globally (billing, child tracking);

   o  computationally intensive applications offload some tasks to a
      cloud, and data analytics rely on a centralized infrastructure
      (predictive maintenance, marketing).

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2.3.  The Need for Wireless

   Amusement parks cover large areas and a global interconnection would
   require a huge length of cables.  Wireless also increases the
   reconfigurability, enabling to update cheaply the attractions.  The
   frequent renewal helps to increase customer loyalty.

   Some parts of the attraction are mobile, e.g. trucks of a
   rollercoaster, robots.  Since cables are prone to frequent failures
   in this situation, wireless transmissions are recommended.

   Wearable devices are extensively used for a user experience
   personalisation.  They typically need to support wireless
   transmissions.  Personal tags may help to reduce the operating costs
   [disney-VIP] and to increase the number of charged services provided
   to the audience (VIP tickets, interactivity, etc.)  Some applications
   rely on more sophisticated wearable devices such as digital glasses
   or VR headests for an immersive experience.

2.4.  Requirements for RAW

   The network infrastructure has to support heterogenous traffic, with
   very different criticalities.  Thus, flow isolation has to be

   We have to schedule appropriately the transmissions, even in presence
   of mobile devices.  While the [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] already
   proposes an architecture for synchronized, IEEE Std. 802.15.4 Time-
   Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) networks, 6TiSCH doesn't address real-
   time IPv6 flows.  RAW might provide mechanisms helping to
   automatically adapt the network (i.e., schedule appropriately the
   transmissions, accross hetereogeneous technologies, with strict SLA

   Nowadays, long-range wireless transmissions are used for best-effort
   traffic, and [IEEE802.1TSN] is used for critical flows using Ethernet
   devices.  However, we need an IP enabled technology to interconnect
   large areas, independent of the PHY and MAC layer to maximize the

   We expect to deploy several different technologies (long vs. short
   range) which have to cohabit in the same area.  Thus, we need to
   schedule appropriately the transmissions to limit the co-technology
   interference, so that an end-to-end delay accross multiple
   technologies can be guaranteed.  It is needed to understand which
   technologies RAW will cover and how they can be used cohabitating in
   the same area.

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3.  Wireless for Industrial Applications

3.1.  Use Case Description

   A major use case for networking in Industrial is the control networks
   where periodic control loops operate between a sensor that measures a
   physical property such as the temperature of a fluid, a Programmable
   Logic Controller that decides an action such as warm up the mix, and
   an actuator that performs the required action, e.g., inject power in
   a resistor.

3.2.  Specificities

3.2.1.  Control Loops

   Process Control designates continous processing operations, e.g.,
   heating Oil in a refinery or mixing drinking soda.  Control loops in
   the Process Control industry operate at a very low rate, typically 4
   times per second.  Factory Automation, on the other hand, deal with
   discrete goods such as individual automobile parts, and requires
   faster loops, in the order of 10ms.  Motion control that monitors
   dynamic activities may require even faster rates in the order of a
   few ms.  Finally, some industries exhibit hybrid behaviours, like
   canned soup that will start as a process industry while mixing the
   food and then operate as a discrete manufacturing when putting the
   final product in cans and shipping them.

   In all those cases, a packet must flow deterministically between the
   sensor and the PLC, be processed by the PLC, and sent to the actuator
   within the control loop period.  In some particular use cases that
   inherit from analog operations, jitter might also alter the operation
   of the control loop.  A rare packet loss is usually admissible, but
   typically 4 losses in a row will cause an emergency halt of the
   production and incur a high cost for the manufacturer.

3.2.2.  Unmeasured Data

   A secondary use case deals with monitoring and diagnostics.  This so-
   called unmeasured data is essential to improve the performances of a
   production line, e.g., by optimizing real-time processing or
   maintenance windows using Machine Learning predictions.  For the lack
   of wireless technologies, some specific industries such as Oil and
   Gas have been using serial cables, literally by the millions, to
   perform their process optimization over the previous decades.  But
   few industries would afford the associated cost and the Holy Grail of
   the Industrial Internet of Things is to provide the same benefits to
   all industries, including SmartGrid, Transportation, Building,

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   Commercial and Medical.  This requires a cheap, available and
   scalable IP-based access technology.

   Inside the factory, wires may already be available to operate the
   Control Network.  But unmeasured data are not welcome in that network
   for a number of reasons.  On the one hand it is rich and
   asynchronous, meaning that using they may influence the deterministic
   nature of the control operations and impact the production.  On the
   other hand, this information must be reported to the carpeted floor
   over IP, which means the potential for a security breach via the
   interconnection of the Operational Technology (OT) network with the
   Internet technology (IT) network and possibly enable a rogue access.

3.3.  The Need for Wireless

   Ethernet cables used on a robot arm are prone to breakage after a few
   thousands flexions, a lot faster than a power cable that is wider inn
   diameter, and more resilient.  In general, wired networking and
   mobile parts are not a good match, mostly in the case of fast and
   recurrent activities, as well as rotation.

   When refurbishing older premises that were built before the Internet
   age, power is usually available everywhere, but data is not.  It is
   often impractical, time consuming and expensive to deploy an Ethernet
   fabric across walls and between buildings.  Deploying a wire may take
   months and cost tens of thousands of US Dollars.

   Even when wiring exists, e.g., in an existing control network,
   asynchronous IP packets such as diagnostics may not be welcome for
   operational and security reasons (see Section 3.2.1).  An alternate
   network that can scale with the many sensors and actuators that equip
   every robot, every valve and fan that are deployed on the factory
   floor and may help detect and prevent a failure that could impact the
   production.  IEEE Std. 802.15.4 Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH)
   [RFC7554] is a promising technology for that purpose, mostly if the
   scheduled operations enable to use the same network by asynchronous
   and deterministic flows in parallel.

3.4.  Requirements for RAW

   As stated by the "Deterministic Networking Problem Statement"
   [RFC8557], a Deterministic Network is backwards compatible with
   (capable of transporting) statistically multiplexed traffic while
   preserving the properties of the accepted deterministic flows.  While
   the [I-D.ietf-6tisch-architecture] serves that requirement, the work
   at 6TiSCH was focused on best-effort IPv6 packet flows.  RAW should
   be able to lock so-called hard cells for use by a centralized
   scheduler, and program so-called end-to-end Tracks over those cells.

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   Over the course of the recent years, major Industrial Protocols,
   e.g., [ODVA] with EtherNet/IP [EIP] and [Profinet], have been
   migrating towards Ethernet and IP.  In order to unleash the full
   power of the IP hourglass model, it should be possible to deploy any
   application over any network that has the physical capacity to
   transport the industrial flow, regardless of the MAC/PHY technology,
   wired or wireless, and across technologies.  RAW mechanisms should be
   able to setup a Track over a wireless access segment such as TSCH and
   a backbone segment such as Ethernet or WI-Fi, to report a sensor data
   or a critical monitoring within a bouded latency.

4.  Pro Audio and Video

4.1.  Use Case Description

   Many devices support audio and video streaming by employing 802.11
   wireless LAN.  Some of these applications require low latency
   capability.  For instance, when the application provides interactive
   play, or when the audio takes plays in real time (i.e. live) for
   public addresses in train stations or in theme parks.

   The professional audio and video industry ("ProAV") includes:

   o  Virtual Reality / Augmented Reality (VR/AR)

   o  Public address, media and emergency systems at large venues
      (airports, train stations, stadiums, theme parks).

4.2.  Specificities

4.2.1.  Uninterrupted Stream Playback

   Considering the uninterrupted audio or video stream, a potential
   packet losses during the transmission of audio or video flows cannot
   be tackled by re-trying the transmission, as it is done with file
   transfer, because by the time the packet lost has been identified it
   is too late to proceed with packet re-transmission.  Buffering might
   be employed to provide a certain delay which will allow for one or
   more re-transmissions, however such approach is not efficient in
   application where delays are not acceptable.

4.2.2.  Synchronized Stream Playback

   In the context of ProAV, latency is the time between the transmitted
   signal over a stream and its reception.  Thus, for sound to remain
   synchronized to the movement in the video, the latency of both the
   audio and video streams must be bounded and consistent.

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4.3.  The Need for Wireless

   The devices need the wireless communication to support video
   streaming via 802.11 wireless LAN for instance.

   During the public address, the deployed announcement speakers, for
   instance along the platforms of the train stations, need the wireless
   communication to forward the audio traffic in real time.

4.4.  Requirements for RAW

   The network infrastructure needs to support heterogeneous types of
   traffic (including QoS).

   Content delivery with bounded (lowest possible) latency.

   The deployed network topology should allow for multipath.  This will
   enable for multiple streams to have different (and multiple) paths
   through the network to support redundancy.

5.  Gaming

5.1.  Use Case Description

   The gaming industry includes [IEEE80211RTA]:

   o  Real-time Mobile Gaming: Different from traditional games, real
      time mobile gaming is very sensitive to network latency and
      stability.  The mobile game can connect multiple players together
      in a single game session and exchange data messages between game
      server and connected players.  Real-time means the feedback should
      present on screen as users operate in game.  For good game
      experience, the end to end latency plus game servers processing
      time should not be noticed by users as they play the game.

   o  Wireless Console Gaming: Playing online on a console has 2 types
      of internet connectivity, which is either wired or Wi-Fi.  Most of
      the gaming consoles today support Wi-Fi 5.  But Wi-Fi has an
      especially bad reputation among the gaming community.  The main
      reasons are high latency, lag spikes and jitter.

   o  Cloud Gaming: The cloud gaming requires low latency capability as
      the user commands in a game session need to be sent back to the
      cloud server, the cloud server would update game context depending
      on the received commands, and the cloud server would render the
      picture/video to be displayed at user devices and stream the
      picture/video content to the user devices.  User devices might
      very likely be connected wirelessly.

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5.2.  Specificities

   While a lot of details can be found on [IEEE80211RTA], we next
   summarize the main requirements in terms of latency, jitter and
   packet loss:

   o  Intra BSS latency: less than 5 ms.

   o  Jitter variance: less than 2 ms.

   o  Packet loss: less than 0.1 percent.

5.3.  The Need for Wireless

   It is clear that gaming is evolving towards wireless, as players
   demand being able to play anywhere.  Besides, the industry is
   changing towards playing from mobile phones, which are inherently
   connected via wireless technologies.

5.4.  Requirements for RAW

   o  Time sensitive networking extensions.  Extensions, such as time-
      aware shaping and redundancy (FRE) can be explored to address
      congestion and reliability problems present in wireless networks.

   o  Priority tagging (Stream identification).  One basic requirement
      to provide better QoS for time-sensitive traffic is the capability
      to identify and differentiate time-sensitive packets from other
      (e.g. best-effort) traffic.

   o  Time-aware shaping.  This capability (defined in IEEE 802.1Qbv)
      consists of gates to control the opening/closing of queues that
      share a common egress port within an Ethernet switch.  A scheduler
      defines the times when each queue opens or close, therefore
      eliminating congestion and ensuring that frames are delivered
      within the expected latency bounds.

   o  Dual/multiple link.  Due to the competitions and interference are
      common and hardly in control under wireless network, in order to
      improve the latency stability, dual/multiple link proposal is
      brought up to address this issue.  Two modes are defined:
      duplicate and joint.

   o  Admission Control.  Congestion is a major cause of high/variable
      latency and it is well known that if the traffic load exceeds the
      capability of the link, QoS will be degraded.  QoS degradation
      maybe acceptable for many applications today, however emerging
      time-sensitive applications are highly susceptible to increased

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      latency and jitter.  In order to better control QoS, it is
      important to control access to the network resources.

6.  UAV platooning and control

6.1.  Use Case Description

   Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are becoming very popular for many
   different applications, including military and civil use cases.  The
   term drone is commonly used to refer to a UAV.

   UAVs can be used to perform aerial surveillance activities, traffic
   monitoring (e.g., Spanish traffic control has recently introduced a
   fleet of drones for quicker reactions upon traffic congestion related
   events), support of emergency situations, and even transportation of
   small goods.

   UAVs typically have various forms of wireless connectivity:

   o  cellular: for communication with the control center, for remote
      manuevering as well as monitoring of the drone;

   o  IEEE 802.11: for inter-drone communications (e.g., platooning) and
      providing connectivity to other devices (e.g., acting as Access

6.2.  Specificities

   Some of the use cases/tasks involving drones require coordination
   among drones.  Others involve complex compute tasks that might not be
   performed using the limited computing resources that a drone
   typically has.  These two aspects require continuous connectivity
   with the control center and among drones.

   Remote manouvering of a drone might be performed over a cellular
   network in some cased, however, there are situations that need very
   low latencies and deterministic behaviour of the connectivity.
   Examples involve platooning of drones or share of computing resources
   among drones (e.g., a drone offload some function to a neighbouring

6.3.  The Need for Wireless

   UAVs cannot be connected through any type of wired media, so it is
   obvious that wireless is needed.

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6.4.  Requirements for RAW

   The network infrastructure is actually composed by the UAVs
   themselves, requiring self-configuration capabilities.

   Heterogeneous types of traffic need to be supported, from extremely
   critical ones requiring ultra low latency and high resiliency, to
   traffic requiring low-medium latency.

   When a given service is decomposed into functions -- hosted at
   different drones -- chained, each link connecting two given functions
   would have a well-defined set of requirements (latency, bandwith and
   jitter) that have to be met.

7.  Edge Robotics control

7.1.  Use Case Description

   The Edge Robotics scenario consists of several robots, deployed in a
   given area (for example a shopping mall), inter-connected via an
   access network to a network's edge device or a data center.  The
   robots are connected to the edge so complex computational activities
   are not executed locally at the robots, but offloaded to the edge.
   This brings additional flexibility in the type of tasks that the
   robots do, as well as reducing the costs of robot manufacturing (due
   to their lower complexity), and enabling complex tasks involving
   coordination among robots (that can be more easily performed if
   robots are centrally controlled).

   A simple example of the use of multiples robots is cleaning,
   delivering of goods from warehouses to shops or video surveillance.
   Multiple robots are simultaneously instructed to perform individual
   tasks by moving the robotic intelligence from the robots to the
   network's edge (e.g., data center).  That enables easy
   synchronization, scalable solution and on-demand option to create
   flexible fleet of robots.

   Robots would have various forms of wireless connectivity:

   o  IEEE 802.11: for connection to the edge and also inter-robot
      communications (e.g., for coordinated actions);

   o  cellular: as an additional communication link to the edge, though
      primarily as backup, since ultra low latencies are needed.

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7.2.  Specificities

   Some of the use cases/tasks involving robots might benefit from
   decomposition of a service in small functions that are distributed
   and chained among robots and the edge.  These require continuous
   connectivity with the control center and among drones.

   Robot control is an activity requiring very low latencies between the
   robot and the location where the control intelligence resides (which
   might be the edge or another robot).

7.3.  The Need for Wireless

   Deploying robots in scenarios such as shopping malls for the
   aforementioned applications cannot be done via wired connectivity.

7.4.  Requirements for RAW

   The network infrastructure needs to support heterogeneous types of
   traffic, from robot control to video streaming.

   When a given service is decomposed into functions -- hosted at
   different robots -- chained, each link connecting two given functions
   would have a well-defined set of requirements (latency, bandwith and
   jitter) that have to be met.

8.  IANA Considerations


9.  Security Considerations


10.  Informative References

              Wired, "Disney's $1 Billion Bet on a Magical Wristband",
              March 2015,

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   [EIP]      http://www.odva.org/, "EtherNet/IP provides users with the
              network tools to deploy standard Ethernet technology (IEEE
              802.3 combined with the TCP/IP Suite) for industrial
              automation applications while enabling Internet and
              enterprise connectivity data anytime, anywhere.",

              Thubert, P., "An Architecture for IPv6 over the TSCH mode
              of IEEE 802.15.4", draft-ietf-6tisch-architecture-24 (work
              in progress), July 2019.

              Finn, N., Thubert, P., Varga, B., and J. Farkas,
              "Deterministic Networking Architecture", draft-ietf-
              detnet-architecture-13 (work in progress), May 2019.

              IEEE standard for Information Technology, "IEEE
              802.1AS-2011 - IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan
              Area Networks - Timing and Synchronization for Time-
              Sensitive Applications in Bridged Local Area Networks".

              IEEE, "IEEE 802.11 Real Time Applications TIG Report",
              Nov. 2018,

              IEEE standard for Information Technology, "IEEE 802.11
              Real Time Applications TIG Report", Nov 2018.

   [ISA100]   ISA/ANSI, "ISA100, Wireless Systems for Automation",

   [ODVA]     http://www.odva.org/, "The organization that supports
              network technologies built on the Common Industrial
              Protocol (CIP) including EtherNet/IP.".

              http://us.profinet.com/technology/profinet/, "PROFINET is
              a standard for industrial networking in automation.",

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   [RFC7554]  Watteyne, T., Ed., Palattella, M., and L. Grieco, "Using
              IEEE 802.15.4e Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) in the
              Internet of Things (IoT): Problem Statement", RFC 7554,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7554, May 2015,

   [RFC8557]  Finn, N. and P. Thubert, "Deterministic Networking Problem
              Statement", RFC 8557, DOI 10.17487/RFC8557, May 2019,

   [RFC8578]  Grossman, E., Ed., "Deterministic Networking Use Cases",
              RFC 8578, DOI 10.17487/RFC8578, May 2019,

   [robots]   Kober, J., Glisson, M., and M. Mistry, "Playing catch and
              juggling with a humanoid robot.", 2012,

Authors' Addresses

   Georgios Z. Papadopoulos
   IMT Atlantique
   Office B00 - 114A
   2 Rue de la Chataigneraie
   Cesson-Sevigne - Rennes  35510

   Phone: +33 299 12 70 04
   Email: georgios.papadopoulos@imt-atlantique.fr

   Pascal Thubert
   Cisco Systems, Inc
   Building D
   45 Allee des Ormes - BP1200
   MOUGINS - Sophia Antipolis  06254

   Phone: +33 497 23 26 34
   Email: pthubert@cisco.com

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   Fabrice Theoleyre
   ICube Lab, Pole API
   300 boulevard Sebastien Brant - CS 10413
   Illkirch  67400

   Phone: +33 368 85 45 33
   Email: theoleyre@unistra.fr
   URI:   http://www.theoleyre.eu

   Carlos J. Bernardos
   Universidad Carlos III de Madrid
   Av. Universidad, 30
   Leganes, Madrid  28911

   Phone: +34 91624 6236
   Email: cjbc@it.uc3m.es
   URI:   http://www.it.uc3m.es/cjbc/

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